This is a list of peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters authored by TNC staff, including links to pdf versions where available. Click an article's title for more information. To submit additions or corrections, or to report problems using this site, please email us.

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Title Journal Authors Year Created
The use, and usefulness, of spatial conservation prioritizationsConservation LettersSinclair, Samuel P.; Milner-Gulland, E.J.; Smith, Robert J.; McIntosh, Emma J.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Vercammen, Ans; Knight, Andrew T.20182018/09/07Spatial conservation prioritization is used globally to guide decision making with the aim of delivering the best conservation gain per unit investment. However, despite many publications on the topic, the extent to which this approach is used by decision makers has been unclear. To investigate the degree to which prioritization has been adopted by practitioners to guide conservation implementation, we conducted an online survey, collecting data on the approaches used to develop prioritizations and the reported extent of translation to on‐the‐ground action. Using a cluster analysis, we identified two categories of prioritizations, those developed to advance the field (42% of responses) and those intended for implementation (58% of responses). Respondents reported 74% of the prioritizations intended for implementation had translated to on‐the‐ground action. Additionally, we identified strong collaboration between academics and practitioners in prioritization development, suggesting a bridging of the theory‐practice gap. We recommend continued collaboration and research into the effectiveness of prioritizations in delivering conservation impacts.decision making; land use planning; marine spatial planning; marxan; research-policy gap; science-policy interface; systematic conservation planning
Valuing Protective Services of Mangroves in the Philippines - Technical ReportLosada, I.J.; Beck, M.; Menendez, P.; Espejo, A.; Torres, S.; Diaz-Simal, P.; Fernandez, F.; Abad, S.; Ripoli, N.; Garcia, J.; Narayan, S.; Trespalacios, D.20172018/09/07Mangroves and other coastal ecosystems act as natural defenses that protect people and property from storms, floods, erosion, and other coastal hazards, reducing coastal risk. Mangroves protect coastlines by decreasing the risk of flooding and erosion. The roots of mangroves retain sediments and prevent erosion, while the prop roots, trunks and canopy reduce the force of incoming wind and waves and reduce flooding. The Philippines has lost hundreds of thousands of hectares of mangroves in the last century. When mangroves are degraded or destroyed, the coast line becomes more exposed to the destructive impacts of waves and storm surge, and coastal communities have greater risks from the impacts of storms, floods, and sea level rise. The Philippines is at high risk from coastal hazards and natural defenses can help reduce these risks. This Technical Report, and its accompanying Policy Brief, provide a social and economic valuation of the flood protection benefits from mangroves in the Philippines. This work aims to support decisions across development, aid, risk reduction and conservation sectors as they seek to identify sustainable and cost-effective approaches for risk reduction. This Technical Report applies the Expected Damage Function approach recommended by the World Bank to quantify the risk reduction benefits from mangroves in the Philippines. Using high-resolution flooding models, the Report examines the flooding that would occur with and without mangroves under different storm conditions throughout the Philippines, and estimates the annual expected benefits of mangroves for protecting people and property in social and economic terms.
Valuing the Protection Services of Mangroves in the Philippines - Policy NoteBeck, M.W.; Losada, I.J.; Trespalacios, D.; Menendez, P.; Narayan, S.20172018/09/07Mangroves and other coastal ecosystems act as natural defenses to reduce the risks from flooding, erosion and natural disasters. Yet the value of these habitats is often not fully accounted for in policy and management decisions, and thus they continue to be lost at alarming rates. Using natural capital accounting, we can measure and value the services provided by these coastal ecosystems, and thus inform policies for sustainable development, disaster risk reduction, and environmental conservation. A new report measures and values the coastal protection benefits of mangroves in the Philippines.
The global value of mangroves for risk reduction - Technical ReportLosada, I.J.; Menendez, P.; Espejo, A.; Torres, S.; Diaz-Simal, P.; Abad, S.; Beck, M.W.; Narayan, S.; Trespalacios, D.; Pfliegner, K.; Mucke, P.; Kirch, L.20182018/09/07Coastal development and climate change are significantly increasing the risks of flooding, erosion, and extreme weather events for millions of vulnerable people, important infrastructure, and trade. Coastal ecosystems, particularly mangroves, reduce risk by protecting coastlines against erosion, flooding, and sea level rise and by providing ecosystem services that reduce communities’ vulnerability to hazards. Mangroves reduce exposure to coastal hazards by reducing wave heights and retaining sediments, decreasing the impacts of flooding and erosion and protecting coasts during storms. These natural defenses also provide a wide suite of ecosystem services- including food, livelihoods, carbon sequestration and climate regulation, that reduce the vulnerability of coastal communities to disasters and extreme events, thereby increasing coastal resilience. Mangroves can be managed as natural coastal infrastructure to reduce coastal risks. And unlike most built coastal infrastructure, mangroves adapt and keep pace with environmental change, and they are substantially less costly to maintain. But mangroves are being lost at an alarming rate, in part because we have not adequately valued these natural defenses. Conventional approaches to measuring wealth focus only on built capital; many critical goods and services, such as flood protection, which rely on keeping ecosystems intact, are rarely valued. This lack of consideration encourages short-term over-exploitation and degradation. Better valuations of the protection services of coastal habitats can ensure that these services are accounted for in policy and management decisions, halting the loss of our natural capital and ensuring the provision of critical ecosystem services. This report uses rigorous hydrodynamic and economic models to value the coastal flood protection services of mangroves globally, and identifies the places where mangroves provide the greatest risk reduction benefits to people and property. This work applies the Expected Damage Function approach, commonly used in engineering and insurance sectors and recommended for the assessment of coastal protection services from habitats, where the protection benefits provided by mangroves are assessed as the flood damages avoided by keeping mangroves in place. This work combines findings on flood exposure reduction from mangroves with vulnerability scores from the WorldRiskReport and Index to produce a ranking of countries that receive the greatest risk reduction benefits from mangroves relative to their vulnerability. The results are presented in terms of the number of people and the value of property flooded with and without mangroves. These results demonstrate that mangrove conservation and restoration can be an important part of the solution for reducing the risks of coastal communities. This valuation can inform strategies for adaptation, disaster risk reduction, and environmental management, and can help identify sustainable and cost-effective approaches for risk reduction.
Comparing the cost effectiveness of nature-based and coastal adaptation: A case study from the Gulf Coast of the United StatesPLOS OneReguero, Borja G.; Beck, Michael W.; Bresch, David N.; Calil, Juliano; Meliane, Imen20182018/09/07Coastal risks are increasing from both development and climate change. Interest is growing in the protective role that coastal nature-based measures (or green infrastructure), such as reefs and wetlands, can play in adapting to these risks. However, a lack of quantitative information on their relative costs and benefits is one principal factor limiting their use more broadly. Here, we apply a quantitative risk assessment framework to assess coastal flood risk (from climate change and economic exposure growth) across the United States Gulf of Mexico coast to compare the cost effectiveness of different adaptation measures. These include nature-based (e.g. oyster reef restoration), structural or grey (e.g., seawalls) and policy measures (e.g. home elevation). We first find that coastal development will be a critical driver of risk, particularly for major disasters, but climate change will cause more recurrent losses through changes in storms and relative sea level rise. By 2030, flooding will cost $134–176.6 billion (for different economic growth scenarios), but as the effects of climate change, land subsidence and concentration of assets in the coastal zone increase, annualized risk will more than double by 2050 with respect to 2030. However, from the portfolio we studied, the set of cost-effective adaptation measures (with benefit to cost ratios above 1) could prevent up to $57–101 billion in losses, which represents 42.8–57.2% of the total risk. Nature-based adaptation options could avert more than $50 billion of these costs, and do so cost effectively with average benefit to cost ratios above 3.5. Wetland and oyster reef restoration are found to be particularly cost-effective. This study demonstrates that the cost effectiveness of nature-based, grey and policy measures can be compared quantitatively with one another, and that the cost effectiveness of adaptation becomes more attractive as climate change and coastal development intensifies in the future. It also shows that investments in nature-based adaptation could meet multiple objectives for environmental restoration, adaptation and flood risk reduction.climate change; flooding; economic growth; storms; wetlands; cost-effectiveness analysis; economics; reefs
Coral reefs for coastal protection: A new methodological approach and engineering case study in GrenadaJournal of Environmental ManagementReguero, Borja G.; Beck, Michael W.; Agostini, Vera N.; Kramer, Philip; Hancock, Boze20182018/09/07Coastal communities in tropical environments are at increasing risk from both environmental degradation and climate change and require urgent local adaptation action. Evidences show coral reefs play a critical role in wave attenuation but relatively little direct connection has been drawn between these effects and impacts on shorelines. Reefs are rarely assessed for their coastal protection service and thus not managed for their infrastructure benefits, while widespread damage and degradation continues. This paper presents a systematic approach to assess the protective role of coral reefs and to examine solutions based on the reef's influence on wave propagation patterns. Portions of the shoreline of Grenville Bay, Grenada, have seen acute shoreline erosion and coastal flooding. This paper (i) analyzes the historical changes in the shoreline and the local marine, (ii) assess the role of coral reefs in shoreline positioning through a shoreline equilibrium model first applied to coral reef environments, and (iii) design and begin implementation of a reef-based solution to reduce erosion and flooding. Coastline changes in the bay over the past 6 decades are analyzed from bathymetry and benthic surveys, historical imagery, historical wave and sea level data and modeling of wave dynamics. The analysis shows that, at present, the healthy and well-developed coral reefs system in the southern bay keeps the shoreline in equilibrium and stable, whereas reef degradation in the northern bay is linked with severe coastal erosion. A comparison of wave energy modeling for past bathymetry indicates that degradation of the coral reefs better explains erosion than changes in climate and historical sea level rise. Using this knowledge on how reefs affect the hydrodynamics, a reef restoration solution is designed and studied to ameliorate the coastal erosion and flooding. A characteristic design provides a modular design that can meet specific engineering, ecological and implementation criteria. Four pilot units were implemented in 2015 and are currently being field-tested. This paper presents one of the few existing examples available to date of a reef restoration project designed and engineered to deliver risk reduction benefits. The case study shows how engineering and ecology can work together in community-based adaptation. Our findings are particularly important for Small Island States on the front lines of climate change, who have the most to gain from protecting and managing coral reefs as coastal infrastructure.coral reef; coastal protection; reef degradation; ecosystem-based adaptaion; coastal risk; shoreline equilibrium
Small-scale seagrass fisheries can reduce social vulnerability: a comparative case studyOcean and Coastal ManagementQuiros, T.E. Angela L.; Beck, Michael W.; Araw, Alexis; Croll, Donald A.; Tershy, Bernie20182018/09/07Small-scale fisheries are in decline, negatively impacting sources of food and employment for coastal communities. Therefore, we need to assess how biological and socio-economic conditions influence vulnerability, or a community's susceptibility to loss and consequent ability to adapt. We characterized two Philippine fishing communities, Gulod and Buagsong with similar seagrass and fish species composition, and compared their social vulnerability, or pre-existing conditions likely to influence their response to changes in the fishing resource. Using a place-based model of vulnerability, we used household, fisher, landing and underwater surveys to compare their sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Depending on the scale assessed, each community and group within the community differed in their social vulnerability. The Buagsong community was less socially vulnerable, or less sensitive to pertubations to the seagrass resource because it was closer to a major urban center that provided salaried income. When we assessed seagrass fishers as a group within each community, we found that Gulod fishers had greater adaptive capacity than Buagsong fishers because they diversified their catch, gear types, and income sources. We found catch that comprised the greatest landing biomass did not have the highest market value, and fishers continued to capture high value items at low biomass levels. A third of intertidal gleaners were women, and their participation in the fishery enhanced household adaptive capacity by providing additional food and income, in an otherwise male-dominated fishery. Our research indicates that community context is not the only determinant of social vulnerability, because groups within the community may decrease their sensitivity, enhance their adaptive capabilities, and ultimately reduce social vulnerability by diversifying income sources, seagrass based catches, and workforces to include women.small scale fisheries; seagrass; social vulnerability; ecosystem services; philippines;
Regional and local controls on historical fire regimes of dry forests and woodlands in the Rogue River Basin, Oregon, USAForest Ecology and ManagementMetlen, Kerry L.; Skinner, Carl N.;Olson, Derek R.; Nichols, Clint; Borgias, Darren20182018/09/07Fire regimes structure plant communities worldwide with regional and local factors, including anthropogenic fire management, influencing fire frequency and severity. Forests of the Rogue River Basin in Oregon, USA, are both productive and fire-prone due to ample winter precipitation and summer drought; yet management in this region is strongly influenced by forest practices that depend on fire exclusion. Regionally, climate change is increasing fire frequency, elevating the importance of understanding historically frequent-fire regimes. We use cross-dated fire-scars to characterize historical fire return intervals, seasonality, and relationships with climate beginning in 1650 CE for 13 sites representative of southwestern Oregon dry forests. Using systematic literature review, we link our local fire histories to a regional dataset and evaluate our data relative to more intensively studied conifer/hardwood forest types in California. Fire-scars show that fires in the Rogue Basin were frequent and regular until disrupted in the 1850s through 1910s, corresponding with forced displacement of Native Americans and Euro-American settlement. Median historical fire return intervals were 8 years at the stand-scale (
Natural Hazard Susceptibility Assessment for Road Planning Using Spatial Multi-Criteria AnalysisEnvironmental ManagementKarlsson, Caroline S.J.; Kalantari, Zahra; Mortberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Lyon, Steve W.20172018/09/06Inadequate infrastructural networks can be detrimental to society if transport between locations becomes hindered or delayed, especially due to natural hazards which are difficult to control. Thus determining natural hazard susceptible areas and incorporating them in the initial planning process, may reduce infrastructural damages in the long run. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of expert judgments for assessing natural hazard susceptibility through a spatial multi-criteria analysis approach using hydrological, geological, and land use factors. To utilize spatial multi-criteria analysis for decision support, an analytic hierarchy process was adopted where expert judgments were evaluated individually and in an aggregated manner. The estimates of susceptible areas were then compared with the methods weighted linear combination using equal weights and factor interaction method. Results showed that inundation received the highest susceptibility. Using expert judgment showed to perform almost the same as equal weighting where the difference in susceptibility between the two for inundation was around 4%. The results also showed that downscaling could negatively affect the susceptibility assessment and be highly misleading. Susceptibility assessment through spatial multi-criteria analysis is useful for decision support in early road planning despite its limitation to the selection and use of decision rules and criteria. A natural hazard spatial multi-criteria analysis could be used to indicate areas where more investigations need to be undertaken from a natural hazard point of view, and to identify areas thought to have higher susceptibility along existing roads where mitigation measures could be targeted after in-situ judgment; Analytic Hierarchy Process; transportation planning; decision support; SMCA
Wetlands as large-scale nature-based solutions: Status and challenges for research, engineering and managementEcological EngineeringThorslund, Josefin; Jarsjo, Jerker; Jaramillo, Fernando; Jawitz, James W.; Manzoni, Stefano; Basu, Nandita B.; Chalov, Sergey R.; Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Goldenberg, Romain; Hylin, Anna; Kalantari, Zahra; Koussis, Antonis D.; Lyon, Steve W.; Mazi, Katerina; Mard, Johanna; Persson, Klas; Pietro, Jan; Prieto, Quin, Andrew; Van Meter, Kimberly; Destouni, Georgia20172018/09/06Wetlands are often considered as nature-based solutions that can provide a multitude of services of great social, economic and environmental value to humankind. Changes in land-use, water-use and climate can all impact wetland functions and services. These changes occur at scales extending well beyond the local scale of an individual wetland. However, in practical applications, engineering and management decisions usually focus on individual wetland projects and local site conditions. Here, we systematically investigate if and to what extent research has addressed the large-scale dynamics of landscape systems with multiple wetlands, hereafter referred to as wetlandscapes, which are likely to be relevant for understanding impacts of regional to global change. Although knowledge in many cases is still limited, evidence suggests that the aggregated effects of multiple wetlands in the landscape can differ considerably from the functions observed at individual wetland scales. This applies to provisioning of ecosystem services such as coastal protection, biodiversity support, groundwater level and soil moisture regulation, flood regulation and contaminant retention. We show that parallel and circular flow-paths, through which wetlands are interconnected in the landscape, may largely control such scale-function differences. We suggest ways forward for addressing the mismatch between the scales at which changes take place and the scale at which observations and implementation are currently made. These suggestions can help bridge gaps between researchers and engineers, which is critical for improving wetland function-effect predictability and management.wetland ecosystems; flow-path; ecosystem services; large-scale; change driver; ecological engineering
Flood seasonality across Scandinavia—Evidence of a shifting hydrograph?Hydrological ProcessesMatti, Bettina; Dahlke, Helen E.; Dieppois, Bastien; Lawler, Damian M.; Lyon, Steve W.20172018/09/06 Fluvial flood events have substantial impacts on humans, both socially and economically, as well as on ecosystems (e.g., hydroecology and pollutant transport). Concurrent with climate change, the seasonality of flooding in cold environments is expected to shift from a snowmelt‐dominated to a rainfall‐dominated flow regime. This would have profound impacts on water management strategies, that is, flood risk mitigation, drinking water supply, and hydro power. In addition, cold climate hydrological systems exhibit complex interactions with catchment properties and large‐scale climate fluctuations making the manifestation of changes difficult to detect and predict. Understanding a possible change in flood seasonality and defining related key drivers therefore is essential to mitigate risk and to keep management strategies viable under a changing climate. This study explores changes in flood seasonality across near‐natural catchments in Scandinavia using circular statistics and trend tests. Results indicate strong seasonality in flooding for snowmelt‐dominated catchments with a single peak occurring in spring and early summer (March through June), whereas flood peaks are more equally distributed throughout the year for catchments located close to the Atlantic coast and in the south of the study area. Flood seasonality has changed over the past century seen as decreasing trends in summer maximum daily flows and increasing winter and spring maximum daily flows with 5–35% of the catchments showing significant changes at the 5% significance level. Seasonal mean daily flows corroborate those findings with higher percentages (5–60%) of the catchments showing statistically significant changes. Alterations in annual flood occurrence also point towards a shift in flow regime from snowmelt‐dominated to rainfall‐dominated with consistent changes towards earlier timing of the flood peak (significant for 25% of the catchments). Regionally consistent patterns suggest a first‐order climate control as well as a local second‐order catchment control, which causes inter‐seasonal variability in the streamflow response.circular statistics; flood seasonality; Mann-Kendall test; Scandinavia; trend analysis
Utilization of Global Precipitation Datasets in Data Limited Regions: A Case Study of Kilombero Valley, TanzaniaAtmosphereKoutsouris, Alexander J.; Seibert, Jan; Lyon, Steve W.20172018/09/05This study explored the potential for bias correction of global precipitation datasets (GPD) to support streamflow simulation for water resource management in data limited regions. Two catchments, 580 km2 and 2530 km2, in the Kilombero Valley of central Tanzania were considered as case studies to explore three GPD bias correction methods: quantile mapping (QM), daily percentages (DP) and a model based (ModB) bias correction. The GPDs considered included two satellite rainfall products, three reanalysis products and three interpolated observed data products. The rainfall-runoff model HBV was used to simulate streamflow in the two catchments using (1) observed rain gauge data; (2) the original GPDs and (3) the bias-corrected GPDs as input. Results showed that applying QM to bias correction based on limited observed data tends to aggravate streamflow simulations relative to not bias correcting GPDs. This is likely due to a potential lack of representativeness of a single rain gauge observation at the scale of a hydrological catchment for these catchments. The results also indicate that there may be potential benefits in combining streamflow and rain gauge data to bias correct GPDs during the model calibration process within a hydrological modeling framework.bias correction; quantile mapping; satellite; reanalysis; interpolated; precipitation; HBV; Kilombero; Tanzania; Eastern Africa
Estimating Aquifer Transmissivity Using the Recession-Curve-Displacement Method in Tanzania’s Kilombero ValleyWaterSenkondo, William; Tuwa, Jamila; Koutsouris, Alexander; Tumbo, Madaka; Lyon, Seve W.20172018/09/05Information on aquifer processes and characteristics across scales has long been a cornerstone for understanding water resources. However, point measurements are often limited in extent and representativeness. Techniques that increase the support scale (footprint) of measurements or leverage existing observations in novel ways can thus be useful. In this study, we used a recession-curve-displacement method to estimate regional-scale aquifer transmissivity (T) from streamflow records across the Kilombero Valley of Tanzania. We compare these estimates to local-scale estimates made from pumping tests across the Kilombero Valley. The median T from the pumping tests was 0.18 m2/min. This was quite similar to the median T estimated from the recession-curve-displacement method applied during the wet season for the entire basin (0.14 m2/min) and for one of the two sub-basins tested (0.16 m2/min). On the basis of our findings, there appears to be reasonable potential to inform water resource management and hydrologic model development through streamflow-derived transmissivity estimates, which is promising for data-limited environments facing rapid development, such as the Kilombero Valley.aquifer transmissivity; streamflow-derived transmissivity; recession-curve-displacement method; recharge event
It's time to listen: there is much to be learned from the sounds of tropical ecosystemsBioTropicaDeichmann, Jessica L.; Acevedo-Charry, Orlando; Barclay, Leah; Burivalova, Zuzana; Campos-Cerqueira, Marconi; d'Horta, Fernando; Game, Edward T.; Gottesman, Benjamin L.; Hart, Patrick J.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Linke, Simon; Nascimento, Leandro Do; Pijanowski, Bryan; Staaterman, Erica; Aide, T. Mitchell20182018/09/28Knowledge that can be gained from acoustic data collection in tropical ecosystems is low‐hanging fruit. There is every reason to record and with every day, there are fewer excuses not to do it. In recent years, the cost of acoustic recorders has decreased substantially (some can be purchased for under US$50, e.g., Hill et al. 2018) and the technology needed to store and analyze acoustic data is continuously improving (e.g., Corrada Bravo et al. 2017, Xie et al. 2017). Soundscape recordings provide a permanent record of a site at a given time and contain a wealth of invaluable and irreplaceable information. Although challenges remain, failure to collect acoustic data now in tropical ecosystems would represent a failure to future generations of tropical researchers and the citizens that benefit from ecological research. In this commentary, we (1) argue for the need to increase acoustic monitoring in tropical systems; (2) describe the types of research questions and conservation issues that can be addressed with passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) using both short‐ and long‐term data in terrestrial and freshwater habitats; and (3) present an initial plan for establishing a global repository of tropical recordings. conservation technology; ecoacoustics; passive acoustic monitoring; soundscape
Harnessing cross-border resources to confront climate changeEnvironmental Science & PolicyAburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Johnson, Andrew F.; Agha, Mickey; Allen, Edith B.; Allen, Michael F.; Arellano Gonzalez, Jesus; Arenas Moreno, Diego M.; Beas-Luna, Rodrigo; Butterfield, Scott; Caetano, Gabriel; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Castaneda Gaytan, Gamaliel; Castorani, Max C.N.; Cat, Linh Anh; Cavanaugh, Kyle; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Cooper, Robert D.; Arafeh-Dalmau, Nur; Dawson, Todd; Diaz de la Vega Perez, Anibal; DiMento, Joseph F.C.; Dominguez Guerrero, Saul; Edwards, Matthew; Ennen, Joshua R.; Estrada-Medina, Hector; Fierro-Estrada, Natalia; Gadsden, Hector; Galina-Tessaro, Patricia; Gibbons, Paul M.; Goode, Eric V.; Gorris, Morgan E.; Harmon, Thomas; Hecht, Susanna; Heredia Fragoso, Marco Antonio; Hernandez-Solano, Alan; Hernandez-Cortes, Danae; Hernandez-Carmona, Gustavo; Hillard, Scott; Huey, Raymond B.; Hufford, Matthew B.; Jenerette, G. Darrel; Jimenez-Osornio, Juan; Lopez-Nava, Karla Joana; Lara Resendiz, Rafael A.; Leslie, Heather M.; Lopez-Feldman, Alejandro; Luja, Victor H.; Martinez Mendez, Norberto; Mautz, William J.; Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Melendez-Torres, Cristina; Mendez de la Cruz; Fausto R.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Miles, Donald B.; Montagner, Giovanna; Montano-Moctezuma, Gabriela; Muller, Johannes; Oliva, Paulina; Ortinez Alvarez, Jose Abraham; Ortiz-Partida, J. Pablo; Palleiro-Nayar, Julio; Paramo Figueroa, Victor Hugo; Parnell, P. Ed; Raimondi, Peter; Ramirez-Valdez, Arturo; Randerson, James T.; Reed, Daniel C.; Riquelme, Meritxell; Romero Torres, Teresita; Rosen, Philip C.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Sanchez-Cordero, Victor; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; Santos, Juan Carlos; Sawers, Ruairidh; Sinervo, Barry; Sites Jr., Jack W.; Sosa-Nishizaki, Oscar; Stanton, Travis; Stapp, Jared R.; Stewart, Joseph A.E.; Torre, Jorge; Torres-Moye, Guillermo; Treseder, Kathleen K.; Valdez-Villavicencio, Jorge; Valle Jimenez, Fernando I.; Vaughn, Mercy; Welton, Luke; Westphal, Michael F.; Woolrich-Pina, Guillermo; Yunez-Naude, Antonio; Zertuche-Gonzalez, Jose A.; Taylor, J. Edward20182018/09/26The US and Mexico share a common history in many areas, including language and culture. They face ecological changes due to the increased frequency and severity of droughts and rising energy demands; trends that entail economic costs for both nations and major implications for human wellbeing. We describe an ongoing effort by the Environment Working Group (EWG), created by The University of California’s UC-Mexico initiative in 2015, to promote binational research, teaching, and outreach collaborations on the implications of climate change for Mexico and California. We synthesize current knowledge about the most pressing issues related to climate change in the US-Mexico border region and provide examples of cross-border discoveries and research initiatives, highlighting the need to move forward in six broad rubrics. This and similar binational cooperation efforts can lead to improved living standards, generate a collaborative mindset among participating universities, and create an international network to address urgent sustainability challenges affecting both countries.US southwest; northern Mexico; binational collaborations; environmental innovations; cross-border transformation; research integration
Large-scale assessment of the presence of Darwin’s fox across its newly discovered rangeMammalian BiologySilva-Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Ovando, Erwin; Gonzalez, Danilo; Zambrano, Brayan; Sepulveda, Maximiliano A.; Svensson, Gabriella L.; Cardenas, Rene; Contreras, Patricio; Farias, Ariel A.20182018/09/26The Darwin’s fox is one of the most threatened carnivores worldwide and was thought to occur in only two isolated areas. Recently this canid was found in the Valdivian Coastal Range, between the previously known populations, but other than their presence, little is known about these populations. Here we report the results of camera trap surveys conducted between 2012 and 2016 (18,872 camera days), including surveys in 30 different sites—distributed along c. 400 km—and monitoring in two contiguous protected areas. Darwin’s fox detection rate was higher when forest cover was higher or when domestic dog (Canis familiaris) detection rate was lower. Given confirmed presence, the detection rate was higher for sites in Chiloé Island, than in the mainland’s Coastal Range. In mainland, we found evidence of dogs’ presence in most of the sites we detected Darwin’s foxes. In the protected areas monitored, Darwin’s foxes were found to use 12% and 15% of the area sampled in 2015 and 2016 respectively, although there was high uncertainty in the 2016 estimates due to low probability of detection. We did not detect Darwin’s foxes in forestry plantations. Our findings provide support for a continuous distribution along the mainland’s Coastal Range and Chiloé Island but we hypothesize—based on the major differences observed in detection rates between these areas—that local densities are lower in mainland than in Chiloé Island. Finally, Darwin’s fox appears to be sensitive to human disturbance and these disturbances, especially dogs, are ubiquitous within its newly discovered trapping; Lycalopex fulvipes; domestic dog; human disturbance; native forest; probability of detection
High-resolution trade-off analysis and optimization of ecosystem services and disservices in agricultural landscapesEnvironmental Modelling & SoftwareNguyen, Trung H.; Cook, Maxwell; Field, John L.; Khuc, Quy V.; Paustian, Keith20182018/09/25Agricultural land management often involves trade-offs between ecosystem services (ES) and disservices (EDS). Balancing these trade-offs to achieve low-impact production of agricultural commodities requires rigorous approaches for quantifying and optimizing ES and EDS, reconciling biophysical constraints and different management objectives. In this study, we demonstrate a high-resolution spatially-explicit analysis of ES and EDS trade-offs for irrigated corn production systems in the South Platte River Basin, Colorado, USA, as a case study. The analysis integrated a biogeochemical model (DayCent) with optimization algorithms to assess trade-offs between multiple ES and EDS indicators, including net primary production, soil organic carbon, water use, nitrogen leaching, and greenhouse gas emissions. Our results show a large fraction of total potential system productivity (up to 21 Mg ha−1 year−1) can be realized at minimal ecosystem impacts through careful land management decisions. Our analysis also explores how different land management objectives imply different landscape configurations.ecosystem services; environment impact assessment; ecosystem modeling; trade-off analysis; multi-objective optimization
Linking Habitat Use and Trophic Ecology of Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) on a Restored Oyster Reef in a Subtropical EstuaryEstuaries and CoastsTinHan, Thomas C.; Mohan, John A.; Dumesnil, Mark; DeAngelis, Bryan M.; Wells, R.J. David20182018/09/25Predicting population- and ecosystem-level benefits of habitat restoration minimally requires an understanding of the link between the trophic ecology of a species and their use of a habitat. This study combined novel, non-lethal natural tracers of trophic ecology with acoustic tagging techniques to examine spatial and temporal patterns of habitat use of spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus on Half Moon Reef (HMR), a recently restored oyster reef in Matagorda Bay, Texas. Forty-one spotted seatrout (408 ± 25 mm total length) were captured at HMR, surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters, and monitored by an array of underwater listening stations from December 2015 to August 2016. Patterns of presence-absence on HMR were strongly influenced by water temperature, and to a lesser extent, salinity and tidal height. Overall, spotted seatrout residency to HMR was low, with fish being present on the reef 24% of days. When present, individual fish exhibited strong site-attachment to small portions of the reef. Residency to HMR increased significantly with size, while scale stable isotope analysis revealed fish exhibiting high residency to HMR occupied significantly smaller isotopic niches. If indeed smaller fish with decreased residency rely upon a wider range of prey items across multiple habitats than larger, more resident individuals, restored oyster reef habitat may be expected to primarily benefit larger spotted seatrout.Gulf of Mexico; accoustic telemetry; stable isotope analysis; environmental drivers; residency
Post-release fishing mortality of blue (Prionace glauca) and silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformes) from a Palauan-based commercial longline fisheryReviews in Fish Biology and FisheriesMusyl, Michael K.; Gilman, Eric L.20182018/09/24Accounting for components of fishing mortality, including post-release mortality (Fr), is necessary for robust assessments of the effects of fishing. Forty-eight blue (Prionace glauca) and 35 silky sharks (Carcharhinus falciformes) were tagged with pop-up satellite archival tags to monitor Fr rates from pelagic longline vessels in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. There is a paucity of Fr studies at low latitudes and identifying factors that significantly explain Fr is critical for understanding fishing mortality. Mean Fr rates were 0.17 [95% CI 0.09–0.30] for blue shark and 0.20 [95% CI 0.10–0.36] for silky shark. When it occurred, Fr was acute with 87% of mortalities within 2 days of release. Several prognostic operational, environmental, biological and handling variables were evaluated to assess their influence on survival outcomes. Using Kaplan–Meier survival curves, logistic regression, accelerated failure time and Cox proportional hazards models to screen variables, the only significant prognostic or risk variable was health condition at haulback. There was close correspondence (~ 83% accuracy) between condition at capture and survival outcomes. Reliable methods to classify at-vessel condition represent an inexpensive and simple metric for estimating both Fr and at-vessel (Fc) mortality rates. Examining Fc rates in detail in longline fisheries using capture information on depth, temperature and dissolved oxygen that may act in synergy with condition code and hooking duration is a research priority. Results suggest that a large proportion of shark survive following release and that Fr rates can be increased by improving the haulback condition of captured sharks.bycatch; condition; discard; fishing mortality; pelagic sharks; prognostic variables; risk
Migration Patterns, Timing, and Seasonal Destinations of Adult Ferruginous HawksJournal of Raptor ResearchWatson, James W.; Banasch, Ursula; Byer, Timothy; Svingen, Daniel N.; McCready, Robert; Cruz, Miguel A.; Hanni, David; Lafon, Alberto; Gerhardt, Rick20182018/09/24The Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis) is a keystone raptor in arid-land ecosystems in western North America that is experiencing population declines in some regions. Range-wide migration patterns, destinations, and chronology of adult hawks have not been described. Between 1999 and 2014, we captured 69 adult Ferruginous Hawks east and west of the Continental Divide and monitored them ≤6 yr with satellite telemetry to document their migration ecology. During a short time (x̄ = 30 d, SD = 23) before migrating, 22% of hawks made brief movements away from territories (x̄ = 211 km, SD = 133) and then returned. Migrating hawks (98% of 89 analyzed patterns) moved across broad fronts using five different strategies in three distinct periods: summer (July–August), fall (September–November), and spring (February–March). Breeding range longitude and latitude strongly influenced (r = 0.78) timing of summer migration that was directed to focal areas shared by breeding populations of hawks in the Northern Grasslands and Central Plains. Hawks nesting in grasslands from Canada to the Southern Plains demonstrated a strong pattern of southward migration to summer and winter ranges along the east front of the Rocky Mountains to central Mexico. Hawks from shrub-steppes in the Columbia Basin and Great Basin migrated eastward to summer ranges across the Continental Divide to grasslands, then to wintering areas in California and northern Mexico. On average, adult hawks spent 64% of the year away from breeding home ranges and migrated 2376 km (SD = 1165) annually, but differences in migration destinations, distance (P = 0.048), and duration (P < 0.0001) among populations potentially exposed them to variable levels and types of stressors. Accordingly, conservation of nonbreeding habitats used by Ferruginous Hawks is important for maintaining health of breeding populations; conservation efforts should emphasize protection of fossorial prey and habitats on shared summer ranges and winter ranges in the Mexican grasslands and Central Valley of California.Ferruginous Hawk; Buteo regalis; dispersal; migration; satellite telemetry; winter ecology
Is conservation right to go big? Protected area size and conservation return-on-investmentBiological ConservationArmsworth, Paul R.; Jackson, Heather B.; Cho, Seong-Hoon; Clark, Melissa; Farigone, Joseph E.; Iacona, Gwenllian D.; Kim, Taeyoung; Larson, Eric R.; Minney, Thomas; Sutton, Nathan A.20182018/09/20Policy guidelines for creating new protected areas commonly recommend larger protected areas be favored. We examine whether these recommendations are justified, providing the first evaluation of this question to use return-on-investment (ROI) methods that account for how protected area size influences multiple ecological benefits and the economic costs of protection. We examine areas acquired to protect forested ecosystems in the eastern US that are rich in endemic species. ROI analyses often alter recommendations about protected area size from those obtained when considering only ecological benefits or only economic costs. Large protected areas offer a greater ecological return per dollar invested if the goal of protecting sites is to reduce forest fragmentation on the wider landscape, whereas smaller sites offer a higher ROI when prioritizing sites offering protection to more species. A portfolio of site sizes may need to be included in protected area networks when multiple objectives motivate conservation.economies of scale; patch size; conservation planning; Aichi target; SLOSS; land trust
A theory for ecological survey methods to map individual distributionsTheoretical EcologyTakashina, Nao; Beger, Maria; Kusumoto, Buntarou; Rathnayake, Suren; Possingham, Hugh P.20172018/09/20Spatially explicit approaches are widely recommended for ecosystem management. The quality of the data, such as presence/absence or habitat maps, affects the management actions recommended and is, therefore, key to management success. However, available data are often biased and incomplete. Previous studies have advanced ways to resolve data bias and missing data, but questions remain about how we design ecological surveys to develop a dataset through field surveys. Ecological surveys may have multiple spatial scales, including the spatial extent of the target ecosystem (observation window), the resolution for mapping individual distributions (mapping unit), and the survey area within each mapping unit (sampling unit). We developed an ecological survey method for mapping individual distributions by applying spatially explicit stochastic models. We used spatial point processes to describe individual spatial placements using either random or clustering processes. We then designed ecological surveys with different spatial scales and individual detectability. We found that the choice of mapping unit affected the presence mapped fraction, and the fraction of the total individuals covered by the presence mapped patches. Tradeoffs were found between these quantities and the map resolution, associated with equivalent asymptotic behaviors for both metrics at sufficiently small and large mapping unit scales. Our approach enabled consideration of the effect of multiple spatial scales in surveys, and estimation of the survey outcomes such as the presence mapped fraction and the number of individuals situated in the presence detected units. The developed theory may facilitate management decision-making and inform the design of monitoring and data gathering.ecological survey; presence/absence map; spatial distribution; spatial point processes
Social perspectives on the use of reference conditions in restoration of fire‐adapted forest landscapesRestoration EcologyUrgenson, Lauren S.; Nelson, Cara R.; Haugo, Ryan D.; Halpern, Charles B.; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Ryan, Clare M.; Waltz, Amy E. M.; Belote, R. Travis; Alvarado, Ernesto20172018/09/19As approaches to ecological restoration become increasingly large scale and collaborative, there is a need to better understand social aspects of restoration and how they influence land management. In this article, we examine social perspectives that influence the determination of ecological reference conditions in restoration. Our analysis is based on in‐depth interviews with diverse stakeholders involved in collaborative restoration of fire‐adapted forest landscapes. We conducted interviews with 86 respondents from six forest collaboratives that are part of the U.S. Forest Service's Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program. Collaboratives use a variety of approaches to develop reference conditions, including historic, contemporary, and future scenarios. Historical conditions prior to European settlement (nineteenth century or “pre‐settlement” conditions), or prior to more recent grazing, logging, and exclusion of fire, were the predominant type of reference used in all sites. Stakeholders described benefits and limitations of reference conditions. Primary benefits include (1) providing a science‐based framework for bringing stakeholders together around a common vision; (2) gaining social understanding and acceptance of the underlying need for restoration; and (3) serving to neutralize otherwise value‐laden discussions about multiple, sometimes competing, resource objectives. Limitations stem from (1) concerns over social conflict when reference conditions are perceived to contradict other stakeholder values and interests, (2) differing interpretations of reference condition science, (3) inappropriate application or over‐generalization of reference information, and (4) limited relevance of historical references for current and future conditions in some ecosystems. At the same time, collaboratives are adopting innovative strategies to address conceptual and methodological limitations of reference forests; historical ecosystem; landscape restoration; pre-settlement; reference models; restoration goals; stakeholder collaboration
Aging infrastructure creates opportunities for cost‐efficient restoration of aquatic ecosystem connectivityEcological ApplicationsNeeson, Thomas M.; Moody, Allison T.; O'Hanley, Jesse R.; Diebel, Matthew; Doran, Patrick J.; Ferris, Michael C.; Colling, Timothy; McIntyre, Peter B.20182018/09/19A hallmark of industrialization is the construction of dams for water management and roads for transportation, leading to fragmentation of aquatic ecosystems. Many nations are striving to address both maintenance backlogs and mitigation of environmental impacts as their infrastructure ages. Here, we test whether accounting for road repair needs could offer opportunities to boost conservation efficiency by piggybacking connectivity restoration projects on infrastructure maintenance. Using optimization models to align fish passage restoration sites with likely road repair priorities, we find potential increases in conservation return‐on‐investment ranging from 17% to 25%. Importantly, these gains occur without compromising infrastructure or conservation priorities; simply communicating openly about objectives and candidate sites enables greater accomplishment at current funding levels. Society embraces both reliable roads and thriving fisheries, so overcoming this coordination challenge should be feasible. Given deferred maintenance crises for many types of infrastructure, there could be widespread opportunities to enhance the cost effectiveness of conservation investments by coordinating with infrastructure renewal efforts.infrastructure; connectivity; fragmentation; conservation; restoration; coordination; collaboration
Efficiently enforcing artisanal fisheries to protect estuarine biodiversityEcological ApplicationsDuarte de Paula Costa, Micheli; Mills, Morena; Richardson, Anthony J.; Fuller, Richard A.; Muelbert, Jose H.; Possingham, Hugh P.20182018/09/19Artisanal fisheries support millions of livelihoods worldwide, yet ineffective enforcement can allow for continued environmental degradation due to overexploitation. Here, we use spatial planning to design an enforcement strategy for a pre‐existing spatial closure for artisanal fisheries considering climate variability, existing seasonal fishing closures, representative conservation targets and enforcement costs. We calculated enforcement cost in three ways, based on different assumptions about who could be responsible for monitoring the fishery. We applied this approach in the Patos Lagoon estuary (Brazil), where we found three important results. First, spatial priorities for enforcement were similar under different climate scenarios. Second, we found that the cost and percentage of area enforced varied among scenarios tested by the conservation planning analysis, with only a modest increase in budget needed to incorporate climate variability. Third, we found that spatial priorities for enforcement depend on whether enforcement is carried out by a central authority or by the community itself. Here, we demonstrated a method that can be used to efficiently design enforcement plans, resulting in the conservation of biodiversity and estuarine resources. Also, cost of enforcement can be potentially reduced when fishers are empowered to enforce management within their fishing grounds.artisanal fisheries; climate variability; enforcement; ENSO events; estuaries; marine spatial planning; seasonal closures
Spatially explicit approach to estimation of total population abundance in field surveysJournal of Theoretical BiologyTakashina, Nao; Kusumoto, Buntarou; Beger, Maria; Rathnayake, Suren; Possingham, Hugh P.20182018/09/19Population abundance is fundamental in ecology and conservation biology, and provides essential information for predicting population dynamics and implementing conservation actions. While a range of approaches have been proposed to estimate population abundance based on existing data, data deficiency is ubiquitous. When information is deficient, a population estimation will rely on labor intensive field surveys. Typically, time is one of the critical constraints in conservation, and management decisions must often be made quickly under a data deficient situation. Hence, it is important to acquire a theoretical justification for survey methods to meet a required estimation precision. There is no such theory available in a spatially explicit context, while spatial considerations are critical to any field survey. Here, we develop a spatially explicit theory for population estimation that allows us to examine the estimation precision under different survey designs and individual distribution patterns (e.g. random/clustered sampling and individual distribution). We demonstrate that clustered sampling decreases the estimation precision when individuals form clusters, while sampling designs do not affect the estimation accuracy when individuals are distributed randomly. Regardless of individual distribution, the estimation precision becomes higher with increasing total population abundance and the sampled fraction. These insights provide theoretical bases for efficient field survey designs in information deficiency situations.field survey; population estimation; random sampling; spatial point process
Collaborative restoration effects on forest structure in ponderosa pine-dominated forests of ColoradoForest Ecology and ManagementCannon, Jeffery B.; Barrett, Kevin J.; Gannon, Benjamin M.; Addington, Robert N.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Fornwalt, Paula J.; Aplet, Gregory H.; Cheng, Antony S.; Underhill, Jeffrey L.; Briggs, Jennifer S.; Brown, Peter M.20182018/09/19In response to large, severe wildfires in historically fire-adapted forests in the western US, policy initiatives, such as the USDA Forest Service’s Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program (CFLRP), seek to increase the pace and scale of ecological restoration. One required component of this program is collaborative adaptive management, in which monitoring data are used to iteratively evaluate and improve future management actions. Here, we assess the success of seven CFLRP treatments, implemented on 2,300 ha during the first three years of the Colorado Front Range Landscape Restoration Initiative (LRI) at achieving desired forest structure by comparing pre- and post-treatment conditions. We also compare post-treatment conditions with reconstructions of historical (ca. 1860) forest conditions to contextualize the magnitude of treatment effects. Restoration projects moved stands toward desired conditions by reducing basal area, tree density, and canopy cover and increasing average tree diameter, large gap cover, and abundance of small- to medium-sized tree groups. Post-treatment stands were similar to historical stands with respect to basal area of ponderosa pine; however, they had higher total tree density and fewer gaps than historical reference conditions, suggesting that restoration prescriptions may be improved with increased flexibility for density reduction of Douglas-fir and increased gap creation. This examination of early CFLRP treatment outcomes as they relate to desired conditions informs potential areas of adjustments to future treatments and provides baseline data to evaluate the evolution of treatments over the program’s lifespan. We also identify and discuss several scientific, social, and logistical constraints to large-scale restoration success and make several recommendations to improve restoration outcomes.adaptive management; Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program (CFLRP); Colorado Front Range; ecological restoration; fuel hazart reduction; Pinus ponderosa; Douglas-fir; Pseudotsuga menziesii
When are estimates of spawning stock biomass for small pelagic fishes improved by taking spatial structure into account?Fisheries ResearchPunt, Andre E.; Okamoto, Daniel K.; MacCall, Alec D.; Shelton, Andrew O.; Armitage, Derek R.; Cleary, Jaclyn S.; Davies, Ian P.; Dressel, Sherri C.; Francis, Tessa B.; Levin, Phillip S.; Jones, R. Russ; Kitka, Harvey; Lee, Lynn Chi; McIsaac, Jim A.; Poe, Melissa R.; Reifenstuhl, Steve; Silver, Jennifer J.; Schmidt, Jorn O.; Thornton, Thomas F.; Voss, Rudiger; Woodruff, John20182018/09/19A simulation-estimation approach is used to evaluate the efficacy of stock assessment methods that incorporate various levels of spatial complexity. The evaluated methods estimate historical and future biomass for a situation that roughly mimics Pacific herring Clupea pallasii at Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada. The baseline operating model theorizes ten areas arranged such that there is post-recruitment dispersal among all areas. Simulated data (catches, catch age-composition, estimates of spawning stock biomass and its associated age structure) generated for each area are analyzed using estimation methods that range in complexity from ignoring spatial structure to explicitly modelling ten areas. Estimation methods that matched the operating model in terms of spatial structure performed best for hindcast performance and short-term forecasting, i.e., adding spatial structure to assessments improved estimation performance. Even with similar time trajectories among sub-stocks, accounting for spatial structure when conducting the assessment leads to improved estimates of spawning stock biomass. In contrast, assuming spatial variation in productivity when conducting assessments did not appreciably improve estimation performance, even when productivity actually varied spatially. Estimates of forecast biomass and of spawning stock biomass relative to the unfished level were poorer than estimates of biomass for years with data, i.e., hindcasts. Overall, the results of this study further support efforts to base stock assessments for small pelagic fishes on spatially-structured population dynamics models when there is a reasonable likelihood of identifying the sub-stocks that should form the basis for the assessment.age-structured stock assessment methods; simulation; spatial structure; spawning stock biomass; time-varying natural mortality
Quantifying the benefits of spatial fisheries management – An ecological-economic optimization approachEcological ModellingVoss, Rudi; Quaas, Martin F.; Schmidt, Jorn O.; Stoeven, Max T.; Francis, Tessa B.; Levin, Phillip S.; Armitage, Derek R.; Cleary, Jaclyn S.; Jones, R. Russ; Lee, Lynn C.; Okamoto, Daniel K.; Silver, Jennifer J.; Thornton, Thomas F.; Dressel, Sherri C.; MacCall, Alec D.; Punt, Andre E.20182018/09/19Improving fisheries management is a key challenge in addressing the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 2 (Zero Hunger) and support Goals 1 (No Poverty) and 14 (Life Below Water). However, sustaining the ocean’s living resources has important dimensions beyond food security, such as cultural values, which might be of equal importance in some settings. Fisheries management faces special challenges when there is a mismatch between biological units and management units, e.g., when ecological spatial structures are not reflected in how catch limits are set. This might result in overexploitation and even the loss of sub-stocks. We use a spatially structured ecological-economic model parameterized for a pelagic schooling fish to examine how the benefits of implementing spatially differentiated fisheries management depend on biological parameters. We focus on a subset of socio-ecological variables, i.e., fisheries yield, present value of economic surplus, and loss of spawning sites (which might be linked to loss of cultural values) to demonstrate that, in theory, ideally differentiated spatial management can be implemented without exact information about recruitment behavior. For imperfectly differentiated spatial management, however, knowledge about recruitment behavior becomes key to avoiding economic losses and to sustaining stock structure, especially when there is large spatial heterogeneity in biological parameters. Knowledge about variability in site-specific productivity determines the expectation of achievable sustainable harvest levels. Further research on such ecological issues is therefore warranted, both for ecological as well as economic reasons.ecological-economic model; spatial management; recruitment models; Pacific herring; precautionary approach; entrainment
Phenotypic covariance at species’ bordersBMC Evolutionary BiologyCaley, M. Julian; Cripps, Edward; Game, Edward T.20132018/09/18Background Understanding the evolution of species limits is important in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Despite its likely importance in the evolution of these limits, little is known about phenotypic covariance in geographically marginal populations, and the degree to which it constrains, or facilitates, responses to selection. We investigated phenotypic covariance in morphological traits at species’ borders by comparing phenotypic covariance matrices (P), including the degree of shared structure, the distribution of strengths of pair-wise correlations between traits, the degree of morphological integration of traits, and the ranks of matricies, between central and marginal populations of three species-pairs of coral reef fishes. Results Greater structural differences in P were observed between populations close to range margins and conspecific populations toward range centres, than between pairs of conspecific populations that were both more centrally located within their ranges. Approximately 80% of all pair-wise trait correlations within populations were greater in the north, but these differences were unrelated to the position of the sampled population with respect to the geographic range of the species. Conclusions Neither the degree of morphological integration, nor ranks of P, indicated greater evolutionary constraint at range edges. Characteristics of P observed here provide no support for constraint contributing to the formation of these species’ borders, but may instead reflect structural change in P caused by selection or drift, and their potential to evolve in the future.reef fish; Great Barrier Reef; marginal population; pelagic larval duration; range margin
Does the gender composition of forest and
fishery management groups affect resource
governance and conservation outcomes: a systematic map protocol
Environmental EvidenceLeisher, Craig; Temsah, Gheda; Booker, Francesca; Day, Michael; Agarwal, Bina; Matthews, Elizabeth; Roe, Dilys; Russell, Diane; Samberg, Leah; Sunderland, Terry; Wilkie, David20152018/09/18Background In the fields of environmental governance and biodiversity conservation, there is a growing awareness that gender has an influence on resource use and management. Several studies argue that empowering women in resource governance can lead to beneficial outcomes for resource sustainability and biodiversity conservation. Yet how robust is the evidence to support this claim? Here we focus on the forestry and fisheries sectors to answer the primary question: What is the evidence that the gender composition of forest and fishery management groups affects resource governance and conservation outcomes? Our objective is to produce a systematic map of the evidence highlighting, inter alia, the geographic distribution and quality of the evidence, the consistency and robustness of the findings, and where further research is needed. Methods/design This protocol provides the details of the methodology. The search terms used to identify relevant articles were developed in an iterative process using the phraseology of the primary question, Boolean operators, and a list of synonyms for each term. The search terms will be used to identify relevant articles in CAB Abstracts, Scopus, AGRIS, AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, and Google. A test library of 12 articles will ensure that the search captures the relevant literature. Searches will be in English but will not be restricted by publication date. The websites of 22 international organisations with a known interest in gender-related issues will be screened for relevant documents. The gender-focussed researchers at large conservation NGOs, the members of the Poverty and Conservation Learning Group, and the members of the Gender and Environment Working Group will be invited to submit relevant documents. The list of references of included articles will be screened to identify other relevant articles in a ‘backwards snowballing’ approach. The inclusion criteria are that an article refers to women or gender, forests or fisheries, a resource management group, a quantitative comparison, and an environmental governance or biodiversity conservation outcome in a non-OECD country. A data extraction template with 27 variables will be used to assess the included articles. The output will be a narrative report with descriptive statistics and an evidence-gap map.citizen participation; conservation; equity; fishing; forests; gender impacts; livelihoods; sustainability
The use of airborne laser scanning to develop a pixel-based stratification for a verified carbon offset projectCarbon Balance and ManagementGolinkoff, Jordan; Hanus, Mark; Carah, Jennifer20112018/09/18Background The voluntary carbon market is a new and growing market that is increasingly important to consider in managing forestland. Monitoring, reporting, and verifying carbon stocks and fluxes at a project level is the single largest direct cost of a forest carbon offset project. There are now many methods for estimating forest stocks with high accuracy that use both Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) and high-resolution optical remote sensing data. However, many of these methods are not appropriate for use under existing carbon offset standards and most have not been field tested. Results This paper presents a pixel-based forest stratification method that uses both ALS and optical remote sensing data to optimally partition the variability across an ~10,000 ha forest ownership in Mendocino County, CA, USA. This new stratification approach improved the accuracy of the forest inventory, reduced the cost of field-based inventory, and provides a powerful tool for future management planning. This approach also details a method of determining the optimum pixel size to best partition a forest. Conclusions The use of ALS and optical remote sensing data can help reduce the cost of field inventory and can help to locate areas that need the most intensive inventory effort. This pixel-based stratification method may provide a cost-effective approach to reducing inventory costs over larger areas when the remote sensing data acquisition costs can be kept low on a per acre basis.forest carbon offsets; MRV; LiDAR; Airborne Laser Scanning; stratification; post-stratification; carbon project; carbon stock estimation
Fairness and Transparency Are Required for the Inclusion of Privately Protected Areas in Publicly Accessible Conservation DatabasesLandClements, Hayley S.; Selinske, Matthew J.; Archibald, Carla L.; Cooke, Benjamin; Fitzsimons, James A.; Groce, Julie E.; Torabi, Nooshin; Hardy, Mathew J.20182018/09/18There is a growing recognition of the contribution that privately-owned land makes to conservation efforts, and governments are increasingly counting privately protected areas (PPAs) towards their international conservation commitments. The public availability of spatial data on countries’ conservation estates is important for broad-scale conservation planning and monitoring and for evaluating progress towards targets. Yet there has been limited consideration of how PPA data is reported to national and international protected area databases, particularly whether such reporting is transparent and fair (i.e., equitable) to the landholders involved. Here we consider PPA reporting procedures from three countries with high numbers of PPAs—Australia, South Africa, and the United States—illustrating the diversity within and between countries regarding what data is reported and the transparency with which it is reported. Noting a potential tension between landholder preferences for privacy and security of their property information and the benefit of sharing this information for broader conservation efforts, we identify the need to consider equity in PPA reporting processes. Unpacking potential considerations and tensions into distributional, procedural, and recognitional dimensions of equity, we propose a series of broad principles to foster transparent and fair reporting. Our approach for navigating the complexity and context-dependency of equity considerations will help strengthen PPA reporting and facilitate the transparent integration of PPAs into broader conservation efforts.Convention on Biological Diversity; Aichi Target 11; conservation planning; protected area reporting; equity framework; private land conservation; privacy
Restoring the eastern oyster: how much progress has been made in 53 years?Frontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentBersoza Hernandez, Ada; Brumbaugh, Robert D.; Frederick, Peter; Grizzle, Raymond; Luckenbach, Mark W.; Peterson, Charles H.; Angelini, Christine20182018/09/18Coastal ecosystem restoration is accelerating globally as a means of enhancing shoreline protection, carbon storage, water quality, fisheries, and biodiversity. Among the most substantial of these efforts have been those focused on re‐establishing oyster reefs across the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Despite considerable investment, it is unclear how the scale of and approaches toward oyster restoration have evolved. A synthesis of 1768 projects undertaken since 1964 reveals that oyster substrate restoration efforts have primarily been concentrated in the Chesapeake Bay and the Gulf Coast, have been heavily reliant on oyster shell, and have re‐established 4.5% of the reef area that has been lost across all regions. By comparing costs to ecosystem service benefits, we discovered that the return‐on‐investment of oyster restoration varies widely, but generally increases with project size. To facilitate the recovery of coastal ecosystems and their services, scientists and resource managers must adopt a new restoration paradigm prioritizing investment in sites that maximize economic and ecological benefits and minimize construction costs.
What are the impacts of nature conservation interventions on human well-being: a systematic map protocolEnvironmental EvidenceBottrill, Madeleine; Cheng, Samantha; Garside, Ruth; Wongbusarakum, Supin; Roe, Dilys; Holland, Margaret B.; Edmond, Janet; Turner, Will R.20142018/09/18Background International policy has sought to emphasize and strengthen the link between the conservation of natural ecosystems and human development. Furthermore, international conservation organizations have broadened their objectives beyond nature-based goals to recognize the contribution of conservation interventions in sustaining ecosystem services upon which human populations are dependent. While many indices have been developed to measure various human well-being domains, the strength of evidence to support the effects, both positive and negative, of conservation interventions on human well-being, is still unclear. Methods/Design This protocol describes the methodology for examining the research question: What are the impacts of nature conservation interventions on different domains of human well-being in developing countries? Using systematic mapping, this study will scope and identify studies that measure the impacts of nature conservation interventions on human well-being at local to regional scales. The primary objective of this study is to synthesize the state and distribution of the existing evidence base linking conservation and human well-being. In addition, a theory of change approach will be used to identify and characterize the causal linkages between conservation and human well-being, with attention on those studies that examine the role of ecosystem services. Key trends among the resulting studies will be synthesized and the range of studies organized and presented in a graphical matrix illustrating the relationships between types of interventions and types of outcomes. Results of the study are intended to help conservation and development practitioners and the academic community to improve research studies and conservation practices in developing countries in order to achieve both conservation and human well-being outcomes.conservation; ecosystem services; human well-being; poverty
Validation of a 30 m resolution flood hazard model of the conterminous United StatesWater Resources ResearchWing, Oliver E.J.; Bates, Paul D.; Sampson, Christopher C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Johnson, Kris A.; Erickson, Tyler A.20172018/08/09This paper reports the development of a ∼30 m resolution two‐dimensional hydrodynamic model of the conterminous U.S. using only publicly available data. The model employs a highly efficient numerical solution of the local inertial form of the shallow water equations which simulates fluvial flooding in catchments down to 50 km2 and pluvial flooding in all catchments. Importantly, we use the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset to determine topography; the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Levee Database to explicitly represent known flood defenses; and global regionalized flood frequency analysis to characterize return period flows and rainfalls. We validate these simulations against the complete catalogue of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) maps and detailed local hydraulic models developed by the USGS. Where the FEMA SFHAs are based on high‐quality local models, the continental‐scale model attains a hit rate of 86%. This correspondence improves in temperate areas and for basins above 400 km2. Against the higher quality USGS data, the average hit rate reaches 92% for the 1 in 100 year flood, and 90% for all flood return periods. Given typical hydraulic modeling uncertainties in the FEMA maps and USGS model outputs (e.g., errors in estimating return period flows), it is probable that the continental‐scale model can replicate both to within error. The results show that continental‐scale models may now offer sufficient rigor to inform some decision‐making needs with dramatically lower cost and greater coverage than approaches based on a patchwork of local studies. flooding; USA; validation; large-scale modeling; hydraulic
Landscape‐scale habitat assessment for an imperiled avian speciesAnimal ConservationBurkhalter, C.; Holloran, M.J.; Fedy, B.C.; Copeland, H.E.; Crabtree, R.L.; Michel, N.L.; Jay, S.C.; Rutledge, B.A.; Holloran, A.G.20182018/08/09A comprehensive understanding of wildlife habitat suitability requires landscape‐scale assessments that provide the framework for subsequent integration with local‐scale relationships. To elucidate the functional role of habitat characteristics at large scales it is necessary to understand how abundance is related to important landscape characteristics. We estimated male greater sage‐grouse Centrocercus urophasianus abundance on leks relative to sagebrush availability, landscape connectivity and anthropogenic infrastructure densities within landscapes surrounding leks from 2006 to 2013 using binomial N‐mixture models. We focused on Wyoming, as the state will play a critical role in the long‐term persistence of greater sage‐grouse due to its relatively robust populations, widespread sagebrush habitats and innovative, large‐scale conservation approaches. Landscapes associated with higher abundance of males on leks were characterized as highly connected, sagebrush‐dominated areas with limited energy development. These modeled relationships were used to evaluate spatial and temporal changes in the landscape‐scale integrity of areas supporting the majority of the greater sage‐grouse populations in Wyoming (i.e. core areas). By assessing relative changes in abundance over time, our models indicated that most of the habitat within core areas (86%) exhibited landscape conditions conducive to supporting medium or large greater sage‐grouse populations that were stable or increasing through time. Larger populations were associated with larger, more centrally located core areas. Conversely, core areas supporting relatively small or declining populations were located along range margins in the eastern portion of the state. The landscape‐scale habitat relationships we developed can be used in combination with local‐scale assessments to generate a more complete picture of greater sage‐grouse habitat suitability. sage-grouse; landscape; landscape characteristics; habitat selection; habitat suitability; Bayesian; species abundance
Soil organic matter underlies crop nutritional quality and productivity in smallholder agricultureAgriculture, Ecosystems & EnvironmentWood, Stephen A.; Baudron, Frédéric20182018/08/09Global crop yield gains have not be associated with increases in the many macro- and micro-nutrients needed for a balanced human diet. There is thus growing interest in improving agricultural practices to increase nutrient availability to people. Because nutrients in crops come from soil, soil management—such as building soil organic matter—could be a tool in managing agriculture to produce more nutritious food. To understand the relationship between soil organic matter and nutritional quality, we measured soil organic matter fractions, crop yield, and wheat nutrient composition on smallholder farms along a land-use and land-cover gradient in Ethiopia. We found that wheat yields and protein content were related to organic matter nitrogen, and zinc content was related to organic matter carbon. Increasing organic matter carbon by 1% was associated with an increase in zinc equivalent to the needs of 0.2 additional people per hectare; increasing organic matter nitrogen by 1% was associated with an increase in protein equivalent to the daily needs of 0.1 additional people per hectare. Soil organic matter—and its associated fractions—was greatest in soils closest to a state forest and in home gardens (as opposed to in wheat fields). Wheat fields closer to the forest had elevated soil organic matter fractions relative to wheat soils closest to the market town. Our results indicate that realistic gains in soil organic matter could make human-health-relevant increases in wheat nutrient content. Soil organic matter management can therefore be an additional tool for feeding the world well.micronutrients; human nutrition; wheat; homegarden; organic matter fraction; soil carbon; soil health; biofortification; agriculture
Life Cycle Cost and Return on Investment as complementary decision variables for urban flood risk management in developing countriesInternational Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionDe Risi, Raffaele; De Paola, Francesco; Turpie, Jane; Kroeger, Timm20182018/08/31Herein we investigate Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Return on Investment (ROI) as potential decision variables for evaluating the economic performance (ROI) and financial feasibility (LCC) of a set of flood mitigation strategies over time. The main novelty of this work is the application of LCC and ROI analyses at the urban level to an asset portfolio of flood-prone buildings. Reduced flood damage is treated probabilistically as avoided costs (LCC analysis) and returns (ROI analysis), respectively. The proposed methodology is applied to the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, which suffers severe riverine flooding on a sub-annual basis. Specifically, LCC and ROI of five mitigation scenarios that include large-scale catchment rehabilitation, settlement set-backs and waste management are compared with the current situation. The main result is that the highest-performing flood mitigation option includes both conventional interventions and ecosystem rehabilitation.flood risk mitigation; sustainable urban drainage systems; green urban development; cost-effectiveness; natural infrastructure; Dar es Salaam
Lessons learned from monitoring the stable water isotopic variability in precipitation and streamflow across a snow-dominated subarctic catchmentArctic, Antarctic, and Alpine ResearchLyon, Steve W.; Ploum, Stefan W.; van der Velde, Ype; Rocher-Ros, Gerard; Morth, Carl-Magnus; Giesler, Reiner20182018/08/30This empirical study explores shifts in stable water isotopic composition for a subarctic catchment located in northern Sweden as it transitions from spring freshet to summer low flows. Relative changes in the isotopic composition of streamflow across the main catchment and fifteen nested subcatchments are characterized in relation to the isotopic composition of precipitation. With our sampling campaign, we explore the variability in stream-water isotopic composition that originates from precipitation as the input shifts from snow to rain and as landscape flow pathways change across scales. The isotopic similarity of high-elevation snowpack water and early season rainfall water seen through our sampling scheme made it difficult to truly isolate the impact of seasonal precipitation phase change on stream-water isotopic response. This highlights the need to explicitly consider the complexity of arctic and alpine landscapes when designing sampling strategies to characterize hydrological variability via stable water isotopes. Results show a potential influence of evaporation and source water mixing both spatially (variations with elevation) and temporally (variations from post-freshet to summer flows) on the composition of stream water across Miellajokka. As such, the data collected in this empirical study allow for initial conceptualization of the relative importance of, for example, hydrological connectivity within this mountainous, subarctic landscape.catchment hydrology; stable water isotopes; tracers; spring flood; freshet
Food, money and lobsters: Valuing ecosystem services to align environmental management with Sustainable Development GoalsEcosystem ServicesWard, Michelle; Possingham, Hugh; Rhodes, Jonathan R.; Mumby, Peter20172018/08/30With over 1 billion people currently relying on the services provided by marine ecosystems – e.g. food, fibre and coastal protection – governments, scientists and international bodies are searching for innovative research to support decision-makers in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Valuing past and present ecosystem services allows investigation into how different scenarios impact the SDGs, such as economic growth, sustainability, poverty and equity among stakeholders. This paper investigates the past and current value of the lobster fishery located in the Table Mountain National Park Marine Protected Area. It then uses InVEST to highlight future changes under different scenarios. While we found a significant decline in fishery value over the next ten years under all three scenarios, the exclusion of large-scale fisheries from the marine protected area seems to yield the most positive results in regard to South Africa’s SDG commitments. This scenario has the potential to generate approximately 50% more revenue, while also producing the highest available protein to local communities, highest quantity of spawners and highest economic distribution to small-scale fisheries. It is clear through this research that valuing ecosystem services can enable a future of healthy economies, people and environments; the highly sought-after triple-bottom line.ecosystem services; Sustainable Development Goals; InVEST; South Africa
Advancing understanding in data-limited conditions: estimating contributions to streamflow across Tanzania’s rapidly developing Kilombero ValleyHydrological Sciences JournalKoutsouris, Alexander J.; Lyon, Steve W.20182018/08/30Large seasonal variability in precipitation patterns may help overcome data limitations and difficult conditions when characterizing hydrological flow pathways. We used a limited amount of weekly water chemistry as well as stable water isotope data to perform end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) in a generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) framework in a sub-catchment of the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. While there were considerable uncertainties related to the characterization and mixing of end-members, some robust estimates could be made on contributions to seasonal streamflow variability. For example, there is a low connectivity between the deep groundwater and the stream system throughout the year. Also, a considerable wetting-up period is required before overland flow occurs. Thus, in spite of large uncertainties, our results highlight how improved system understanding of hydrological flows can be obtained even when working in difficult environments.end-member mixing analysis (EMMA); generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE); water resources; sustainable development; Kilombero Valley (KV); Tanzania; hydrology
Benefit relevant indicators: Ecosystem services measures that link ecological and social outcomesEcological IndicatorsOlander, Lydia P.; Johnston, Robert J.; Tallis, Heather; Kagan, James; Maguire, Lynn A.; Polasky, Stephen; Urban, Dean; Boyd, James; Wainger, Lisa; Palmer, Margaret20182018/08/03There is a growing movement in government, environmental non-governmental organizations and the private sector to include ecosystem services in decision making. Adding ecosystem services into assessments implies measuring how much a change in ecological conditions affects people, social benefit, or value to society. Despite consensus around the general merit of accounting for ecosystem services, systematic guidance on what to measure and how is lacking. Current ecosystem services assessments often resort to biophysical proxies (e.g., area of wetland in a floodplain) or even disregard services that seem difficult to measure. Valuation, an important tool for assessing trade-offs and comparing outcomes, is also frequently omitted due to lack of data on social preferences, lack of expertise with valuation methods, or mistrust of valuation methods for non-market services. To address these shortcomings, we propose the use of a new type of indicator that explicitly reflects an ecosystem’s capacity to provide benefits to society, ensuring that ecosystem services assessments measure outcomes that are demonstrably and directly relevant to human welfare. We call these Benefit-relevant indicators (BRIs) and describe a process for developing them using causal chains that link management decisions through ecological responses to effects on human well-being. BRIs identify what is valued and by whom, but stop short of valuation. A BRI for the ability of wetlands to ameliorate flooding would connect measures of the quantity and quality of wetland in a floodplain, as affected by wetlands management decisions, to the number of people or properties downstream that are vulnerable to flooding. BRIs can support monetary or non-monetary valuation, but are particularly useful when valuation will not be conducted; in such cases they serve as stand-alone measures of “what is valued” by particular beneficiaries. BRIs are valid measures of ecosystem services in that they are directly linked to human well-being. Flexibility in the development of BRIs helps to ensure that they are broadly applicable across practitioner and stakeholder communities and decision contexts.natural capital; environmental accounting; indicators; ecosystem service valuation; socio-ecological systems
Pathways to Coastal Resiliency: The Adaptive Gradients FrameworkSustainabilityHamin, Elisabeth M.; Abunnasr, Yaser; Dilthey, Max Roman; Judge, Pamela K.; Kenney, Melissa A.; Kirshen, Paul; Sheahan, Thomas C.; DeGroot Don J.; Ryan, Robert L.; McAdoo, Brian G.; Nurse, Leonard; Buxton, Jane A.; Sutton-Grier, Ariana E.; Albright, Elizabeth A.; Marin, Marielos Arlen; Fricke, Rebecca20182018/08/29Current and future climate-related coastal impacts such as catastrophic and repetitive flooding, hurricane intensity, and sea level rise necessitate a new approach to developing and managing coastal infrastructure. Traditional “hard” or “grey” engineering solutions are proving both expensive and inflexible in the face of a rapidly changing coastal environment. Hybrid solutions that incorporate natural, nature-based, structural, and non-structural features may better achieve a broad set of goals such as ecological enhancement, long-term adaptation, and social benefits, but broad consideration and uptake of these approaches has been slow. One barrier to the widespread implementation of hybrid solutions is the lack of a relatively quick but holistic evaluation framework that places these broader environmental and societal goals on equal footing with the more traditional goal of exposure reduction. To respond to this need, the Adaptive Gradients Framework was developed and pilot-tested as a qualitative, flexible, and collaborative process guide for organizations to understand, evaluate, and potentially select more diverse kinds of infrastructural responses. These responses would ideally include natural, nature-based, and regulatory/cultural approaches, as well as hybrid designs combining multiple approaches. It enables rapid expert review of project designs based on eight metrics called “gradients”, which include exposure reduction, cost efficiency, institutional capacity, ecological enhancement, adaptation over time, greenhouse gas reduction, participatory process, and social benefits. The framework was conceptualized and developed in three phases: relevant factors and barriers were collected from practitioners and experts by survey; these factors were ranked by importance and used to develop the initial framework; several case studies were iteratively evaluated using this technique; and the framework was finalized for implementation. The article presents the framework and a pilot test of its application, along with resources that would enable wider application of the framework by practitioners and infrastructure; coastal resilience; coastal restoration; social-ecological systems;co-benefits; climate adaptation
Short-Term Control of an Invasive C4 Grass With Late-Summer FireRangeland Ecology & ManagementReemts, Charlotte M.; McCaw, W. Matt; Greene, Thomas A.; Simmons, Mark T.20182018/08/29Yellow bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum [L.] Keng var. songarica [Rupr. ex Fisch & C.A. Mey] Celarier & Harlan) is a non-native, invasive C4 grass common in southern Great Plains rangelands. We measured the effects of a single late-summer (September 2006) fire on yellow bluestem at two sites in central Texas (Fort Hood and Onion Creek). At Fort Hood, relative frequency of yellow bluestem in burned plots decreased from 74 ± 4% (preburn; mean ± standard error) to 9 ± 2% (2007) and remained significantly lower compared with unburned plots through 2009 (burned: 14 ± 2%; unburned: 70 ± 14%). At Onion Creek, yellow bluestem initially decreased from 74 ± 5% (2006) to 32 ± 7% (2007). Yellow bluestem recovered substantially by 2009 (67 ± 10%) but was still significantly lower than in unburned transects (96 ± 1%). Relative frequency of other graminoids increased significantly in burned plots (compared with preburn values) at Fort Hood (preburn: 11 ± 4%; 2009: 29 ± 7%) but not at Onion Creek (preburn: 24 ± 6%; 2009: 22 ± 7%). Frequency of forbs increased dramatically in the first growing season after fire (Fort Hood: 15 ± 2% to 76 ± 3%; Onion Creek: 2 ± 2% to 45 ± 5%), then decreased through the third growing season (Fort Hood: 57 ± 6%; Onion Creek: 11 ± 4%). Key differences between the sites include much higher biomass at Fort Hood than at Onion Creek (8 130 kg ⋅ ha-1 vs. 2 873 kg ⋅ ha-1), more recent grazing at Onion Creek (ending in 2000 vs. before 1996 at Fort Hood), and higher rainfall after the Onion Creek burn (214 mm in 20 days vs. 14 mm). Late-summer fire can temporarily decrease yellow bluestem frequency, but effects vary with site conditions and precipitation. Restoring dominance by native grasses may require additional management.King Ranch bluestem; KR bluestem; Old World bluestem; summer fire
The Second Warning to Humanity – Providing a Context for Wetland Management and PolicyWetlandsFinlayson, C.M.; Davies, Gillian T.; Moomaw, William R.; Chmura, G.L.; Natali, Susan M.; Perry, J.E.; Roulet, N.; Sutton-Grier, Ariana E.20182018/08/29The Second Warning to Humanity provides a clarion call for wetland researchers and practitioners given the loss and degradation of wetlands, the declining availability of fresh water, and the likely consequences of climate change. A coordinated response and approach to policies has the potential to prevent further degradation and support resilient wetlands that can provide a range of ecosystem services, including buffering wetlands from climate impacts, and avoiding major climate amplification from temperature-induced release of additional carbon dioxide and methane while addressing the causes and consequences of global climate change. The Warning to Humanity also provides an opportunity for organisations such as the Society of Wetland Scientists to raise the profile of wetlands and to initiate a discussion on how to respond and change direction from the destructive development trajectory that led to wetland loss and degradation. It also provides a signal for a reappraisal of the effectiveness of the implementation of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands as an international mechanism for ensuring the sustainability of wetlands.climate change; Ramsar convention; wetlands; second warning to humanity
Evidence of a shared value for natureEcological EconomicsWainger, Lisa A.; Helcoski, Ryan; Farge, Kevin W.; Espinola, Brandy A.; Green, Gary T.20182018/08/29Ecosystem service analysis aims to expand the accounting of human values for nature, yet frequently ignores or obfuscates a category of human values with potentially large magnitude, namely nonuse or passive use values. These values represent the satisfaction derived from the protection or restoration of species, habitats and wilderness areas, even if people never use them in any tangible way. The shunting of nonuse values to the background of ecosystem service analysis appears, in part, to be an attempt to avoid the perceived elitism of environmental values. To examine whether such values are the purview of the elite, we explore three types of evidence of who holds nonuse values. We find that when people are asked to 1) commit money via stated preference instruments, 2) respond to tweets, or 3) express opinions via surveys they demonstrate a significant willingness to protect and restore natural resources, regardless of their own use of those resources. Such values are represented in all socio-demographic groups that encompass race, ethnicity, immigration status, income, political affiliation, geographic location, age or gender, although the magnitude can vary among groups. The implications are that omitting nonuse values in ecosystem service analysis will tend to underestimate values, particularly for remote sites with limited use, and fail to represent important tradeoffs.nonuse value; passive use value; ecosystem services; socio-demographic variability; social media
Adapting the bioblitz to meet conservation needsConservation BiologyParker, Sophie S.; Pauly, Gregory B.; Moore, James; Fraga, Naomi S.; Knapp, John J.; Principe, Zachary; Brown, Brian V.; Randall, John M.; Cohen, Brian S.; Wake, Thomas A.20182018/08/23When conservation strategies require new, field‐based information, practitioners must find the best ways to rapidly deliver high‐quality survey data. To address this challenge, several rapid‐assessment approaches have been developed since the early 1990s. These typically involve large areas, take many months to complete, and are not appropriate when conservation‐relevant survey data are urgently needed for a specific locale. In contrast, bioblitzes are designed for quick collection of site‐specific survey data. Although bioblitzes are commonly used to achieve educational or public‐engagement goals, conservation practitioners are increasingly using a modified bioblitz approach to generate conservation‐relevant data while simultaneously enhancing research capacity and building working partnerships focused on conservation concerns. We term these modified events expert bioblitzes. Several expert bioblitzes have taken place on lands of conservation concern in Southern California and have involved collaborative efforts of government agencies, nonprofit organizations, botanic gardens, museums, and universities. The results of expert bioblitzes directly informed on‐the‐ground conservation and decision‐making; increased capacity for rapid deployment of expert bioblitzes in the future; and fostered collaboration and communication among taxonomically and institutionally diverse experts. As research and conservation funding becomes increasingly scarce, expert bioblitzes can play an increasingly important role in biodiversity conservation. archaelogy; botanical garden; bureau of land management; citizen science; museum; rapid assessment; resource management
Ecological spillover dynamics of organisms from urban to natural landscapesJournal of Urban EcologySpear, Jill E.; Grijalva, Erik K.; Michaels, Julia S.; Parker, Sophie S.20182018/08/23Urbanization and anthropogenic development have fundamentally altered ecosystem dynamics on a global scale. Conservation and management of comparatively less modified landscapes adjacent to highly modified landscapes requires careful consideration of interactions between landscape types. Restoration or conservation of habitat within a developed matrix is generally thought to have beneficial effects on landscape-level ecological processes. We propose an ecological spillover framework to critically assess how restoring or conserving species populations within anthropogenically modified landscapes may affect adjacent wildland populations. Within the framework, the spillover process is divided into seven interconnected ‘nodes’, which identify points at which potential cause-effect relationships may exist between urban and wildland populations. The framework is useful for a wide range of project-specific ecological relationships, and can help scientists and managers identify knowledge gaps and weigh risk in conservation decision-making. We queried the conservation literature to identify research focused on the impacts of urban species populations on regional wildland populations. Our search revealed seven ecological processes that have the potential to be affected by urban to wildland spillover and we found relatively few studies that explicitly analyze spillover effects from urban to wildland areas. Organisms living in urban areas within restored or remnant habitats located in an urban matrix, or within the built environment have largely unknown effects on landscape-level ecological processes. We conclude with a discussion on the critical gaps in research linking these habitats to larger landscape-level ecological understanding, and provide recommendations for research priorities that might illuminate this important aspect of 21st century conservation planning.urban; spillover; cities; conservation
Global Demand for Natural Resources Eliminated More Than 100,000 Bornean OrangutansCurrent BiologyVoigt, Maria; Wich, Serge A.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Meijaard, Erik; Abram, Nicola; Banes, Graham L.; Campbell-Smith, Gail; d'Arcy, Laura J.; Delgado, Roberto A.; Erman, Andi; Gaveau, David; Goossens, Benoit; Heinicke, Stefanie; Houghton, Max; Husson, Simon J.; Leiman, Ashley; Llano Sanchez, Karmele; Makinuddin, Niel; Marshall, Andrew J.; Meididit, Ari; Miettinen, Jukka; Mundry, Roger; Musnanda; Nardiyono; Nurcahyo, Anton; Odom, Kisasr; Panda, Adventus; Prasetyo, Didik; Priadjati, Aldrianto; Purnomo; Rafiastanto, Andjar; Russon, Anne E.; Santika, Truly; Sihite, Jamartin; Spehar, Stephanie; Struebig, Matthew; Sulbaran-Romero, Enrique; Tjiu, Albertus; Wells, Jessie; Wilson, Kerrie A.; Kuhl, Hjalmar S.20182018/08/23Unsustainable exploitation of natural resources is increasingly affecting the highly biodiverse tropics [1, 2]. Although rapid developments in remote sensing technology have permitted more precise estimates of land-cover change over large spatial scales [3-5], our knowledge about the effects of these changes on wildlife is much more sparse [6, 7]. Here we use field survey data, predictive density distribution modeling, and remote sensing to investigate the impact of resource use and land-use changes on the density distribution of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Our models indicate that between 1999 and 2015, half of the orangutan population was affected by logging, deforestation, or industrialized plantations. Although land clearance caused the most dramatic rates of decline, it accounted for only a small proportion of the total loss. A much larger number of orangutans were lost in selectively logged and primary forests, where rates of decline were less precipitous, but where far more orangutans are found. This suggests that further drivers, independent of land-use change, contribute to orangutan loss. This finding is consistent with studies reporting hunting as a major cause in orangutan decline [8-10]. Our predictions of orangutan abundance loss across Borneo suggest that the population decreased by more than 100,000 individuals, corroborating recent estimates of decline [11]. Practical solutions to prevent future orangutan decline can only be realized by addressing its complex causes in a holistic manner across political and societal sectors, such as in land-use planning, resource exploitation, infrastructure development, and education, and by increasing long-term sustainability [12].Pongo pygmaeus; conflict killing; decline; density distribution modeling; hunting; industrial agriculture; land-use change; logging; oil palm; resource use;
3D spatial conservation prioritisation: Accounting for depth in marine environmentsMethods in Ecology and EvolutionVenegas-Li, Ruben; Levin, Noam; Possingham, Hugh; Kark, Salit20172018/08/14While marine environments are three‐dimensional (3D) in nature, current approaches and tools for planning and prioritising actions in the ocean are predominantly two dimensional. Here, we develop a novel 3D marine spatial conservation prioritisation approach, which explicitly accounts for the inherent vertical heterogeneity of the ocean. This enables both vertical and horizontal spatial prioritisation to be performed simultaneously. To our knowledge, this is the first endeavour to develop prioritisation of conservation actions in 3D. We applied the 3D spatial conservation prioritisation approach to the Mediterranean Sea as a case study. We first subdivided the Mediterranean Sea into 3D planning units by assigning them a z coordinate (representing depth). We further partitioned these 3D planning units vertically into three depth layers; this allowed us to quantify biodiversity (1,011 species and 19 geomorphic features) and the cost of conservation actions at different depths. We adapted the prioritisation software Marxan to identify 3D networks of sites where biodiversity conservation targets are achieved for the minimum cost. Using the 3D approach presented here, we identified networks of sites where conservation targets for all biodiversity features were achieved. Importantly, these networks included areas of the ocean where only particular depth layers along the water column were identified as priorities for conservation. The 3D approach also proved to be more cost‐efficient than the traditional 2D approach. Spatial priorities within the networks of sites selected were considerably different when comparing the 2D and 3D approaches. Prioritising in 3D allows conservation and marine spatial planners to target specific threats to specific conservation features, at specific depths in the ocean. This provides a platform to further integrate systematic conservation planning into the wider ongoing and future marine spatial planning and ocean zoning processes. 3D planning; biodiversity; marine conservation; Marxan; systematic conservation planning; vertical; zoning
Increased sediment loads cause non-linear decreases in seagrass suitable habitat extentPLOS OneSaunders, Megan Irene; Atkinson, Scott; Klein, Carissa Joy; Weber, Tony; Possingham, Hugh P.20172018/08/10Land-based activities, including deforestation, agriculture, and urbanisation, cause increased erosion, reduced inland and coastal water quality, and subsequent loss or degradation of downstream coastal marine ecosystems. Quantitative approaches to link sediment loads from catchments to metrics of downstream marine ecosystem state are required to calculate the cost effectiveness of taking conservation actions on land to benefits accrued in the ocean. Here we quantify the relationship between sediment loads derived from landscapes to habitat suitability of seagrass meadows in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. We use the following approach: (1) a catchment hydrological model generates sediment loads; (2) a statistical model links sediment loads to water clarity at monthly time-steps; (3) a species distribution model (SDM) factors in water clarity, bathymetry, wave height, and substrate suitability to predict seagrass habitat suitability at monthly time-steps; and (4) a statistical model quantifies the effect of sediment loads on area of seagrass suitable habitat in a given year. The relationship between sediment loads and seagrass suitable habitat is non-linear: large increases in sediment have a disproportionately large negative impact on availability of seagrass suitable habitat. Varying the temporal scale of analysis (monthly vs. yearly), or varying the threshold value used to delineate predicted seagrass presence vs. absence, both affect the magnitude, but not the overall shape, of the relationship between sediment loads and seagrass suitable habitat area. Quantifying the link between sediment produced from catchments and extent of downstream marine ecosystems allows assessment of the relative costs and benefits of taking conservation actions on land or in the ocean, respectively, to marine ecosystems.sediment; surface water; marine ecosystems; oceans; habitats; marine conservation; rivers; land use
A 2018 Horizon Scan of Emerging Issues for Global Conservation and Biological DiversityTrends in Ecology & EvolutionSutherland, William J.; Butchart, Stuart H.M.; Connor, Ben; Culshaw, Caroline; Dicks, Lynn V.; Dinsdale, Jason; Doran, Helen; Entwistle, Abigail C.; Fleishman, Erica; Gibbons, David W.; Jiang, Zhigang; Keim, Brandon; Le Roux, Xavier; Lickorish, Fiona A.; Markillie, Paul; Monk, Kathryn A.; Mortimer, Diana; Pearce-Higgins, James W.; Peck, Lloyd S.; Pretty, Jules; Seymour, Colleen L.; Spalding, Mark D.; Tonneijck, Femke H.; Gleave, Rosalind A.20172018/08/10This is our ninth annual horizon scan to identify emerging issues that we believe could affect global biological diversity, natural capital and ecosystem services, and conservation efforts. Our diverse and international team, with expertise in horizon scanning, science communication, as well as conservation science, practice, and policy, reviewed 117 potential issues. We identified the 15 that may have the greatest positive or negative effects but are not yet well recognised by the global conservation community. Themes among these topics include new mechanisms driving the emergence and geographic expansion of diseases, innovative biotechnologies, reassessments of global change, and the development of strategic infrastructure to facilitate global economic priorities.futures; novel issues; predictions; environment; climate change; emerging disease; biotechnology
Linear infrastructure impacts on landscape hydrologyJournal of Environmental ManagementRaiter, Keren G.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Westcott, Fiona; Hobbs, Richard J.20182018/07/31The extent of roads and other forms of linear infrastructure is burgeoning worldwide, but their impacts are inadequately understood and thus poorly mitigated. Previous studies have identified many potential impacts, including alterations to the hydrological functions and soil processes upon which ecosystems depend. However, these impacts have seldom been quantified at a regional level, particularly in arid and semi-arid systems where the gap in knowledge is the greatest, and impacts potentially the most severe. To explore the effects of extensive track, road, and rail networks on surface hydrology at a regional level we assessed over 1000 km of linear infrastructure, including approx. 300 locations where ephemeral streams crossed linear infrastructure, in the largely intact landscapes of Australia's Great Western Woodlands. We found a high level of association between linear infrastructure and altered surface hydrology, with erosion and pooling 5 and 6 times as likely to occur on-road than off-road on average (1.06 erosional and 0.69 pooling features km−1 on vehicle tracks, compared with 0.22 and 0.12 km−1, off-road, respectively). Erosion severity was greater in the presence of tracks, and 98% of crossings of ephemeral streamlines showed some evidence of impact on water movement (flow impedance (62%); diversion of flows (73%); flow concentration (76%); and/or channel initiation (31%)). Infrastructure type, pastoral land use, culvert presence, soil clay content and erodibility, mean annual rainfall, rainfall erosivity, topography and bare soil cover influenced the frequency and severity of these impacts. We conclude that linear infrastructure frequently affects ephemeral stream flows and intercepts natural overland and near-surface flows, artificially changing site-scale moisture regimes, with some parts of the landscape becoming abnormally wet and other parts becoming water-starved. In addition, linear infrastructure frequently triggers or exacerbates erosion, leading to soil loss and degradation. Where linear infrastructure densities are high, their impacts on ecological processes are likely to be considerable. Linear infrastructure is widespread across much of this relatively intact region, but there remain areas with very low infrastructure densities that need to be protected from further impacts. There is substantial scope for mitigating the impacts of existing and planned infrastructure developments.surface hydrology; road ecology; road impacts; soil erosion; semi-arid; Great Western Woodlands
Lines in the sand: quantifying the cumulative development footprint in the world’s largest remaining temperate woodlandLandscape EcologyRaiter, Keren G.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Hobbs, Richard J.; Possingham, Hugh P.20172018/07/31Context The acceleration of infrastructure development presents many challenges for the mitigation of ecological impacts. The type, extent, and cumulative effects of multiple developments must be quantified to enable mitigation. Objectives We quantified anthropogenic development footprints in a globally significant and relatively intact region. We identified the proportion accounted for by linear infrastructure (e.g. roads) including infrastructure that is currently unmapped; investigated the importance of key landscape drivers; and explored potential ramifications of offsite impacts (edge effects). Methods We quantified direct development footprints of linear and ‘hub’ infrastructure in the Great Western Woodlands (GWW) in south-western Australia, using digitisation and extrapolation from a stratified random sample of aerial imagery. We used spatial datasets and literature resources to identify predictors of development footprint extent and calculate hypothetical ‘edge effect zones’. Results Unmapped linear infrastructure, only detectable through manual digitisation, accounts for the greatest proportion of the direct development footprint. Across the 160,000 km2 GWW, the estimated development footprint is 690 km2, of which 67% consists of linear infrastructure and the remainder is ‘hub’ infrastructure. An estimated 150,000 km of linear infrastructure exists in the study area, equating to an average of ~1 km per km2. Beyond the direct footprint, a further 4000–55,000 km2 (3–35% of the region) lies within edge effect zones. Conclusions This study highlights the pervasiveness of linear infrastructure and hence the importance of managing its cumulative impacts as a key component of landscape conservation. Our methodology can be applied to other relatively intact landscapes worldwide.GIS; road ecology; Great Western Woodlands; linear infrastructure; ecological impact assessment; development footprint; cumulative impacts; offsite impacts; indirect impacts
Trends and values of ‘Land for Wildlife’ programs for private land conservationEcological Management & RestorationPrado, Joshua A.; Puszka, Helena; Forman, Alexander; Cooke, Benjamin; Fitzsimons, James A.20182018/07/30The Land for Wildlife program started in Victoria in 1981 as a voluntary program with the broad aim of supporting landholders in providing habitat for wildlife on their property. The program has since spread across Australia and is implemented in a range of guises, through a variety of governance approaches. This research collected qualitative and quantitative data on Land for Wildlife programs across Australia to conduct the first national review. Data were gathered on changes in program membership to assess different participation trends. In addition, phone interviews with Land for Wildlife coordinators throughout Australia were conducted to explore how the programs are positioned in delivering biodiversity outcomes in a range of different regions. Over 14,000 properties covering 2.3 million ha are currently registered under Land for Wildlife programs. with at least 500,000 ha of habitat managed for conservation. Limited resources present a large challenge faced by a number of programs, with generally low funding and staffing resulting in restricted biodiversity focus and conservation outcomes. We suggest options to enhance the programs and propose future research directions. conservation programs; Land for Wildlife; landholders; private land conservation; stewardship
Biophysical drivers of coral trophic depth zonationMarine BiologyWilliams, Gareth J.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Fox, Michael D.; Grove, Jamison M.; Rogers, Justin S.; Furby, Kathryn A.; Hartmann, Aaron C.; Caldwell, Zachary R.; Price, Nichole N.; Smith, Jennifer E.20182018/07/30Depth is used often as a proxy for gradients in energetic resources on coral reefs and for predicting patterns of community energy use. With increasing depth, loss of light can lead to a reduced reliance on autotrophy and an increased reliance on heterotrophy by mixotrophic corals. However, the generality of such trophic zonation varies across contexts. By combining high-resolution oceanographic measurements with isotopic analyses (δ13C, δ15N) of multiple producer and consumer levels across depths (10–30 m) at a central Pacific oceanic atoll, we show trophic zonation in mixotrophic corals can be both present and absent within the same reef system. Deep-water internal waves that deliver cool particulate-rich waters to shallow reefs occurred across all sites (2.5–5.6 events week−1 at 30 m) but the majority of events remained depth-restricted (4.3–9.7% recorded at 30 m propagated to 10 m). In the absence of other particulate delivery, mixotrophs increased their relative degree of heterotrophy with increasing depth. However, where relatively long-lasting downwelling events (1.4–3.3 times the duration of any other site) occurred simultaneously, mixotrophs displayed elevated and consistent degrees of heterotrophy regardless of depth. Importantly, these long-lasting surface pulses were of a lagoonal origin, an area of rich heterotrophic resource supply. Under such circumstances, we hypothesize heterotrophic resource abundance loses its direct linkage with depth and, with resources readily available at all depths, trophic zonation is no longer present. Our results show that fine-scale intra-island hydrographic regimes and hydrodynamic connectivity between reef habitats contribute to explaining the context specific nature of coral trophic depth zonation in shallow reef ecosystems.
Where the people are: Current trends and future potential targeted investments in urban trees for PM10 and temperature mitigation in 27 U.S. CitiesLandscape and Urban PlanningKroeger, Timm; McDonald, Robert I.; Boucher, Timothy; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Longzhu20182018/07/30Urban trees reduce respirable particulate matter (PM10) concentrations and maximum daytime summer temperatures. While most cities are losing tree cover, some are considering ambitious planting efforts. Maximizing PM10 and heat mitigation for people from such efforts requires cost-effective targeting. We adapt published methods to estimate the impact of a decade (2004–2014) of tree cover change on city-level PM10 and heat mitigation in 27 U.S. cities and present a new methodology for estimating local-level PM10 and heat mitigation by street trees and tree patches. We map potential tree planting sites in the 27 cities and use our local-level PM10 and heat mitigation methods to assess the population-weighted return on investment (ROI) of each site for PM10 and heat abatement for nearby populations. Twenty-three of the 27 cities lost canopy cover during 2004–2014, reducing estimated city-level PM10 removal by 6% (168 tons) and increasing city-level average maximum daily summer temperature by 0.1 °C on average across cities. We find large potential for urban reforestation to increase PM10 and heat abatement. Intra-city variation in planting site ROI – driven primarily by differences in population density around planting sites – exceeds four orders of magnitude, indicating large scope for targeting to increase PM10 and heat abatement from reforestation. Reforesting each city’s top 20% ROI sites could lower average annual PM10 concentrations by >2 μg/m3 for 3.4–11.4 million people and average maximum daily summer temperatures by >2 °C for 1.7–12.7 million – effects large enough to provide meaningful health benefits – at a combined annual cost of $102 million.urban forest; particulate matter; urban heat; return on investment; targeting; ecosytem services
The global flood protection savings provided by coral reefsNature CommunicationsBeck, Michael W.; Iñigo, J. Losada; Menéndez, Pelayo; Reguero, Borja G.; Díaz-Simal, Pedro; Fernández, Felipe20182018/07/30Coral reefs can provide significant coastal protection benefits to people and property. Here we show that the annual expected damages from flooding would double, and costs from frequent storms would triple without reefs. For 100-year storm events, flood damages would increase by 91% to $US 272 billion without reefs. The countries with the most to gain from reef management are Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Mexico, and Cuba; annual expected flood savings exceed $400 M for each of these nations. Sea-level rise will increase flood risk, but substantial impacts could happen from reef loss alone without better near-term management. We provide a global, process-based valuation of an ecosystem service across an entire marine biome at (sub)national levels. These spatially explicit benefits inform critical risk and environmental management decisions, and the expected benefits can be directly considered by governments (e.g., national accounts, recovery plans) and businesses (e.g., insurance).engineering; natural hazards; ocean sciences
Contribution of individual rivers to Great Barrier Reef nitrogen exposure with implications for management prioritizationMarine Pollution BulletinWolff, Nicholas H.; da Silva, Eduardo Teixeira; Devlin, Michelle; Anthony, Kenneth R.N.; Lewis, Stephen; Tonin, Hemmerson; Brinkman, Richard; Mumby, Peter J.20182018/07/30Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) runoff from Great Barrier Reef (GBR) catchments is a threat to coral reef health. Several initiatives address this threat, including the Australian Government's Reef 2050 Plan. However, environmental decision makers face an unsolved prioritization challenge: determining the exposure of reefs to DIN from individual rivers. Here, we use virtual river tracers embedded within a GBR-wide hydrodynamic model to resolve the spatial and temporal dynamics of 16 individual river plumes during three wet seasons (2011−2013). We then used in-situ DIN observations to calibrate tracer values, allowing us to estimate the contribution of each river to reef-scale DIN exposure during each season. Results indicate that the Burdekin, Fitzroy, Tully and Daintree rivers pose the greatest DIN exposure risk to coral reefs during the three seasons examined. Results were used to demonstrate a decision support framework that combines reef exposure risk with river dominance (threat diversity).water quality; river pollution; nutrients; coral health; decision support; prioritization
Integrated Measures of Indigenous Land and Sea Management Effectiveness: Challenges and Opportunities for Improved Conservation Partnerships in AustraliaConservation & SocietyAustin, Beau J.; Robinson, Catherine J.; Fitzsimons, James A.; Sandford, Marcus; Ens, Emilie J.; Macdonald, Jennifer M.; Hockings, Marc; Hinchley, David G.; McDonald, Fergus B.; Corrigan, Colleen; Kennett, Rod; Hunter-Xenie, Hmalan; Garnett, Stephen T.20182018/07/30As partnerships between Indigenous peoples and conservation practitioners mature, new methods are being sought to assess their effectiveness. The increasing diversity of income sources mobilised by Indigenous land and sea managers in Australia is intensifying the pressures on them to demonstrate their 'effectiveness' through a range of frameworks, tools and criteria. In this review, we use Indigenous land and sea management in Australia as a lens to explore the politics and practicalities of measuring the effectiveness of Indigenous conservation partnerships. We first outline current approaches to measuring effectiveness, followed by an explanation of some of the challenges. Available literature is then supplemented with the collective knowledge and experience of the authors to identify practical and achievable ways forward. We suggest four ways by which Indigenous groups and institutional investors can work together to establish meaningful criteria for ensuring effective conservation outcomes: i) develop new mutually-agreed definitions; ii) embrace the complexity of Indigenous-conservation alliances, iii) reflect regularly and collaboratively, and iv) negotiate which indicators of effectiveness can be aggregated across large scales. Well-executed evaluations of effectiveness can be powerful tools for enhancing conservation that conforms to local Indigenous values, facilitates adaptive management, and strengthens relationships between investors and Indigenous groups. By focusing on principles, process, flexibility and trust, generative 'good faith' approaches have the potential to support win-win outcomes for people and the environment and contribute significantly to global conservation and sustainability targets. indigenous peoples; conservation; impact investing; monitoring; evaluation
A multiscale natural community and species-level vulnerability assessment of the Gulf Coast, USAPLOS OneReece, Joshua Steven; Watson, Amanda; Dalyander, Patricia Soupy; Edwards, Cynthia Kallio; Gesselbracht, Laura; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Tirpak, Blair E.; Tirpak, John M.; Woodrey, Mark20182018/07/27Vulnerability assessments combine quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species or natural communities to current and future threats. When combined with the economic, ecological or evolutionary value of the species, vulnerability assessments quantify the relative risk to regional species and natural communities and can enable informed prioritization of conservation efforts. Vulnerability assessments are common practice in conservation biology, including the potential impacts of future climate scenarios. However, geographic variation in scenarios and vulnerabilities is rarely quantified. This gap is particularly limiting for informing ecosystem management given that conservation practices typically vary by sociopolitical boundaries rather than by ecological boundaries. To support prioritization of conservation actions across a range of spatial scales, we conducted the Gulf Coast Vulnerability Assessment (GCVA) for four natural communities and eleven focal species around the Gulf of Mexico based on current and future threats from climate change and land-use practices out to 2060. We used the Standardized Index of Vulnerability and Value (SIVVA) tool to assess both natural community and species vulnerabilities. We observed greater variation across ecologically delineated subregions within the Gulf Coast of the U.S. than across climate scenarios. This novel finding suggests that future vulnerability assessments incorporate regional variation and that conservation prioritization may vary across ecological subregions. Across subregions and climate scenarios the most prominent threats were legacy effects, primarily from habitat loss and degradation, that compromised the adaptive capacity of species and natural communities. The second most important threats were future threats from sea-level rise. Our results suggest that the substantial threats species and natural communities face from climate change and sea-level rise would be within their adaptive capacity were it not for historic habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation.conservation science; ecosystems; climate change; community ecology; Florida; conservation biology; oysters; marshes
Climate research priorities for policy-makers, practitioners, and scientists in Georgia, USAEnvironmental ManagementRudd, Murray A.; Moore, Althea F.P.; Rochberg, Daniel; Bianchi-Fossati, Lisa; Brown, Marilyn A.; D'Onofrio, David; Furman, Carrie A.; Garcia, Jairo; Jordan, Ben; Kline, Jennifer; Risse, L.Mark; Yager, Patricia L.; Abbinett, Jessica; Alber, Merryl; Bell, Jesse E.; Bhedwar, Cyrus; Cobb, Kim M.; Cohen, Juliet; Cox, Matt; Dormer, Myriam; Dunkley, Nyasha; Farley, Heather; Gambill, Jill; Goldstein, Mindy; Harris, Garry; Hopkinson, Melissa; James, Jean-Ann; Kidd, Susan; Knox, Pam; Liu, Yang; Matisoff, Daniel C.; Meyer, Michael D.; Mitchem, Jamie D.; Moore, Katherine; Ono, Aspen J.; Philipsborn, Jon; Sendall, Kerrie M.; Shafiei, Fatemeh; Shepherd, Marshall; Teebken, Julia; Worley, Ashby N.20182018/06/13Climate change has far-reaching effects on human and ecological systems, requiring collaboration across sectors and disciplines to determine effective responses. To inform regional responses to climate change, decision-makers need credible and relevant information representing a wide swath of knowledge and perspectives. The southeastern U. S. State of Georgia is a valuable focal area for study because it contains multiple ecological zones that vary greatly in land use and economic activities, and it is vulnerable to diverse climate change impacts. We identi fi ed 40 important research questions that, if answered, could lay the groundwork for effective, science-based climate action in Georgia. Top research priorities were identi fi ed through a broad solicitation of candidate research questions (180 were received). A group of experts across sectors and disciplines gathered for a workshop to categorize, prioritize, and fi lter the candidate questions, identify missing topics, and rewrite questions. Participants then collectively chose the 40 most important questions. This cross-sectoral effort ensured the inclusion of a diversity of topics and questions (e.g., coastal hazards, agricultural production, ecosystem functioning, urban infrastructure, and human health) likely to be important to Georgia policy-makers, practitioners, and scientists. Several cross-cutting themes emerged, including the need for long-term data collection and consideration of at-risk Georgia citizens and communities. Workshop participants de fi ned effective responses as those that take economic cost, environmental impacts, and social justice into consideration. Our research highlights the importance of collaborators across disciplines and sectors, and discussing challenges and opportunities that will require transdisciplinary solutions.adaptation; climate change; horizon scanning; mitigation; research priorities
Ecology: The effect of conservation spendingNaturePossingham, Hugh P.; Gerber, Leah R.20172018/06/01
Ocean zoning within a sparing versus sharing frameworkTheoretical EcologyMcGowan, Jennifer; Bode, Michael; Holden, Matthew H.; Davis, Katrina; Krueck, Nils C.; Beger, Maria; Yates, Katherine L.; Possingham, Hugh P.20182018/06/01The land-sparing versus land-sharing debate centers around how different intensities of habitat use can be coordinated to satisfy competing demands for biodiversity persistence and food production in agricultural landscapes. We apply the broad concepts from this debate to the sea and propose it as a framework to inform marine zoning based on three possible management strategies, establishing: no-take marine reserves, regulated fishing zones, and unregulated open-access areas. We develop a general model that maximizes standing fish biomass, given a fixed management budget while maintaining a minimum harvest level. We find that when management budgets are small, sea-sparing is the optimal management strategy because for all parameters tested, reserves are more cost-effective at increasing standing biomass than traditional fisheries management. For larger budgets, the optimal strategy switches to sea-sharing because, at a certain point, further investing to grow the no-take marine reserves reduces catch below the minimum harvest constraint. Our intention is to illustrate how general rules of thumb derived from plausible, single-purpose models can help guide marine protected area policy under our novel sparing and sharing framework. This work is the beginning of a basic theory for optimal zoning allocations and should be considered complementary to the more specific spatial planning literature for marine reserve as nations expand their marine protected area estates.sparing vs sharing; marine protected areas; fisheries management; marine zoning; open-access fisheries; marine policy
Cartographie de la végétation du bas Ogooué (Chapter 6)Viennois, G.; Stevart, T.; Vande weghe, J.P.; Saatchi, S.; Schill, S.; Aldous, A.; Paiz, M.C.; Boupoya, A.; Barbier, N.20172019/05/09
Direct and indirect drivers of change in biodiversity and nature’s contributions to people (Chapter 4)Bustamante, M.; Helmer, E.H.; Schill, S.; Belnap, J.; Brown, L.K.; Brugnoli, E.; Compton, J.E.; Coupe, R.H.; Hernandez-Blanco, M.; Isbell, F.; Lockwood, J.; Lozoya Ascarate, J.P.; McGuire, R.; Rodrigues, R.R.;Sanchez-Azofeifa, G.A.; Soutullo, A.; Suarez, A.; Troutt, E.; Thompson, L.20182019/05/07
Reef Rover: A Low-Cost Small Autonomous Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) for Mapping and Monitoring Coral Reefs dronesRaber, George T.; Schill, Steven R.20192019/05/07In the effort to design a more repeatable and consistent platform to collect data for Structure from Motion (SfM) monitoring of coral reefs and other benthic habitats, we explore the use of recent advances in open source Global Positioning System (GPS)-guided drone technology to design and test a low-cost and transportable small unmanned surface vehicle (sUSV). The vehicle operates using Ardupilot open source software and can be used by local scientists and marine managers to map and monitor marine environments in shallow areas (coral reef; small unmanned surface vehicle (sUSV); Rover; underwater; SfM; monitoring
The extent and predictability of the biodiversity–carbon correlationEcology LettersDi Marco, Moreno; Watson, James E.M.; Currie, David J.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Venter, Oscar20182018/05/31Protecting biomass carbon stocks to mitigate climate change has direct implications for biodiversity conservation. Yet, evidence that a positive association exists between carbon density and species richness is contrasting. Here, we test how this association varies (1) across spatial extents and (2) as a function of how strongly carbon and species richness depend on environmental variables. We found the correlation weakens when moving from larger extents, e.g. realms, to narrower extents, e.g. ecoregions. For ecoregions, a positive correlation emerges when both species richness and carbon density vary as functions of the same environmental variables (climate, soil, elevation). In 20% of tropical ecoregions, there are opportunities to pursue carbon conservation with direct biodiversity co‐benefits, while other ecoregions require careful planning for both species and carbon to avoid potentially perverse outcomes. The broad assumption of a linear relationship between carbon and biodiversity can lead to undesired outcomes.
Trade‐offs in triple‐bottom‐line outcomes when recovering fisheriesFish and FisheriesBrown, Christopher J.; Althor, Glenn; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Iftekhar, Md Sayed; Klein, Cariss J.; Linke, Simon; Pryde, Elizabeth C.; Schilizzi, Steven; Watson, James E.M.; Twohey, Becky; Possingham, Hugh P.20182018/05/31Almost all environmental management comes at an economic cost that may not be borne equitably by all stakeholders. Here, we investigate how heterogeneity in catch and profits among fishers influences the trade‐off among the triple‐bottom‐line objectives of recovering a fish population, maximizing its economic value and distributing restrictions equitably across fishers. As a case‐study, we examine management reform of an ecologically and economically important coral reef fishery operating within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Using a simulation model, we find that total profitability of the fishing industry is 40% lower if recovery plans are equitable when compared to the most economically efficient plan. However, efficient recovery plans were typically highly inequitable because they required some fishers to cease fishing. Equity was defined according to different norms, and the efficiency loss was greatest when catch losses were shared equally across fishers rather than in proportion to their historical catch. We then varied key social, economic and biological parameters to identify cases when equity and efficient recovery would trade‐off most strongly. Recovery plans could be both efficient and equitable when heterogeneity in fisher's catches and individual catch efficiencies was lower. If fishers were homogenous then equitable plans could have maximal economic efficiency. These results emphasize the importance of considering heterogeneity in individual fishers when designing recovery plans. Recovery plans that are inequitable may often fail to gain stakeholder support, so in fisheries with high heterogeneity we should temper our expectations for marked increases in profits. economic efficiency; Plectropomus; recovery planning; triple-bottom-line
Breaking the deadlock on ivoryScienceBiggs, Duan; Holden, Matthew H.; Braczkowski, Alex; Cook, Carly N.; Milner-Gulland, E.J.; Phelps, Jacob; Scholes, Robert J.; Smith, Robert J.; Underwood, Fiona M.; Adams, Vanessa M.; Allan, James; Brink, Henry; Cooney, Rosie; Gao, Yufang; Hutton, Jon; Macdonald-Madden, Eve; Maron, Martine; Redford, Kent H.; Sutherland, William J.; Possingham, Hugh P.20172018/05/31Poaching for ivory has caused a steep decline in African elephant (Loxodonta africana, see the photo) populations over the past decade (1). This crisis has fueled a contentious global debate over which ivory policy would best protect elephants: banning all ivory trade or enabling regulated trade to incentivize and fund elephant conservation (2). The deep-seated deadlock on ivory policy consumes valuable resources and creates an antagonistic environment among elephant conservationists. Successful solutions must begin by recognizing the different values that influence stakeholder cognitive frameworks of how actions lead to outcomes (“mental models”) (3), and therefore their diverging positions on ivory trade (4). Based on successful conflict resolution in other areas, we propose an iterative process through which countries with wild elephant populations may be able to understand their differences and develop workable solutions in a less confrontational manner.
Plastic waste associated with disease on coral reefsScienceLamb, Joleah B.; Willis, Bette L.; Fiorenza, Evan A.; Couch, Courtney S.; Howard, Robert; Rader, Douglas N.; True, James D.; Kelly, Lisa A.; Ahmad, Awaludinnoer; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Harvell, C. Drew20182018/05/30Plastic waste can promote microbial colonization by pathogens implicated in outbreaks of disease in the ocean. We assessed the influence of plastic waste on disease risk in 124,000 reef-building corals from 159 reefs in the Asia-Pacific region. The likelihood of disease increases from 4% to 89% when corals are in contact with plastic. Structurally complex corals are eight times more likely to be affected by plastic, suggesting that microhabitats for reef-associated organisms and valuable fisheries will be disproportionately affected. Plastic levels on coral reefs correspond to estimates of terrestrial mismanaged plastic waste entering the ocean. We estimate that 11.1 billion plastic items are entangled on coral reefs across the Asia-Pacific and project this number to increase 40% by 2025. Plastic waste management is critical for reducing diseases that threaten ecosystem health and human livelihoods.
The Future of Landscape ConservationBioScienceBaldwin, Robert F.; Trombulak, Stephen C.; Leonard, Paul B.; Noss, Reed F.; Hilty, Jodi A.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Scarlett, Lynn; Anderson, Mark G.20182018/05/30
Incorporating Land Tenure Security into ConservationConservation LettersRobinson, Brian E.; Masuda, Yuta J.; Kelly, Allison; Holland, Margaret B.; Bedford, Charles; Childress, Malcolm; Fletschner, Diana; Game, Edward T.; Ginsburg, Chloe; Hilhorst, Thea; Lawry, Steven; Miteva, Daniela A.; Musengezi, Jessica; Naughton-Treves, Lisa; Nolte, Christoph; Sunderlin, William D.; Veit, Peter20172018/05/30Insecure land tenure plagues many developing and tropical regions, often where conservation concerns are highest. Conservation organizations have long focused on protected areas as tenure interventions, but are now thinking more comprehensively about whether and how to incorporate other land tenure strategies into their work, and how to more soundly ground such interventions on evidence of both conservation and human benefits. Through a review of the literature on land tenure security as it relates to conservation practice, predominantly in the tropics, we aim to help conservation practitioners consider and incorporate more appropriate land tenure security interventions into conservation strategies. We present a framework that identifies three common ways in which land tenure security can impact human and conservation outcomes, and suggest practical ways to distill tenure and tenure security issues for a given location. We conclude with steps for considering tenure security issues in the context of conservation projects and identify areas for future research. conservation and development; conservation projects; international organizations; land tenure security; property rights
Using machine learning to advance synthesis and use of conservation and environmental evidenceConservation BiologyCheng, S.H.; Augustin, C.; Bethel, A.; Gill, D.; Anzaroot, S.; Brun, J.; DeWilde, B.; Minnich, R.C.; Garside, R.; Masuda, Y.J.; Miller, D.C.; Wilkie, D.; Wongbusarakum, S.; McKinnon, M.C.20182018/05/30Rapid growth in environmental research (Li & Zhao 2015) presents a potential wealth of information for conservation decision‐making. Evidence synthesis methods (e.g. systematic maps, reviews, meta‐analyses) (Pullin & Knight 2009) are critical for garnering actionable insight from published research, yet come with high resource demands (time and funding) that are prohibitive for meeting short policy windows (Elliott et al. 2014) and balancing trade‐offs between conservation planning and implementation.
Factoring economic costs into conservation planning may not improve agreement over priorities for protectionNature CommunicationsArmsworth, Paul R.; Jackson, Heather B.; Cho, Seong-Hoon; Clark, Melissa; Farigone, Joseph E.; Iacona, Gwenllian D.; Kim, Taeyoung; Larson, Eric R.; Minney, Thomas; Sutton, Nathan A.20172018/05/30Conservation organizations must redouble efforts to protect habitat given continuing biodiversity declines. Prioritization of future areas for protection is hampered by disagreements over what the ecological targets of conservation should be. Here we test the claim that such disagreements will become less important as conservation moves away from prioritizing areas for protection based only on ecological considerations and accounts for varying costs of protection using return-on-investment (ROI) methods. We combine a simulation approach with a case study of forests in the eastern United States, paying particular attention to how covariation between ecological benefits and economic costs influences agreement levels. For many conservation goals, agreement over spatial priorities improves with ROI methods. However, we also show that a reliance on ROI-based prioritization can sometimes exacerbate disagreements over priorities. As such, accounting for costs in conservation planning does not enable society to sidestep careful consideration of the ecological goals of conservation.biodiversity; conservation biology; environmental economics; forestry; sustainability
Innovation diffusion within large environmental NGOs through informal network agentsNature SustainabilityMasuda, Yuta J.; Liu, Yuqing; Reddy, Sheila M.W.; Frank, Kenneth A.; Burford, Kyle; Fisher, Jonathan R.B.; Montambault, Jensen20182018/05/30The Sustainable Development Goals present opportunities for environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) to address new challenges. Such innovation requires dynamism and adaptability that large ENGOs may lack, and flatter organizational structures common to large ENGOs may limit the efficacy of top-down diffusion of innovative ideas or approaches. Instead, diffusion may occur through informal networks. We conducted a network experiment to estimate the role of informal boundary spanners—individuals who cross internal organizational boundaries (for example, departmental or geographic) via their informal social networks—for diffusing innovations in a large ENGO. We find they are four times more likely to diffuse innovations than non-boundary spanners, although organizational positions (for example, formal organizational hierarchy) can moderate this behaviour. We also find evidence they play a role in changing attitudes in favour of the innovation. These findings highlight how informal boundary spanners can drive organization-wide diffusion of innovations in ENGOs to strengthen capacity to address pressing sustainability challenges.interdisciplinary studies; psychology and behaviour; sustainability
Raising the voices of Pacific Island women to inform climate adaptation policiesMarine PolicyMcleod, Elizabeth; Arora-Jonsson, Seema; Masuda, Yuta J.; Bruton-Adams, Mae; Emaurois, Carol O.; Gorong, Berna; Hudlow, C.J.; James, Robyn; Kuhlken, Heather; Masike-Liri, Barbara; Musrasrik-Carl, Emeliana; Otzelberger, Agnes; Relang, Kathryn; Reyuw, Bertha M.; Sigrah, Betty; Stinnett, Christina; Tellei, Julita; Whitford, Laura20182018/05/30Policymakers and natural resource managers are increasingly recognizing the importance of broader geographic and gender participation in assessing climate vulnerability and developing effective adaptation policies. When such participation is limited, climate mitigation and adaptation polices may miss key opportunities to support vulnerable communities, and thus inadvertently reinforce the vulnerability of marginalized groups. This paper reports rich qualitative data from women leaders in conservation, development and climate adaptation projects to support local communities across seven Pacific Island nations. The results indicate the following priorities to support climate adaptation policies in the Pacific: (1) increased recognition for the importance of traditional knowledge; (2) greater support for local women's groups, including strategic planning and training to access climate finance mechanisms; and (3) climate policies that consider alternative metrics for women's empowerment and inclusion, formalize women's land rights, and provide land for climate refugees. Existing evidence is discussed which supports the importance of these priorities in the Pacific. Their input identifies research gaps in climate adaptation and provides important guidance for governments, non-governmental organizations, and development agencies leading climate adaptation efforts.climate adaptation; gender; indigenous; traditional knowledge; Pacific Islands
The cost of enforcing marine protected areas to achieve ecological targets(preprint)Brown, Christopher; Parker, Brett; Ahmadia, Gabby N.; Ardiwijaya, Rizya; Purwanto, P.; Game, Edward, T.20172018/05/29Protected areas are the primary management tool for conserving ecosystems, yet their intended outcomes may often be compromised by poaching. Poaching can be prevented through educating community members so they support protected areas and enforcement, but both activities can be costly. Consequently, many protected areas are ineffective 'paper parks' that contribute little towards conserving ecosystems. We develop a model of enforcement in a marine protected area and ask how much does it cost to enforce a marine protected area so that it has greater biomass of fished species than a 'paper park' or has fish biomasses that meet ecological targets. Using a case-study from one of the most biodiverse reef systems globally, Raja Ampat in Indonesia, we find that slight improvements in the biomass of fished species beyond 'paper park' status are relatively cheap, but achieving pristine fish biomass is far beyond the budget of most conservation agencies. We find that community engagement activities that reduce poaching rates can greatly reduce the cost of enforcement. Thus we provide dollar values that can be used to compare the value of community engagement with the cost enforcement. We conclude that the current policy of protected area enforcement is an ineffective way to manage protected areas. Budgets for park management should be optimised across spending on enforcement and alternative activities, like education to build community support. Optimized budgets will be much more likely to achieve ecological targets for recovering fish biomasses.marine reserve; fisheries; poaching; conservation planning; coral reef
Contrasting fish assemblages in free-flowing and impounded tributaries to the Upper Delaware River: Implications for conserving biodiversityAdvances in Environmental Research, Volume 45 (book chapter)Baldigo, Barry P.; Delucia, Mari-Beth; Keller, Walter D.; Schuler, George E.; Apse, Colin D.; Moberg, Tara20152018/05/29The Neversink River and the Beaver Kill in southeastern New York are major tributaries to the Delaware River, the longest undammed river east of the Mississippi. While the Beaver Kill is free flowing for its entire length, the Neversink River is subdivided by the Neversink Reservoir, which likely affects the diversity of local fish assemblages and health of aquatic ecosystems. The reservoir is an important part of the New York City waster-supply system that provides drinking water to more than 9 million people. Fish population and community data from recent quantitative surveys at comparable sites in both basins were assessed to characterize the differences between free-flowing and impounded rivers and the extent of reservoir effects to improve our capacity to define ecosystems responses that two modified flow-release programs (implemented in 2007 and 2011) should produce in the Neversink River. In general, the continuum of changes in fish assemblages which normally occur between headwaters and mouth was relatively uninterrupted in the Beaver Kill, but disrupted by the mid-basin impoundment in the Neversink River. Fish assemblages were also adversely affected at several acidified sites in the upper Neversink River, but not at most sites assessed herein. The reservoir clearly excluded diadromous species from the upper sub-basin, but it also substantially reduced community richness, diversity, and biomass at several mid-basin sites immediately downstream from the impoundment. There results will aid future attempts to determine if fish assemblages respond to more natural, yet highly regulated, flow regimes in the Neversink River. More important, knowledge gained from this study can help optimize use of valuable water resources while promoting species of special concern, such as American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and conserving biodiversity in Catskill Mountain streams.impoundment; Americal eel; Delaware; biodiversity; fish assemblages; flow regime
Passive Restoration of Forest Structure and Composition in Bottomland Hardwood Forests in TexasNatural Areas JournalFarge, Kevin W.20182018/05/29Located southwest of Houston, Texas, the Columbia Bottomlands comprise a significant complex of the bottomland hardwood forest ecosystem. As the largest expanse of forest adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico in Texas, the Columbia Bottomlands are critical stopover and staging habitat for Nearctic—Neotropical migratory landbirds. They have been cleared to less than one-quarter of their historical extent of 283,000 ha. Restoration of bottomland forests has predominantly focused on planting just a few heavy-seeded, mast-producing species, such as oaks (Quercus spp.) and hickories (Carya spp.), but such active restorations often fail to meet management objectives of vertical structural complexity, unevenly aged trees, standing dead snags, and coarse woody debris, and do not adequately develop into quality habitat for birds and other wildlife. This study investigates the potential for passive restoration—colonization via natural dispersal—to restore previously cleared areas of bottomland floodplains. Vegetation surveys were conducted in passively restored second-growth forest of varying ages within the Columbia Bottomlands to quantify the structure and composition of vegetation regrowth, and compared to a nearby old-growth stand. At 18–20 y old, the Dance Bayou Site resembled a young forest with open areas of dense vines. At approximately 50–72 y old, the Sweeny Site had characteristics of a mature forest, with vertical structural complexity, unevenly aged trees, standing snags, coarse woody debris, and a greater richness of woody plant species than a nearby old-growth stand. The passively restored sites adequately recruited heavy-seeded species. Passive reforestation has great potential in the Columbia Bottomlands.bottomland forest; heavy-seeded; passive restoration; reforestation; second-growth
Sea Level Rise Impacts to Coastal Marshes may be Ameliorated by Natural Sedimentation EventsWetlandsBaustian, Joseph J.; Mendelssohn, Irving A.20182018/05/29Coastal wetland sustainability in the future will likely depend on the extent to which increases in sea level drive flooding duration, plant submergence, and higher salinities, and how wetlands respond to these changes. Coastal wetlands will need to grow vertically to cope with rising seas, and sedimentation, often observed following hurricane passage, could play a role. A greenhouse mesocosm experiment was conducted to investigate if the impacts of sea level rise (SLR) and elevated salinity on the productivity and resilience of Spartina alterniflora marshes could be mediated by simulated hurricane sedimentation. Overall, sedimentation ameliorated the negative impacts of moderate SLR on plant productivity and resilience. Sedimentation improved growth conditions at current and moderate increases in sea level by reducing flooding duration, which in-turn, increased soil Eh, and lowered porewater sulfide. This led to greater productivity of vegetation above- and belowground and improved plant resilience. However, at the highest sea levels, inundation stress was too great for the benefits of added sediment to be realized. Thus, it is likely that the sustainability of coastal marshes will be improved by hurricane-generated sedimentation under moderate SLR scenarios, but will see no improvement with more extreme SLR.sea level rise; marsh resilience; sedimentation; hurricanes; coastal marsh; Spartina alterniflora
Testing a two-scale focused conservation strategy for reducing phosphorus and sediment loads from agricultural watershedsJournal of Soil and Water ConservationCarvin, R; Good, L.W.; Fitzpatrick, F.; Diehl, C.; Songer, K.; Meyer, K.J.; Panuska, J.C.; Richter, S.; Whalley, K.20182018/05/29This study tested a focused strategy for reducing phosphorus (P) and sediment loads in agricultural streams. The strategy involved selecting small watersheds identified as likely to respond relatively quickly, and then focusing conservation practices on high-contributing fields within those watersheds. Two 5,000 ha (12,360 ac) watersheds in the Driftless Area of south central Wisconsin, previously ranked in the top 6% of similarly sized Wisconsin watersheds for expected responsiveness to conservation efforts to reduce high P and sediment loads, were chosen for the study. The stream outlets from both watersheds were monitored from October of 2006 through September of 2016 for streamflow and concentrations of sediment, total P, and, beginning in October of 2009, total dissolved P. Fields and pastures having the highest potential P delivery to the streams in each watershed were identified using the Wisconsin P Index (Good et al. 2012). After three years of baseline monitoring (2006 to 2009), farmers implemented both field- and farm-based conservation practices in one watershed (treatment) as a means to reduce sediment and P inputs to the stream from the highest contributing areas, whereas there were no out-of-the-ordinary conservation efforts in the second watershed (control). Implementation occurred primarily in 2011 and 2012. In the four years following implementation of conservation practices (2013 through 2016), there was a statistically significant reduction in storm-event suspended sediment loads in the treatment watershed compared to the control watershed when the ground was not frozen (p = 0.047). While there was an apparent reduction in year-round suspended sediment event loads, it was not statistically significant at the 95% confidence level (p = 0.15). Total P loads were significantly reduced for runoff events (p < 0.01) with a median reduction of 50%. Total P and total dissolved P concentrations for low-flow conditions were also significantly reduced (p < 0.01) compared to the control watershed. This study demonstrated that a strategy that first identifies watersheds likely to respond to conservation efforts and then focuses implementation on relatively high-contributing fields within those watersheds can be successful in reducing stream P concentrations and loads.agricultural runoff phosphorus; agricultural watersheds; conservation practices; field-scale phosphorus loss assessment; phosphorus concentration and loads; suspended sediment loads
Knowledge diffusion within a large conservation organization and beyondPLOS OneFisher, Jonathan R.B.; Montambault, Jensen; Burford, Kyle P.; Gopalakrishna, Trisha; Masuda, Yuta J.; Reddy, Sheila M.W.; Torphy, Kaitlin; Salcedo, Andrea I.20182018/05/24The spread and uptake of new ideas (diffusion of innovations) is critical for organizations to adapt over time, but there is little evidence of how this happens within organizations and to their broader community. To address this, we analyzed how individuals accessed information about a recent science innovation at a large, international, biodiversity conservation non-profit–The Nature Conservancy–and then traced the flow of how this information was shared within the organization and externally, drawing on an exceptionally data-rich environment. We used surveys and tracking of individual internet activity to understand mechanisms for early-stage diffusion (knowledge seeking and sharing) following the integration of social science and evidence principles into the institutional planning framework: Conservation by Design (CbD 2.0). Communications sent to all employees effectively catalyzed 56.4% to exhibit knowledge seeking behavior, measured by individual downloads from and visits to a restricted-access site. Individuals who self-reported through a survey that they shared information about CbD 2.0 internally were more likely to have both received and sought out information about the framework. Such individuals tended to hold positions within a higher job grade, were more likely to train others on CbD as part of their job, and to enroll in other online professional development offerings. Communication strategies targeting external audiences did not appear to influence information seeking behavior. Staff who engaged in internal knowledge sharing and adopting “evidence” practices from CbD 2.0 were more likely to have shared the document externally. We found a negative correlation with external sharing behavior and in-person trainings. Our findings suggest repeated, direct email communications aimed at wide audiences can effectively promote diffusion of new ideas. We also found a wide range of employee characteristics and circumstances to be associated with knowledge diffusion behavior (at both an organizational and individual level).conservation science; internet; surveys; human learning; jobs; social networks; conservation biology; employment
Ecological Drought: Accounting for the Non-Human Impacts of Water Shortage in the Upper Missouri Headwaters Basin, Montana, USAResourcesMcEvoy, Jamie; Bathke, Deborah J.; Burkardt, Nina; Cravens, Amanda E.; Haigh, Tonya; Hall, Kimberly R.; Hayes, Michael J.; Jedd, Theresa; Poděbradská, Markéta; Wickham, Elliot20182018/05/22Water laws and drought plans are used to prioritize and allocate scarce water resources. Both have historically been human-centric, failing to account for non-human water needs. In this paper, we examine the development of instream flow legislation and the evolution of drought planning to highlight the growing concern for the non-human impacts of water scarcity. Utilizing a new framework for ecological drought, we analyzed five watershed-scale drought plans in southwestern Montana, USA to understand if, and how, the ecological impacts of drought are currently being assessed. We found that while these plans do account for some ecological impacts, it is primarily through the narrow lens of impacts to fish as measured by water temperature and streamflow. The latter is typically based on the same ecological principles used to determine instream flow requirements. We also found that other resource plans in the same watersheds (e.g., Watershed Restoration Plans, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Watershed Assessments or United States Forest Service (USFS) Forest Plans) identify a broader range of ecological drought risks. Given limited resources and the potential for mutual benefits and synergies, we suggest greater integration between various planning processes could result in a more holistic consideration of water needs and uses across the landscape.ecological drought; drought planning; prior appropriation; instream flows; Upper Missouri Headwaters Basin; Montana; agriculture
Building translational ecology communities
of practice: insights from the field
Frontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentLawson, Dawn M.; Hall, Kimberly R.; Yung, Laurie; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.20172018/05/22Translational ecology (TE) prioritizes the understanding of social systems and decision contexts in order to address complex natural resource management issues. Although many practitioners in applied fields employ translational tactics, the body of literature addressing such approaches is limited. We present several case studies illustrating the principles of TE and the diversity of its applications. We anticipate that these examples will help others develop scientific products that decision makers can use “off the shelf” when solving critical ecological and social challenges. Our collective experience suggests that research of such immediate utility is rare. Long-term commitment to working directly with partners to develop and reach shared goals is central to successful translation. The examples discussed here highlight the benefits of translational processes, including actionable scientific results, more informed policy making, increased investment in science- driven solutions, and inspiration for partnerships. We aim to facilitate future TE- based projects and build momentum for growing this community of practice.
Foundations of translational ecologyFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentEnquist, Carolyn A.F.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Garfin, Gregg M.; Davis, Frank W.; Gerber, Leah R.; Littell, Jeremy A.; Tank, Jennifer L.; Terando, Adam J.; Wall, Tamara U.; Halpern, Benjamin; Hiers, J. Kevin; Morelli, Toni Lyn; McNie, Elizabeth; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Williamson, Matthew A.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Yung, Laurie; Brunson, Mark W.; Hall, Kimberly R.; Hallett, Lauren M.; Lawson, Dawn M.; Moritz, Max A.; Nydick, Koren; Pairis, Amber; Ray, Andrea J.; Regan, Claudia; Safford, Hugh D.; Schwartz, Mark W.; Shaw, M. Rebecca20172018/05/15Ecologists who specialize in translational ecology (TE) seek to link ecological knowledge to decision making by integrating ecological science with the full complement of social dimensions that underlie today's complex environmental issues. TE is motivated by a search for outcomes that directly serve the needs of natural resource managers and decision makers. This objective distinguishes it from both basic and applied ecological research and, as a practice, it deliberately extends research beyond theory or opportunistic applications. TE is uniquely positioned to address complex issues through interdisciplinary team approaches and integrated scientist–practitioner partnerships. The creativity and context‐specific knowledge of resource managers, practitioners, and decision makers inform and enrich the scientific process and help shape use‐driven, actionable science. Moreover, addressing research questions that arise from on‐the‐ground management issues – as opposed to the top‐down or expert‐oriented perspectives of traditional science – can foster the high levels of trust and commitment that are critical for long‐term, sustained engagement between partners.
Capturing the true value of trees, cool roofs, and other urban heat island mitigation strategies for utilitiesEnergy EfficiencyShickman, Kurt; Rogers, Martha20192019/04/25A growing body of research values the broad benefits of cooling down cities, such as improved energy efficiency, worker productivity, air quality, health, and equity, at hundreds of millions or even billions of dollars to a single city. However, widespread adoption of urban heat mitigation programs, such as urban greening and reflective surfaces, has been slower than their economic potential suggests it should be. One possible cause for this lag is a lack of robust engagement from important stakeholders like utilities that could fund and implement heat mitigation strategies. This paper highlights the benefits of urban heat mitigation and demonstrates how these benefits fit into private utility programs’ standard cost–benefit tests. This paper serves as an introduction on how to include the wide suite of benefits that urban heat mitigation programs provide in cost–benefit tests and concludes with program design roofs; utilities; trees; vegetation; urban heat island
Battling a Common Enemy: Joining Forces in the Fight against Sewage PollutionBioScienceWear, Stephanie L.20192019/04/24The health of both coral reefs and people are imperiled by a local threat that is widespread across the globe—sewage and the typical components it carries (e.g., nutrients, sediments, heavy metals, endocrine disruptors, pathogens, and pharmaceuticals). Despite this common threat, those concerned with human health and those concerned with coral reef health have rarely joined forces. To jump-start an alliance between coral conservation and human health sectors, this article documents the threats that humans and reefs face and identifies threat-abatement strategies that will benefit both people and reefs, highlighting the mitigation of water pollution as a prime example. By joining forces, marine conservationists and human health practitioners can increase the amount and efficiency of both intellectual and financial resources they bring to bear against sewage.coral reefs; human health; sewage pollution; sanitation; water quality
New insights into the variability of the tropical land carbon cycle from the El Nino of 2015/2016Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society BMalhi, Yadvinder; Rowland, Lucy; Aragao, Luiz E.O.C.; Fisher, Rosie A.20182019/04/24ecology; environmental science
Inter-comparison and assessment of gridded climate products over tropical forests during the 2015/2016 El NinoPhilosophical Transactions of The Royal Society BBurton, C.; Rifai, S.; Malhi, Y.20182019/04/24To understand the impacts of extreme climate events, it is first necessary to understand the spatio-temporal characteristics of the event. Gridded climate products are frequently used to describe climate patterns but have been shown to perform poorly over data-sparse regions such as tropical forests. Often, they are uncritically employed in a wide range of studies linking tropical forest processes to large-scale climate variability. Here, we conduct an inter-comparison and assessment of near-surface air temperature fields supplied by four state-of-the-art reanalysis products, along with precipitation estimates supplied by four merged satellite-gauge rainfall products. Firstly, spatio-temporal patterns of temperature and precipitation anomalies during the 2015–2016 El Niño are shown for each product to characterize the impact of the El Niño on the tropical forest biomes of Equatorial Africa, Southeast Asia and South America. Using meteorological station data, a two-stage assessment is then conducted to determine which products most reliably model tropical climates during the 2015–2016 El Niño, and which perform best over the longer-term satellite observation period (1980–2016). Results suggest that eastern Amazonia, parts of the Congo Basin and mainland Southeast Asia all experienced significant monthly mean temperature anomalies during the El Niño, while northeastern Amazonia, eastern Borneo and southern New Guinea experienced significant precipitation deficits. Our results suggest ERA-Interim and MERRA2 are the most reliable air temperature datasets, while TRMM 3B42 V7 and CHIRPS v2.0 are the best-performing rainfall datasets. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue ‘The impact of the 2015/2016 El Niño on the terrestrial tropical carbon cycle: patterns, mechanisms and implications’.reanalysis; validation; El Nino; southern oscillation; tropical forests
ENSO Drives interannual variation of forest woody growth across the tropicsPhilosophical Transactions of The Royal Society BRifai, Sami W.; Girardin, Cecile A.J.; Berenguer, Erika; del Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon; Dahlsjo, Cecilia A.L.; Doughty, Christopher E.; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Moore, Sam; Oliveras, Imma; Riutta, Terhi; Rowland, Lucy M.; Araujo Murakami, Alejandro; Addo-Danso, Shalom D.; Brando, Paulo; Burton, Chad; Evouna Ondo, Fidele; Duah-Gyamfi, Akwasi; Farfan Amezquita, Filio; Freitag, Renata; Hancco Pacha, Fernando; Huaraca Huasco, Walter; Ibrahim, Forzia; Mbou, Armel T.; Mihindou Minhindou, Vianet; Peixoto, Karine S.; Rocha, Wanderley; Rossi, Liana C.; Seixas, Marina; Silva-Espejo, Javier E.; Abernethy, Katharine A.; Adu-Bredu, Stephen; Barlow, Jos; da Costa, Antonio C.L.; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Marimon-Junior, Ben H.; Meir, Patrick; Metcalfe, Daniel B.; Phillips, Oliver L.; White, Lee J.T.; Malhi, Yadvinder20182019/04/24Meteorological extreme events such as El Niño events are expected to affect tropical forest net primary production (NPP) and woody growth, but there has been no large-scale empirical validation of this expectation. We collected a large high–temporal resolution dataset (for 1–13 years depending upon location) of more than 172 000 stem growth measurements using dendrometer bands from across 14 regions spanning Amazonia, Africa and Borneo in order to test how much month-to-month variation in stand-level woody growth of adult tree stems (NPPstem) can be explained by seasonal variation and interannual meteorological anomalies. A key finding is that woody growth responds differently to meteorological variation between tropical forests with a dry season (where monthly rainfall is less than 100 mm), and aseasonal wet forests lacking a consistent dry season. In seasonal tropical forests, a high degree of variation in woody growth can be predicted from seasonal variation in temperature, vapour pressure deficit, in addition to anomalies of soil water deficit and shortwave radiation. The variation of aseasonal wet forest woody growth is best predicted by the anomalies of vapour pressure deficit, water deficit and shortwave radiation. In total, we predict the total live woody production of the global tropical forest biome to be 2.16 Pg C yr−1, with an interannual range 1.96–2.26 Pg C yr−1 between 1996–2016, and with the sharpest declines during the strong El Niño events of 1997/8 and 2015/6. There is high geographical variation in hotspots of El Niño–associated impacts, with weak impacts in Africa, and strongly negative impacts in parts of Southeast Asia and extensive regions across central and eastern Amazonia. Overall, there is high correlation (r = −0.75) between the annual anomaly of tropical forest woody growth and the annual mean of the El Niño 3.4 index, driven mainly by strong correlations with anomalies of soil water deficit, vapour pressure deficit and shortwave radiation. This article is part of the discussion meeting issue ‘The impact of the 2015/2016 El Niño on the terrestrial tropical carbon cycle: patterns, mechanisms and implications’.El Nino; tropical forests; woody net primary production; drought; meteorological anomalies
Are coastal habitats important nurseries? A meta‐analysisConservation LettersLefcheck, Jonathan S.; Hughes, Brent B.; Johnson, Andrew J.; Pfirrmann, Bruce W.; Rasher, Douglas B.; Smyth, Ashley R.; Williams, Bethany L.; Beck, Michael W.; Orth, Robert J.20192019/04/11Nearshore‐structured habitats—including underwater grasses, mangroves, coral, and other biogenic reefs, marshes, and complex abiotic substrates—have long been postulated to function as important nurseries for juvenile fishes and invertebrates. Here, we review the evolution of the “nursery habitat hypothesis” and use >11,000 comparisons from 160 peer‐reviewed studies to test whether and which structured habitats increase juvenile density, growth, and survival. In general, almost all structured habitats significantly enhanced juvenile density—and in some cases growth and survival—relative to unstructured habitats. Underwater grasses and mangroves also promoted juvenile density and growth beyond what was observed in other structured habitats. These conclusions were robust to variation among studies, although there were significant differences with latitude and among some phyla. Our results confirm the basic nursery function of certain structured habitats, which lends further support to their conservation, restoration, and management at a time when our coastal environments are becoming increasingly impacted. They also reveal a dearth of evidence from many other systems (e.g., kelp forests) and for responses other than density. Although recent studies have advocated for increasingly complex approaches to evaluating nurseries, we recommend a renewed emphasis on more straightforward assessments of juvenile growth, survival, reproduction, and recruitment.coral reef; density; growth; juvenile; mangrove; marsh; seagrass; survival
Single species conservation as an umbrella for management of landscape threatsPLOS ONERunge, Claire A.; Withey, John C.; Naugle, David E.; Fargione, Joseph E.; Helmstedt, Kate J.; Larsen, Ashley E.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Tack, Jason D.20192019/04/11Single species conservation unites disparate partners for the conservation of one species. However, there are widespread concerns that single species conservation biases conservation efforts towards charismatic species at the expense of others. Here we investigate the extent to which sage grouse (Centrocercus sp.) conservation, the largest public-private conservation effort for a single species in the US, provides protections for other species from localized and landscape-scale threats. We compared the coverage provided by sage grouse Priority Areas for Conservation (PACs) to 81 sagebrush-associated vertebrate species distributions with potential coverage under multi-species conservation prioritization generated using the decision support tool Zonation. PACs. We found that the current PAC prioritization approach was not statistically different from a diversity-based prioritization approach and covers 23.3% of the landscape, and 24.8%, on average, of the habitat of the 81 species. The proportion of each species distribution at risk was lower inside PACs as compared to the region as a whole, even without management (land use change 30% lower, cheatgrass invasion 19% lower). Whether or not bias away from threat represents the most efficient use of conservation effort is a matter of considerable debate, though may be pragmatic in this landscape where capacity to address these threats is limited. The approach outlined here can be used to evaluate biological equitability of protections provided by flagship species in other settings.conservation science; grouse; land use; invasive species; ecosystems; endangered species; vertebrates; marine conservation
Habitat restoration opportunities, climatic niche contraction, and conservation biogeography in California's San Joaquin DesertPLOS ONEStewart, Joseph A.E.; Butterfield, H. Scott; Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Germano, David J.; Westphal, Michael F.; Tennant, Erin N.; Sinervo, Barry20192019/04/11A recent global trend toward retirement of farmland presents opportunities to reclaim habitat for threatened and endangered species. We examine habitat restoration opportunities in one of the world’s most converted landscapes, California’s San Joaquin Desert (SJD). Despite the presence of 35 threatened and endangered species, agricultural expansion continues to drive habitat loss in the SJD, even as marginal farmland is retired. Over the next decades a combination of factors, including salinization, climate change, and historical groundwater overdraft, are projected to lead to the retirement of more than 2,000 km2 of farmland in the SJD. To promote strategic habitat protection and restoration, we conducted a quantitative assessment of habitat loss and fragmentation, habitat suitability, climatic niche stability, climate change impacts, habitat protection, and reintroduction opportunities for an umbrella species of the SJD, the endangered blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia sila). We use our suitability models, in conjunction with modern and historical land use maps, to estimate the historical and modern rate of habitat loss to development. The estimated amount of habitat lost since the species became protected under endangered species law in 1967 is greater than the total amount of habitat currently protected through public ownership and conservation easement. We document climatic niche contraction and associated range contraction away from the more mesic margins of the species’ historical distribution, driven by the anthropogenic introduction of exotic grasses and forbs. The impact of exotic species on G. sila range dynamics appears to be still unfolding. Finally, we use NASA fallowed area maps to identify 610 km2 of fallowed or retired agricultural land with high potential to again serve as habitat. We discuss conservation strategies in light of the potential for habitat restoration and multiple drivers of ongoing and historical habitat loss.endangered species; conservation science; habitats; land use; grasses; agriculture; climate change; ecological niches
Globally important islands where eradicating invasive mammals will benefit highly threatened vertebratesPLOS ONEHolmes, Nick D.; Spatz, Dena R.; Oppel, Steffen; Tershy, Bernie; Croll, Donald A.; Keitt, Brad; Genovesi, Piero; Burfield, Ian J.; Will, David J.; Bond, Alexander L.; Wegmann, Alex; Aguirre-Munoz, Alfonso; Raine, Andre F.; Knapp, Charles R.; Hung, Chung-Hang; Wingate, David; Hagen, Erin; Mendez-Sanchez, Federico; Rocamora, Gerard; Yuan, Hsiao-Wei; Fric, Jakob; Millett, James; Russell, James; Liske-Clark, Jill; Vidal, Eric; Jourdan, Herve; Campbell, Karl; Springer, Keith; Sinnerton, Kirsty; Gibbons-Decherong, Lolita; Langrand, Olivier; Brooke, L.; McMinn, Miguel; Bunbury, Nancy; Oliveira, Nuno; Sposimo, Paolo; Geraldes, Pedro; McClelland, Pete; Hodum, Peter; Ryan, Peter G.; Borroto-Paez, Rafael; Pierce, Ray; Griffiths, Richard; Fisher, Robert N.; Wanless, Ross; Pasachnik, Stesha A.; Cranwell, Steve; Micol, Thierry; Butchart, Stuart H.M.20192019/04/10Invasive alien species are a major threat to native insular species. Eradicating invasive mammals from islands is a feasible and proven approach to prevent biodiversity loss. We developed a conceptual framework to identify globally important islands for invasive mammal eradications to prevent imminent extinctions of highly threatened species using biogeographic and technical factors, plus a novel approach to consider socio-political feasibility. We applied this framework using a comprehensive dataset describing the distribution of 1,184 highly threatened native vertebrate species (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered or Endangered on the IUCN Red List) and 184 non-native mammals on 1,279 islands worldwide. Based on extinction risk, irreplaceability, severity of impact from invasive species, and technical feasibility of eradication, we identified and ranked 292 of the most important islands where eradicating invasive mammals would benefit highly threatened vertebrates. When socio-political feasibility was considered, we identified 169 of these islands where eradication planning or operation could be initiated by 2020 or 2030 and would improve the survival prospects of 9.4% of the Earth’s most highly threatened terrestrial insular vertebrates (111 of 1,184 species). Of these, 107 islands were in 34 countries and territories and could have eradication projects initiated by 2020. Concentrating efforts to eradicate invasive mammals on these 107 islands would benefit 151 populations of 80 highly threatened vertebrates and make a major contribution towards achieving global conservation targets adopted by the world’s nations.islands; invasive species; mammals; vertebrates; conservation science; biodiversity; species extinction; extinction risk
Restoration priorities to achieve the global protected area targetConservation LettersMappin, Bonnie; Chauvenet, Alienor L.M.; Adams, Vanessa M.; Di Marco, Moreno; Beyer, Hawthorne L.; Venter, Oscar; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Watson, James E.M.20192019/04/10With much of Earth's surface already heavily impacted by humans, there is a need to understand where restoration is required to achieve global conservation goals. Here, we show that at least 1.9 million km2 of land, spanning 190 (27%) terrestrial ecoregions and 114 countries, needs restoration to achieve the current 17% global protected area target (Aichi Target 11). Restoration targeted on lightly modified land could recover up to two‐thirds of the shortfall, which would have an opportunity cost impact on agriculture of at least $205 million per annum (average of $159/km2). However, 64 (9%) ecoregions, located predominately in Southeast Asia, will require the challenging task of restoring areas that are already heavily modified. These results highlight the need for global conservation strategies to recognize the current level of anthropogenic degradation across many ecoregions and balance bigger protected area targets with more specific restoration goals.Aichi Target 11; conservation planning; ecoregions; ecosystem restoration; habitat conservation; human footprint; land conservation; representation
Hotspots of human impact on threatened terrestrial vertebratesPLOS BiologyAllan, James R.; Watson, James E.M.; Di Marco, Moreno; O'Bryan, Christopher J.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Atkinson, Scott C.; Venter, Oscar20192019/04/10Conserving threatened species requires identifying where across their range they are being impacted by threats, yet this remains unresolved across most of Earth. Here, we present a global analysis of cumulative human impacts on threatened species by using a spatial framework that jointly considers the co-occurrence of eight threatening processes and the distribution of 5,457 terrestrial vertebrates. We show that impacts to species are widespread, occurring across 84% of Earth’s surface, and identify hotspots of impacted species richness and coolspots of unimpacted species richness. Almost one-quarter of assessed species are impacted across >90% of their distribution, and approximately 7% are impacted across their entire range. These results foreshadow localised extirpations and potential extinctions without conservation action. The spatial framework developed here offers a tool for defining strategies to directly mitigate the threats driving species’ declines, providing essential information for future national and global conservation agendas.mammals; species diversity; amphibians; vertebrates; birds; biodiversity; conservation science; roads
A global agenda for collective action on soil carbonNature SustainabilityVermeulen, Sonja; Bossio, Deborah; Lehmann, Johannes; Luu, Paul; Paustian, Keith; Webb, Christopher; Auge, Flore; Bacudo, Imelda; Baedeker, Tobias; Havemann, Tanja; Jones, Ceris; King, Richard; Reddy, Matthew; Sunga, Ishmael; Von Unger, Moritz; Warnken, Matthew20192019/03/01Policymakers and investors have perceived securing soil organic carbon as too difficult, with uncertain returns. But new technical, policy and financial opportunities offer hope for rapid progress.agriculture; climate change; decision making; sustainability
Global meta-analysis of the relationship between soil organic matter and crop yieldsSOILOldfield, Emily E.; Bradford, Mark A.; Wood, Stephen A.20192019/03/01Resilient, productive soils are necessary to sustainably intensify agriculture to increase yields while minimizing environmental harm. To conserve and regenerate productive soils, the need to maintain and build soil organic matter (SOM) has received considerable attention. Although SOM is considered key to soil health, its relationship with yield is contested because of local-scale differences in soils, climate, and farming systems. There is a need to quantify this relationship to set a general framework for how soil management could potentially contribute to the goals of sustainable intensification. We developed a quantitative model exploring how SOM relates to crop yield potential of maize and wheat in light of co-varying factors of management, soil type, and climate. We found that yields of these two crops are on average greater with higher concentrations of SOC (soil organic carbon). However, yield increases level off at ∼2 % SOC. Nevertheless, approximately two-thirds of the world's cultivated maize and wheat lands currently have SOC contents of less than 2 %. Using this regression relationship developed from published empirical data, we then estimated how an increase in SOC concentrations up to regionally specific targets could potentially help reduce reliance on nitrogen (N) fertilizer and help close global yield gaps. Potential N fertilizer reductions associated with increasing SOC amount to 7 % and 5 % of global N fertilizer inputs across maize and wheat fields, respectively. Potential yield increases of 10±11 % (mean ± SD) for maize and 23±37 % for wheat amount to 32 % of the projected yield gap for maize and 60 % of that for wheat. Our analysis provides a global-level prediction for relating SOC to crop yields. Further work employing similar approaches to regional and local data, coupled with experimental work to disentangle causative effects of SOC on yield and vice versa, is needed to provide practical prescriptions to incentivize soil management for sustainable intensification.
Saltmarsh Restoration Regional Technical Workgroup (RTW): Final ReportMaher, Nicole20182019/02/04salt marsh management; coastal resiliency; wetlands
Nutritional functional trait diversity of crops in south‐eastern SenegalJournal of Applied EcologyWood, Stephen A.20172018/12/07 Ecological trait diversity metrics have been used to highlight the impacts of agriculture. Such metrics can also be used to include human nutrition—an important dimension of human well‐being—into assessments of agroecosystem function and services. Although crop yield is a common agroecosystem metric, it does not capture the multiple ways in which agriculture impacts people and the environment. Given that nutrient composition of crops is a set of functional traits, I apply a suite of functional diversity metrics—functional divergence, richness, evenness and dispersion—to crop production data from south‐eastern Senegal. I also propose a new nutritional diversity metric—potential nutrient adequacy—to assess nutritional outcomes of different agricultural systems. I demonstrate high variability in nutritional diversity and potential adequacy among households and administrative departments in south‐eastern Senegal. I show that most households produce nutritionally similar crops, rather than crops with high nutritional diversity. As a result, most households currently do not produce enough nutrients to meet minimal nutritional requirements. Using a scenario approach, I show that intensifying yields of staple crops and diversifying production to include non‐staples can increase nutritional production and the potential to meet nutritional needs. I further show that a combination of intensification and diversification is needed to meet the need for a diverse group of nutrients. Policy implications. I develop a new metric that indicates the potential for a food system to meet the nutritional requirements of a population. This tool will allow practitioners to assess the nutritional adequacy of a food system and to design food systems that optimize nutritional outcomes. Application of this metric to different production scenarios showed that combining yield intensification with crop diversification is important to meeting full nutritional targets for smallholder agriculture. There is a broader need for incorporating other social and socio‐ecological traits into trait‐based assessments of agroecosystems.Africa; agriculture; agroecology; agroecosystems; crop diversity; food systems; functional diversity; functional traits; nutrition; Senegal
Staged‐scale restoration: Refining adaptive management to improve restoration effectivenessJournal of Applied EcologyBakker, Jonathan D.; Delvin, Eric G.; Dunwiddie, Peter W.20172018/12/07 Adaptive management (AM) was proposed as a rigourous and structured approach to natural resource management that increases learning and reduces uncertainty. It has been adopted as a guiding principle by agencies world‐wide, yet its usefulness for guiding management continues to be debated. We propose a new strategy, which we term staged‐scale restoration (SSR), to implement AM in a restoration setting while enhancing the scientific rigour, ecological effectiveness and overall efficiency of restoration efforts compared to traditional applications of AM. The SSR approach includes three aspects: (1) experimentally assessing alternative restoration techniques directly on‐site in replicated plots using operational‐scale equipment, (2) staging, or the successive establishment and evaluation of treated areas over time and (3) scaling, whereby the most successful techniques identified during earlier stages are applied to increasingly larger areas in later stages. A case study illustrates how SSR was used to improve prairie restoration in western Washington, USA. Staged‐scale restoration provides several key advantages. It includes a robust experimental design and thus improves the scientific rigour of AM. It is conducted on‐site using operational‐scale equipment and thus increases the effectiveness of treatments while also providing a platform for refining existing treatments. SSR facilitates collaboration among researchers and managers. By promoting advanced planning and deferring much of the area to be treated to the latter years of a project, SSR reduces the risk of restoration failure. Finally, it is extremely flexible: it can be implemented at multiple sites or years, the number and types of treatments to be assessed can be customized and the pace of restoration can be varied. Synthesis and applications. Staged‐scale restoration addresses many of the criticisms that have been directed at conventional adaptive management (AM) and provides a scientifically rigourous strategy to improve restoration while customizing treatments for individual sites. It explicitly enables restoration projects to be conducted within an adaptive management framework, and clearly and intentionally integrates ecological research into restoration efforts. We urge the restoration community to explore the utility of staged‐scale restoration in diverse socioeconomic circumstances and ecosystems.adaptive management; adaptive restoration; collaboration; land management; randomization; replication; spatial scale; staged-scale restoration; staging
Priority Threat Management for biodiversity conservation: A handbookJournal of Applied EcologyCarwardine, Josie; Martin, Tara G.; Firn, Jennifer; Ponce Reyes, Rocio; Nicol, Sam; Reeson, Andrew; Grantham, Hedley S.; Stratford, Danial; Kehoe, Laura; Chades, Iadine20182018/12/07Threats to biodiversity and the integrity of ecological systems are escalating globally, both within and outside of protected areas. Decision makers have inadequate resources to manage all threats and typically lack information on the likely outcomes and cost‐effectiveness of possible management strategies. Priority Threat Management (PTM) is an emerging approach designed to address this challenge, by defining and appraising cost‐effective strategies for mitigating threats to biodiversity across regions. The scientific and practical impacts of PTM are increasing, with a growing number of case study applications across the globe. Here, we provide guidance and resource material for conducting the PTM process based on our experience delivering six large‐scale projects across Australia and Canada. Our handbook describes the four stages of PTM: scoping and planning; defining and collecting key elements; analysing the cost‐effectiveness of strategies; and communicating and integrating recommendations. We summarise critical tips, strengths, and limitations and scope for possible enhancements of the approach. Priority Threat Management harnesses scientific and expert‐derived information to prioritise management strategies based on their benefit to biodiversity, management costs and feasibility. The approach involves collaboration with key experts and stakeholders in a region to improve knowledge sharing and conservation support. The PTM approach identifies sets of regional level strategies that together provide the greatest benefits for multiple species under a limited budget, which can be used to inform existing processes for decision‐making. The PTM approach applies some generalisations in management strategies and resolution, in order to address complex challenges. Further developments of the approach include testing in a greater range of socioecological systems with adaptations that cater for multiobjective decisions. Synthesis and applications. Priority Threat Management is a decision science approach that brings people together to define and prioritise strategies for managing threats to biodiversity across broad regions. It delivers a prospectus for investment in the biodiversity of a region that is transparent, repeatable, participatory, and based on the best available information. Our handbook provides the necessary guidance and resources for expanding the Priority Threat Management approach to new locations, contexts, and challenges.biodiversity conservation; cost-effectiveness analysis; expert elicitation; extinction; Prioritising Threat Management; return on investment; structured decision-making; threatened species
Emissions mitigation opportunities for savanna countries from early dry season fire managementNature CommunicationsLipsett-Moore, Geoffrey J.; Wolff, Nicholas H.; Game, Edward T.20182018/12/05Savanna fires produce significant emissions globally, but if managed effectively could provide an important mitigation opportunity, particularly in African least developed countries. Here we show global opportunities for emissions reductions through early dry season burning for 37 countries including: 29 countries in Africa (69.1 MtCO2-e yr−1), six countries in South America (13.3 MtCO2-e yr−1), and Australia and Papua New Guinea (6.9 MtCO2-e yr−1). Emissions reduction estimates are based on the successful approach developed in Australia to reduce emissions from savanna fires using global-scale, remotely sensed estimates of monthly emissions. Importantly, 20 least developed countries in Africa account for 74% of the mitigation potential (60.2 MtCO2-e yr−1). More than 1.02 million km2 of savanna dominated protected areas within these countries could be used as pilot sites to test and advance a regional approach to mitigation efforts for savanna fires in Africa. Potential versus actual abatement opportunities are discussed.climate-change mitigation; fire ecology
Cross-discipline evidence principles for sustainability policyNature SustainabilityGame, Edward T.; Tallis, Heather; Olander, Lydia; Alexander, Steven M.; Busch, Jonah; Cartwright, Nancy; Kalies, Elizabeth L.; Masuda, Yuta J.; Mupepele, Anne-Christine; Qiu, Jiangxiao; Rooney, Andrew; Sills, Erin; Sutherland, William J.20182018/12/05Evidence-based approaches to sustainability challenges must draw on knowledge from the environment, development and health communities. To be practicable, this requires an approach to evidence that is broader and less hierarchical than the standards often applied within disciplines.environmental social sciences; environmental studies; science, technology and society; sustainability
Natural climate solutions for the United StatesAmerican Association for the Advancement of ScienceFargione, Joseph E.; Bassett, Steven; Boucher, Timothy; Bridgham, Scott D.; Conant, Richard T.; Cook-Patton, Susan C.; Ellis, Peter W.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Fourqurean, James W.; Gopalakrishna, Trisha; Gu, Huan; Henderson, Benjamin; Hurteau, Matthew D.; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Kroeger, Timm; Lark, Tyler J.; Leavitt, Sara M.; Lomax, Guy; Schoch, David; Spawn, Seth A.; Veldman, Joseph W.; Williams, Christopher A.; Woodbury, Peter B.; Zganjar, Chris; Baranski, Marci; Elias, Patricia; Houghton, Richard A.; Landis, Emily; McGlynn, Emily; Schlesinger, William H.; Siikamaki, Juha V.; Sutton-Grier, Ariana E.; Griscom, Bronson W.20182018/12/04Limiting climate warming to
Using Turbidity Measurements to Estimate Total Phosphorus and Sediment Flux in a Great Lakes Coastal WetlandWetlandsBaustian, Joseph J.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Czayka, Alex20182018/12/04Coastal wetlands around the Laurentian Great Lakes in North America have the potential to intercept surface water coming off of the landscape and reduce the amount of nutrients and sediment entering the lakes. However, extensive coastal wetland areas have been isolated behind dikes and thus have limited interaction with nutrient-rich waters that contribute to harmful algal blooms and other water-quality issues. In this study, we developed a method to use high-frequency measurements of discharge and turbidity to estimate sediment and total phosphorus retention in a hydrologically reconnected coastal wetland. We found sediment and total phosphorus retention to be episodic and highly related to fluctuations in water level. Low water levels in Lake Erie in late 2012 resulted in low retention in the wetland, but sediment and total phosphorus retention increased as water levels rose in the first half of 2013. Overall, the reconnected wetland was a sink for both total phosphorus and suspended sediment and locally reduced phosphorus loading rates to Lake Erie. Additional wetland reconnection projects have the potential to further reduce phosphorus and sediment loading rates, which could improve local water quality and ecosystem health.wetland reconnection; phosphorus retention; sediment retention; Great Lakes restoration
Applying a dryland degradation framework for rangelands: the case of MongoliaEcological ApplicationsJamsranjav, C.; Reid, R.S.; Fernandez-Gimenez, M.E.; Tsevlee, A.; Yadamsuren, B.; Heiner, M.20182018/12/21Livestock‐caused rangeland degradation remains a major policy concern globally and the subject of widespread scientific study. This concern persists in part because it is difficult to isolate the effects of livestock from climate and other factors that influence ecosystem conditions. Further, degradation studies seldom use multiple plant and soil indicators linked to a clear definition of and ecologically grounded framework for degradation assessment that distinguishes different levels of degradation. Here, we integrate two globally applicable rangeland degradation frameworks and apply them to a broad‐scale empirical data set for the country of Mongolia. We compare our assessment results with two other recent national rangeland degradation assessments in Mongolia to gauge consistency of findings across assessments and evaluate the utility of our framework. We measured livestock‐use impacts across Mongolia's major ecological zones: mountain and forest steppe, eastern steppe, steppe, and desert steppe. At 143 sites in 36 counties, we measured livestock‐use and degradation indicators at increasing distances from livestock corrals in winter‐grazed pastures. At each site, we measured multiple indicators linked to our degradation framework, including plant cover, standing biomass, palatability, species richness, forage quality, vegetation gaps, and soil surface characteristics. Livestock use had no effect on soils, plant species richness, or standing crop biomass in any ecological zone, but subtly affected plant cover and palatable plant abundance. Livestock effects were strongest in the steppe zone, moderate in the desert steppe, and limited in the mountain/forest and eastern steppes. Our results aligned closely with those of two other recent country‐wide assessments, suggesting that our framework may have widespread application. All three assessments found that very severe and irreversible degradation is rare in Mongolia (1–18% of land area), with most rangelands slightly (33–53%) or moderately (25–40%) degraded. We conclude that very severe livestock‐induced rangeland degradation is overstated in Mongolia. However, targeted rangeland restoration coupled with monitoring, adaptive management and stronger rangeland governance are needed to prevent further degradation where heavy grazing could cause irreversible change. Given the broad applicability of our degradation framework for Mongolia, we suggest it be tested for application in other temperate grasslands throughout Central Asia and North America.degradation framework; degradation indicators; livestock; livestock-use gradient; rangeland heterogeneity; resilience-based management
Avian demographic responses to drought and fire: a community‐level perspectiveEcological ApplicationsSaracco, James F.; Fettig, Stephen M.; San Miguel, George L.; Mehlman, David W.; Thompson, Brent E.; Albert, Steven K.20182018/12/21Drought stress is an important consideration for wildlife in arid and semiarid regions under climate change. Drought can impact plant and animal populations directly, through effects on their physiology, as well as indirectly through effects on vegetation productivity and resource availability, and by creating conditions conducive to secondary disturbance, such as wildfire. We implemented a novel approach to understanding community‐level demographic responses of birds and their habitats to these stressors in the context of climate change at 14 study sites in the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States. A large wildfire affecting three of the sites provided a natural experiment for also examining fire effects on vegetation and the bird community. We assessed (1) trends in drought and end‐of‐century (2071–2100) predicted average drought conditions under mid‐range and high greenhouse gas concentration trajectory scenarios; (2) effects of drought and fire on habitat (vegetation greenness); and (3) effects of drought and fire on community‐level avian productivity and adult apparent survival rates. Drought has increased and is expected to increase further at our study sites under climate change. Under spring drought conditions, vegetation greenness and avian productivity declined, while summer drought appeared to negatively affect adult apparent survival rates. Response to fire was mixed; in the year of the fire, avian productivity declined, but was higher than normal for several years post‐fire. Our results highlight important links between environmental stressors and avian vital rates that will likely affect population trajectories in this region under climate change. We suggest that the use and continued development of community‐level demographic models will provide useful tool for leveraging sparse species‐level data to provide multi‐species inferences and inform conservation.avian demography; capture-recapture; drought; fire; hierarchical model; MAPS program; mist-netting; productivity; survival; vital rates
Metrics for comparing stand structure and dynamics between Ecological Reserves and managed forest of Maine, USAEcologyKuehne, Christian; Puhlick, Joshua; Weiskittel, Aaron; Cutko, Andrew; Cameron, Donald; Sferra, Nancy; Schlawin, Justin20182018/12/21A data set of common forest metrics was prepared using inventory data from Ecological Reserves in Maine, northeastern USA. An Ecological Reserve is generally defined as an area where timber harvesting does not occur and natural disturbance events are allowed to proceed without significant human influence. Beginning in the early 2000s, permanent, long term monitoring plots were established in Reserves across Maine. To date, 50 Reserves occupying approximately 70,820 ha with a total of 1,103 monitoring plots comprise Maine's Ecological Reserve System. A goal of the Ecological Reserve Monitoring program is to remeasure plots every 10 years and about half of the plots have been remeasured since the initial inventory. Stand metrics were calculated for both monitoring rounds and include: live tree basal area, live tree density, large (diameter at breast height, dbh ≥40 cm) and very large (dbh ≥51 cm) live tree density, standing dead tree density, large (dbh ≥40 cm) and very large (dbh ≥51 cm) standing dead tree density, total and large (diameter at transect intersect ≥40 cm) downed coarse woody debris volume, as well as various stand dynamic metrics. For comparison, the same metrics were computed for managed forests in Maine using permanent plot data from the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program. Information on Ecological Reserve monitoring plots includes Ecological Reserve name, forest‐type group, geographic location, elevation, slope, aspect, and harvest history. This data should prove invaluable for assessing and evaluating long‐term changes in Ecological Reserves across the broad ecological/climate zones that are present in Maine. No copyright or proprietary restrictions are associated with the use of this data set other than citation of this Data Paper. These data are freely available for non‐commercial scientific use.biological diversity; conservation; downed coarse woody debris; growth and yield; habitat protection; native forest ecosystem; natural community; New England; snag density; TRIAD; umanaged forest land
Unintended habitat loss on private land from grazing restrictions on public rangelandsJournal of Applied EcologyRunge, Claire A.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Larsen, Ashley E.; Naugle, David E.; Helmstedt, Kate J.; Polasky, Stephen; Donnelly, J. Patrick; Smith, Joseph T.; Lark, Tyler J.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Fargione, Joe20182018/12/21 Management of public lands, and who should have access to them, is often contentious. Most ranches in the western US rely upon seasonal grazing access to public lands, and conflict over biodiversity management has led to proposals to restrict grazing access on public lands. We evaluate whether grazing restrictions on public rangelands could have the unintended effect of increasing the conversion of private rangeland to cropland, causing habitat loss for sage‐grouse, a species of conservation concern. Using a model parameterized with empirical observations of land use change and ranch versus cropland profitability, we explore how changes to public lands grazing policy could affect ranch profitability and consequently land use on private lands across the western US. We predict that restricting grazing of public lands by 50% would result in the loss of an additional 171,400 ha of sage‐grouse habitat on private lands by 2050, on top of the 842,000 ha predicted to be lost under business as usual. Most of this conversion would affect sage‐grouse mesic habitat, 75% of which occurs on private land and is vital to the species during brood rearing. Under such policy changes, we estimate that an additional 105,700 ha (3.24%) of sage‐grouse mesic habitat held on private land in the study region would be directly lost by 2050, and the cumulative area affected by fragmentation would be much higher. By considering the human and ecological links between public and private land, we show that attempts to improve habitat on public lands via grazing restrictions could result in greater system‐wide fragmentation of sage‐grouse habitat from unintended habitat loss on private lands. Synthesis and applications. Policy interventions on public lands can affect private landholders. Landholders' responses can result in unintended consequences, both for habitat on private land and community support for conservation. Restricting grazing on US public lands is likely to increase habitat loss on private lands and reduce community support for sage grouse conservation. Policy that manages resources on public lands while also supporting sustainable, economically viable ranching operations on private lands is a promising approach to maximizing sage grouse habitat.croplands; econometrics; grazing restrictions; land use; landholders; perverse outcomes; public lands; rangeland management
Monitoring Water Levels and Discharges Using Radar Altimetry in an Ungauged River Basin: The Case of the OgoouéRemote SensingBogning, Sakaros; Frappart, Frederic; Blarel, Fabien; Nino, Fernando; Mahe, Gil; Bricquet, Jean-Pierre; Seyler, Frederique; Onguene, Raphael; Etame, Jacques; Paiz, Marie-Claire; Braun, Jean-Jacques20182018/12/21Radar altimetry is now commonly used for the monitoring of water levels in large river basins. In this study, an altimetry-based network of virtual stations was defined in the quasi ungauged Ogooué river basin, located in Gabon, Central Africa, using data from seven altimetry missions (Jason-2 and 3, ERS-2, ENVISAT, Cryosat-2, SARAL, Sentinel-3A) from 1995 to 2017. The performance of the five latter altimetry missions to retrieve water stages and discharges was assessed through comparisons against gauge station records. All missions exhibited a good agreement with gauge records, but the most recent missions showed an increase of data availability (only 6 virtual stations (VS) with ERS-2 compared to 16 VS for ENVISAT and SARAL) and accuracy (RMSE lower than 1.05, 0.48 and 0.33 and R² higher than 0.55, 0.83 and 0.91 for ERS-2, ENVISAT and SARAL respectively). The concept of VS is extended to the case of drifting orbits using the data from Cryosat-2 in several close locations. Good agreement was also found with the gauge station in Lambaréné (RMSE = 0.25 m and R2 = 0.96). Very good results were obtained using only one year and a half of Sentinel-3 data (RMSE < 0.41 m and R2 > 0.89). The combination of data from all the radar altimetry missions near Lamabréné resulted in a long-term (May 1995 to August 2017) and significantly improved water-level time series (R² = 0.96 and RMSE = 0.38 m). The increase in data sampling in the river basin leads to a better water level peak to peak characterization and hence to a more accurate annual discharge over the common observation period with only a 1.4 m3·s−1 difference (i.e., 0.03%) between the altimetry-based and the in situ mean annual discharge. altimetry; water level; discharge
The 2017 African Great Lakes Conference: Conservation and development in a changing climateJournal of Great Lakes ResearchDoran, Patrick J.; Medard, Modesta; Apse, Colin D.20182018/12/21In May 2017, the African Great Lakes community convened for a region-wide conference in Entebbe, Uganda. The African Great Lakes Conference (AGLC) focused on 6 regionally-important themes, and 300+ attendees presented over 100 talks and posters. The AGLC culminated in the adoption of a set of Conference Resolutions designed to direct the future of African Great Lakes conservation and management. As an Introduction to this Journal of Great Lakes Research special section on African Great Lakes, we report on the impetus for the African Great Lakes Conference as well as discuss three major advances and investments that were a direct result of conference resolutions adopted at the meeting. First, we present the AGLC Resolutions, a set of management issues and solutions developed at the conference. Second, we discuss the African Great Lakes Conference Fund, a conservation fund that has awarded $500,000 USD to launch four new initiatives. Finally, we describe African Great Lakes Inform, a knowledge management platform designed to promote collaboration in the region. The AGLC in general, and these three major conference outcomes specifically, provide a set of basic building blocks to advance partnerships, research and capacity in the African Great Lakes region.African Great Lakes; Great Lakes; conservation; conference; climate change; information management
Assessing Near Surface Hydrologic Processes and Plant Response over a 1600 m Mountain Valley Gradient in the Great Basin, NV, U.S.A.WaterDevitt, Dale; Bird, Brian; Lyles, Brad; Fenstermaker, Lynn; Jasoni, Richard; Strachan, Scotty; Arnone III, Jay; Biondi, Franco; Mensing, Scott; Saito, Laurel20182018/12/21This study investigated near surface hydrologic processes and plant response over a 1600 m mountain-valley gradient located in the Great Basin of North America (Nevada, U.S.A.) as part of a long-term climate assessment study. The goal was to assess shifts in precipitation, soil water status and associated drainage with elevation and how this influenced evapotranspiration and plant cover/health estimated by a satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), all to better understand how water is partitioned in a mountain valley system. Data were acquired during a three-year period from meteorological stations located in five plant communities ranging in elevation from 1756 m (salt desert shrubland zone) to 3355 m (subalpine zone). The analysis also included groundwater depths measured at the Salt Desert Shrub West site, mine water flow near the Pinyon-Juniper West site and drainage estimates using drainage flux meters at the four higher elevation sites. Annual precipitation increased with elevation in a linear fashion (R2 = 0.93, p < 0.001) with an average increase of 2.9 cm for every 100 m in elevation. Reference evapotranspiration (ETref) declined in a highly linear fashion with elevation (R2 = 0.95, p < 0.001) with an average 4.0 cm decline for every 100 m rise in elevation. Drainage occurred only at the Montane West and Subalpine West sites and not at the lower elevations. No drainage occurred after Julian day 160. Growing degree days were found to be negatively associated with the time of peak drainage (R2 = 0.97, p < 0.001), the date drainage first occurred (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001), drainage duration (R2 = 0.79, p < 0.001) and total drainage volume (R2 = 0.59, p < 0.001). It was estimated that 27% of precipitation at the Montane West site (years 1, 2 and 3) and 66 % at the Subalpine West site (40% without year 1) contributed to drainage at the local site level, indicating possible strong recharge contribution from the higher elevation plant communities. Percent vegetation cover and ETref accounted for 94% of the variation in NDVI and 90% of the variation in ET totals when data from all sites were combined. Such data will be extremely valuable to collect and compare over time to assess shifts associated with potential climate warming and/or basin water diversion.drainage; groundwater; NDVI
The Development of Near Real-Time Biomass and Cover Estimates for Adaptive Rangeland Management Using Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance ProductsRemote SensingJansen, Vincent S.; Kolden, Crystal A.; Schmalz, Heidi J.20182018/12/21Rangelands are critical working landscapes and are the focus of considerable conservation planning efforts globally. A key conservation challenge in these landscapes is that high interannual variability in both climatic conditions and land use greatly limits the utility of outdated or static vegetation maps for management decision-making. One potential solution to this problem lies in remote sensing-derived information; however, prospective users must have continuous and timely access to vegetation products tailored to their needs. Google Earth Engine (GEE) can overcome the many storage, processing, and visualization barriers associated with creating ready-to-use remote sensing products for the public. While GEE provides a platform for building tools to analyze data and share results with users in near real-time for adaptive management, monitoring products need to (1) provide accurate and stable estimates over time and (2) align with management goals and the ecology of the rangeland system in question. Here, we assess estimates of vegetation cover and above-ground biomass at two dominant phenological time periods (summer/green and fall/brown), as modeled from the Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 Climatic Data Record (CDR) product. Using a best-subset regression modeling approach, we modeled vegetation cover and biomass, finding that the best predictors vary by season, corresponding to vegetation phenology. We also found that sensor-specific models decreased the relative differences between mapped cover and biomass estimates when comparing Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 scenes one day apart in the summer and fall. Ultimately, we developed an automated model selection process driven by sensor and vegetation greenness that can run in GEE to monitor and analyze vegetation amounts across the grazing season for adaptive management.grasslands; biomass; cover; nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV); NDVI; rangeland monitoring; Landsat; Google Earth Engine; phenology
Financing Watershed Services in the Foothills of the HimalayasWaterKumar Rai, Rajesh; Shyamsundar, Priya; Nepal, Mani; Dutt Bhatta, Laxmi20182018/12/21Watershed management is critical for the sustainable supply of clean water to urban centers, particularly in areas of developing countries where large-scale infrastructure projects are costly to implement. In this paper, we discuss the potential for financing improvements in watershed services in the foothills of the Himalayas through Payments for Ecosystem Services. Through the use of a choice experiment to disentangle household preferences, we show that downstream water users are interested in improvements in water quality through source water protection. Households in Dharan municipality are willing to finance watershed management to the extent of USD 118,000 per year. These payments can be used to incentivize upstream households to decrease domestic livestock grazing, change agricultural practices and reduce open defecation to improve the drinking water quality and quantity in downstream areas. The estimated cost of these activities is less than $50,000 per year. Through discussions with local stakeholders, we propose a tri-partite institutional structure to facilitate transactions between downstream and upstream communities and to improve watershed services.choice experiment; drinking water; payments for ecosystem services; watershed management; water quality
Zero Deforestation Agreement Assessment at Farm Level in Colombia Using ALOS PALSARRemote SensingPedraza, Carlos; Clerici, Nicola; Forero, Cristian Fabian; Melo, America; Navarrete, Diego; Lizcano, Diego; Zuluaga, Andres Felipe; Delgado, Juliana; Galindo, Gustavo20182018/12/20Due to the fast deforestation rates in the tropics, multiple international efforts have been launched to reduce deforestation and develop consistent methodologies to assess forest extension and change. Since 2010 Colombia implemented the Mainstream Sustainable Cattle Ranching project with the participation of small farmers in a payment for environmental services (PES) scheme where zero deforestation agreements are signed. To assess the fulfillment of such agreements at farm level, ALOS-1 and ALOS-2 PALSAR fine beam dual imagery for years 2010 and 2016 was processed with ad-hoc routines to estimate stable forest, deforestation, and stable nonforest extension for 2615 participant farms in five heterogeneous regions of Colombia. Landsat VNIR imagery was integrated in the processing chain to reduce classification uncertainties due to radar limitations. Farms associated with Meta Foothills regions showed zero deforestation during the period analyzed (2010–2016), while other regions showed low deforestation rates with the exception of the Cesar River Valley (75 ha). Results, suggests that topography and dry weather conditions have an effect on radar-based mapping accuracy, i.e., deforestation and forest classes showed lower user accuracy values on mountainous and dry regions revealing overestimations in these environments. Nevertheless, overall ALOS Phased Array L-band SAR (PALSAR) data provided overall accurate, relevant, and consistent information for forest change analysis for local zero deforestation agreements assessment. Improvements to preprocessing routines and integration of high dense radar time series should be further investigated to reduce classification errors from complex topography conditions.carbon cycle; deforestation; Colombia; sustainable cattle ranching; Synthetic Aperture Radar; ALOS PALSAR
Assessing Pasture Degradation in the Brazilian Cerrado Based on the Analysis of MODIS NDVIRemote SensingRibeiro Pereira, Osvaldo Jose; Ferreira, Laerte G.; Pinto, Flavia; Baumgarten, Leandro20182018/12/20Around 55% of all Brazilian cattle production is located in the Cerrado biome, which also contains the largest pasture area in Brazil. Previous studies indicated that about 60% of these pastures were degraded by 2010. However, up-to-date and more precise estimates are necessary to access the extent and degree of degradation of the Cerrado pastures, since these areas constitute strategic land reserves for both livestock intensification and soybean expansion. Therefore, in this study, we estimated the area of degraded pastures in the Cerrado by analyzing the trends of cumulative NDVI anomalies over time used as a proxy for pasture degradation. The generated slope surface was segmented into two classes, comprising non-degraded and degraded pastures, which were correlated with socio-economic and biophysical variables. According to our study, around 46% of the Cerrado pastures are currently degraded, encompassing 37 million hectares, mostly in areas with a cattle carrying capacity below 1.0 AU ha−1. These areas, distributed in the northwest Cerrado, mostly within the Brazilian states of Maranhão, Piauí, and Bahia (i.e., Matopiba region), tend to be associated with decreasing rainfall patterns and low investments in soil conservation practices. The degraded areas also tend to be concentrated in municipalities with low human development indices (HDI).Google Earth Engine; time-series; cumulative anomalies; cattle ranching
Investing in Natural and Nature-Based Infrastructure: Building Better Along Our CoastsSustainabilitySutton-Grier, Ariana E.; Gittman, Rachel K.; Arkema, Katie K.; Bennett, Richard O.; Benoit, Jeff; Blitch, Seth; Burks-Copes, Kelly A.; Colden, Allison; Dausman, Alyssa; DeAngelis, Bryan M.; Hughes, A. Randall; Scyphers, Steven B.; Grabowski20182018/12/18Much of the United States’ critical infrastructure is either aging or requires significant repair, leaving U.S. communities and the economy vulnerable. Outdated and dilapidated infrastructure places coastal communities, in particular, at risk from the increasingly frequent and intense coastal storm events and rising sea levels. Therefore, investments in coastal infrastructure are urgently needed to ensure community safety and prosperity; however, these investments should not jeopardize the ecosystems and natural resources that underlie economic wealth and human well-being. Over the past 50 years, efforts have been made to integrate built infrastructure with natural landscape features, often termed “green” infrastructure, in order to sustain and restore valuable ecosystem functions and services. For example, significant advances have been made in implementing green infrastructure approaches for stormwater management, wastewater treatment, and drinking water conservation and delivery. However, the implementation of natural and nature-based infrastructure (NNBI) aimed at flood prevention and coastal erosion protection is lagging. There is an opportunity now, as the U.S. government reacts to the recent, unprecedented flooding and hurricane damage and considers greater infrastructure investments, to incorporate NNBI into coastal infrastructure projects. Doing so will increase resilience and provide critical services to local communities in a cost-effective manner and thereby help to sustain a growing economy.coastal resilience; restoration; sustainability; infrastructure; ecosystem services
ʻĀina Momona, Honua Au Loli—Productive Lands, Changing World: Using the Hawaiian Footprint to Inform Biocultural Restoration and Future Sustainability in Hawai‘iSustainabilityGon III, Samuel M.; Tom, Stephanie L.; Woodside, Ulalia20182018/12/18Pre-Western-contact Hawai‘i stands as a quintessential example of a large human population that practiced intensive agriculture, yet minimally affected native habitats that comprised the foundation of its vitality. An explicit geospatial footprint of human-transformed areas across the pre-contact Hawaiian archipelago comprised less than 15% of total land area, yet provided 100% of human needs, supporting a thriving Polynesian society. A post-contact history of disruption of traditional land use and its supplanting by Western land tenure and agriculture culminated in a landscape less than 250 years later in which over 50% of native habitats have been lost, while self-sufficiency has plummeted to 15% or less. Recapturing the ‘āina momona (productive lands) of ancient times through biocultural restoration can be accomplished through study of pre-contact agriculture, assessment of biological and ecological changes on Hawaiian social-ecological systems, and conscious planned efforts to increase self-sufficiency and reduce importation. Impediments include the current tourism-based economy, competition from habitat-modifying introduced species, a suite of agricultural pests severely limiting traditional agriculture, and climate changes rendering some pre-contact agricultural centers suboptimal. Modified methods will be required to counteract these limitations, enhance biosecurity, and diversify agriculture, without further degrading native habitats, and recapture a reciprocal Hawaiian human-nature relationship.human land use footprint; traditional ecological knowledge; biocultural restoration; social-ecological system; Hawaiian Islands; biocapacity; sustainability
Cultural Eutrophication Is Reflected in the Stable Isotopic Composition of the Eastern Mudsnail, Nassarius obsoletusJournal of Environmental QualityBurke Watson, Elizabeth; Szura, Katelyn; Powell, Elisabeth; Maher, Nicole; Wigand, Cathleen20172018/12/18In aquatic ecosystems, biological indicators are used in concert with nutrient concentration data to identify habitat impairments related to cultural eutrophication. This approach has been less commonly implemented in coastal areas due to the dominance of physical conditions in structuring biological assemblage data. Here, we describe the use of the stable isotopic composition of Nassarius obsoletus (Say), the eastern mudsnail, as an indicator of cultural eutrophication for 40 locations in coastal estuaries in New York. We found 15N enrichment in mudsnail tissue where watersheds had high population densities, land use patterns were more urbanized, and when sampling sites were adjacent to wastewater treatment plant discharges. Stable carbon isotopes were responsive to salinity and watershed forest cover, with more saline sites reflecting a predominantly C4 or algal carbon isotopic signature and more forested sites a lighter isotopic signature reflecting greater inputs of C3 terrestrial detrital carbon. Mudsnail nitrogen isotopic composition had a high level of separation between more affected and pristine watersheds (from 6.6 to 14.1‰), highlighting its utility as an indicator. We thus propose that stable isotope values of estuarine biota, such as the eastern mudsnail, can be used in concert with water quality data to identify areas where improvements in water quality are needed and can also be used to identify sources of detrital carbon to estuarine environments.
Crop advisers as conservation intermediaries: Perceptions and policy implications for relying on nontraditional partners to increase U.S. farmers’ adoption of soil and water conservation practicesLand Use PolicyEanes, Francis R.; Singh, Ajay S.; Bulla, Brian R.; Ranjan, Pranay; Fales, Mary; Wickerham, Benjamin; Doran, Patrick J.; Prokopy, Linda S.20182018/12/17Federal agricultural land use policies in the United States aimed at protecting soil health and water quality typically rely on persuading individual farmers to voluntarily adopt conservation practices. An expanding body of literature suggests that private sector intermediaries, such as crop advisers, are increasingly trusted sources of information for farmers about conservation practices and thus may be persuasive actors in the conservation-adoption realm. While previous studies have explored farmers’ perceptions of crop advisers facilitating conservation practice adoption and participating in conservation programs in agricultural landscapes, little research to date has explored crop advisers’ perceptions of this role, and few agricultural land use policies have explicitly included crop advisers as conservation partners. This study fills a critical void in the literature by evaluating the Saginaw Bay Regional Conservation Partnership Program, an innovative agricultural policy that relies on crop advisers to recruit farmers into the program and assist them with the adoption of conservation practices. Through a survey and interviews with crop advisers in the Saginaw Bay watershed in Michigan, USA, we explore crop advisers’ perceptions of their role in the program and of delivering conservation information to farmers. We found that crop advisers have positive attitudes towards land/water resources and conservation practices, believe they have an important intermediary role to play in facilitating conservation practice adoption, and believe their supervisors are supportive of them promoting conservation. However, difficulties in collaboration and communication between the private and governmental sectors – resulting from perceived differences, operational differences, and territoriality – present a key barrier to crop advisers increasing their intermediary role in the promotion and implementation of federal conservation programs. Future research and policy initiatives should explore how to address public-private territoriality and whether crop advisers should be incentivized to deliver information about conservation practices and/or assist in enrolling farmers in federal conservation programs.U.S. agricultural policy; land/water conservation practice adoption; agriculture; intermediaries; diffusion of innovation; mixed methods
Indicators of nutrient pollution in Long Island, New York, estuarine environmentsMarine Environmental ResearchBurke Watson, Elizabeth; Powell, Elisabeth; Maher, Nicole P.; Oczkowski, Autumn J.; Paudel, Bhanu; Starke, Adam; Szura, Katelyn; Wigand, Cathleen20182018/12/17Roughly eight million people live on Long Island, including Brooklyn and Queens, and despite improvements in wastewater treatment, nearly all its coastal waterbodies are impaired by excessive nitrogen. We used nutrient stoichiometry and stable isotope ratios in estuarine biota and soils to identify water pollution hot spots and compare among potential indicators. We found strong gradients in δ15N values, which were correlated with watershed land cover, population density, and wastewater discharges. Weaker correlations were found for δ13C values and nutrient stoichiometric ratios. Structural equation modeling identified contrasts between western Long Island, where δ15N values depended on watershed population density, and eastern Long Island where δ15N values reflected agriculture and sewage discharges. These results illustrate the use of stable isotopes as water quality indicators, and establish a baseline against which the efficacy of strategies to reduce nutrients can be measured.eutrophication; stable isotope; denitrification; pollution monitoring; water treatment
Biocultural Restoration of Traditional Agriculture: Cultural, Environmental, and Economic Outcomes of Lo‘i Kalo Restoration in He‘eia, O‘ahuSustainabilityBremer, Leah L.; Falinski, Kim; Ching, Casey; Wada, Christopher A.; Burnett, Kimberly M.; Kukea-Shultz, Kanekoa; Reppun, Nicholas; Chun, Gregory; Oleson, Kirsten L.L.; Ticktin, Tamara20182018/12/14There are growing efforts around the world to restore biocultural systems that produce food while also providing additional cultural and ecological benefits. Yet, there are few examples of integrated assessments of these efforts, impeding understanding of how they can contribute to multi-level sustainability goals. In this study, we collaborated with a community-based non-profit in He‘eia, O‘ahu to evaluate future scenarios of traditional wetland and flooded field system agriculture (lo‘i kalo; taro fields) restoration in terms of locally-relevant cultural, ecological, and economic outcomes as well as broader State of Hawai‘i sustainability goals around food, energy, and water. Families participating in the biocultural restoration program described a suite of community and cultural benefits stemming from the process of restoration, including enhanced social connections, cultural (re)connections to place, and physical and mental well-being, which inspired their sustained participation. We also found benefits in terms of local food production that have the potential to provide economic returns and energy savings over time, particularly when carried out through a hybrid non-profit and family management model. These benefits were coupled with potential changes in sediment and nutrient retention with implications for water quality and the health of an important downstream fish pond (loko i‘a) and coral reef social-ecological system. Compared with the current land cover (primarily invasive grasses), results suggest that full restoration of lo‘i kalo would decrease sediment export by ~38%, but triple nitrogen export due to organic fertilizer additions. However, compared with an urban scenario, there were clear benefits of agricultural restoration in terms of reduced nitrogen and sediment runoff. In combination, our results demonstrate that a biocultural approach can support the social and financial sustainability of agricultural systems that provide multiple benefits valued by the local community and non-profit while also contributing to statewide sustainability goals.biocultural restoration; food energy water; ecosystem services; cultural services; sustainable agriculture; Hawai'i; taro; wetland agriculture; flooded field systems; lo'i kalo; sediment; nutrients
Returns on investment in watershed conservation: Application of a best practices analytical framework to the Rio Camboriú Water Producer program, Santa Catarina, BrazilScience of The Total EnvironmentKroeger, Timm; Klemz, Claudio; Boucher, Timothy; Fisher, Jonathan R.B.; Acosta, Eileen; Targa Cavassani, Andre; Dennedy-Frank, P. James; Garbossa, Luis; Blainski, Everton; Comparim Santos, Rafaela; Giberti, Silvana; Petry, Paulo; Shemie, Daniel; Dacol, Kelli20182018/12/14Watershed management may have widespread potential to cost-effectively deliver hydrologic services. Mobilizing the needed investments requires credible assessments of how watershed conservation compares to conventional solutions on cost and effectiveness, utilizing an integrated analytical framework that links the bio-, litho-, hydro- and economic spheres and uses counterfactuals. We apply such a framework to a payment for watershed services (PWS) program in Camboriú, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Using 1 m resolution satellite imagery, we assess recent land use and land cover (LULC) change and apply the Land Change Modeler tool to predict future LULC without the PWS program. We use current and predicted counterfactual LULC, site costs and a Soil and Water Assessment Tool model calibrated to the watershed to both target watershed interventions for sediment reduction and predict program impact on total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations at the municipal water intake—the principal program objective. Using local water treatment and PWS program costs, we estimate the return on investment (ROI; benefit/costs) of the program. Program ROI exceeds 1 for the municipal water utility in year 44, well within common drinking water infrastructure planning horizons. Because some program costs are borne by third parties, over that same period, for overall (social) program ROI to exceed 1 requires delivery of very modest flood and supply risk reduction and biodiversity co-benefits, making co-benefits crucial for social program justification. Transaction costs account for half of total program costs, a result of large investments in efficient targeting and program sustainability. Co-benefits justify increased cost sharing with other beneficiaries, which would increase ROI for the utility, demonstrating the sensitivity of the business case for watershed conservation to its broader social-economic case and the ability to forge institutional arrangements to internalize third-party benefits.integrated assessment model; watershed management; payments for watershed services; counterfactual; land use change modeling; transaction costs
Spread and impact of introduced conifers in South America: Lessons from other southern hemisphere regionsAustral EcologySimberloff, Daniel; Nunez, Martin A.; Ledgard, Nicholas J.; Pauchard, Anibal; Richardson, David M.; Sarasola, Mauro; Van Wilgen, Brian W.; Zalba, Sergio M.; Zenni, Rafael D.; Bustamante, Ramiro; Pena, Eduardo; Ziller, Silvia R.20102017/12/14
Spread of Phalaris arundinacea adversely impacts the endangered plant Howellia aquatilisGreat Basin NaturalistLesica, P19972017/12/14Invasive exotic species are considered one of the primary threats to native communities (Mooney and Drake 1986) and are a major concern to natural areas managers (Bratton 1982, Harty 1986). Exotics often displace native dominants, sometimes altering ...
Springsnails: A New Conservation Focus in Western North AmericaBioScienceHershler, Robert; Liu, Hsiu-Ping; Howard, Jeanette20142017/12/14
Squaretail coralgrouper Plectropomus areolatus reproduction in Pohnpei, Micronesia, using age-based techniquesJournal of Fish BiologyRhodes K.L., B.M. Taylor, C.B. Wichilmel, E. Joseph, R.J. Hamilton, G. Almany20132017/12/14
Standardising English names for Australian bird subspecies as a conservation toolBird Conservation InternationalGlenn Ehmke, James A. Fitzsimons, and Stephen T. Garnett20172017/12/14Over the last 25 years subspecies have become an important unit of bird conservation in Australia. Some have evocative common English names which have allowed the subspecies to be vested with meaning among conservation advocates, evoking feelings of concern, loyalty and affection. This suggests that providing subspecies with stable English names can allow development of a ÔbrandÕ among those in need of conservation action. Also, since scientific names often change with knowledge of taxonomic relationships among birds, a stable list of standardised English names for all species and subspecies can minimise confusion and ambiguity among the public and in legislation. Here we present the arguments for creating a standardised list of English names for Australian bird subspecies and set out principles for formulating subspecies names, along with a list of the names themselves, with the aim of building the general publicÕs attachment to subspecies, increasing interest in their conservation and as subjects of research.
Standardized catch and survival rates, and effect of a ban on shark retention, Palau pelagic longline fisheryAQUATIC CONSERVATION-MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMSGilman, Eric; Chaloupka, Milani; Merrifield, Matt; Malsol, Nanette D.; Cook, Chuck20162017/12/14
State and trends of the world desertsGlobal Deserts OutlookNavone, S., E. Abraham, M. Bargiela, D. Dent, C. Espoz-Alsina, A. Maggi, E. Montana, S. Morrison, G. Pastor, H. Rosatto, M. Salom„n, D. Soria, L. Torres, F. Roig-Ju_ent, C. Movia, W. Massad20062017/12/14
State-and-Transition Models: Conceptual Versus Simulation Perspectives, Usefulness and Breadth of Use, and Land Management ApplicationsEXOTIC BROME-GRASSES IN ARID AND SEMIARID ECOSYSTEMS OF THE WESTERN US: CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES, AND MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONSProvencher, Louis; Frid, Leonardo; Czembor, Christina; Morisette, Jeffrey T.20162017/12/14
State-and-transition simulation modeling to compare outcomes of alternative management scenarios under two natural disturbance regimes in a forested landscape in northeastern Wisconsin, USAAIMS Environmental ScienceAmanda Swearingen, Jessica Price, Janet Silbernagel, Randy Swaty, Nicholas Miller20152017/12/14Comparisons of the potential outcomes of multiple land management strategies and an understanding of the influence of potential increases in climate-related disturbances on these outcomes are essential for long term land management and conservation planning. To provide these insights, we developed an approach that uses collaborative scenario development and state-and-transition simulation modeling to provide land managers and conservation practitioners with a comparison of potential landscapes resulting from alternative management scenarios and climate conditions, and we have applied this approach in the Wild Rivers Legacy Forest (WRLF) area in northeastern Wisconsin. Three management scenarios were developed with input from local land managers, scientists, and conservation practitioners: 1) continuation of current management, 2) expanded working forest conservation easements, and 3) cooperative ecological forestry. Scenarios were modeled under current climate with contemporary probabilities of natural disturbance and under increased probability of windthrow and wildfire that may result from climate change in this region. All scenarios were modeled for 100 years using the VDDT/TELSA modeling suite. Results showed that landscape composition and configuration were relatively similar among scenarios, and that management had a stronger effect than increased probability of windthrow and wildfire. These findings suggest that the scale of the landscape analysis used here and the lack of differences in predominant management strategies between ownerships in this region play significant roles in scenario outcomes. The approach used here does not rely on complex mechanistic modeling of uncertain dynamics and can therefore be used as starting point for planning and further analysis.
State-level variation in conservation  investment  by  a  major  nongovernmental  organizationConservation LettersFishburn, I. S., P. Kareiva, K. J. Gaston, K. L. Evans, and P. R. Armsworth20092017/12/14
Status and conservation of an imperiled tiger beetle fauna in New York State, USAJournal of Insect ConservationSchlesinger, M.D., and P.G. Novak20112017/12/14
Status and distribution of the endangered benton cave crayfish, Cambarus aculabrum (Decapoda : Cambaridae)Southwestern NaturalistGraening, G. O.; Slay, Michael E.; Brown, Arthur V.; Koppelman, Jeffrey B.20062017/12/14We present the first summary of the status and distribution of the Benton cave crayfish (Cambarus aculabrum). The range of this endangered crayfish is limited to 4 sites globally (3 in Benton County and 1 in Washington County, Arkansas). The iden
Status and ecology of a rare gomphid  dragonfly  at the northern extent of its rangeNotes of the Northeastern NaturalistCorser, J20102017/12/14
Status of bottomland forests in the Albemarle Sound of North Carolina and Virginia, 1984-2012Lorber, Jean H.; Rose, Anita K.20152017/12/14bottomland hardwoods, FIA, forest inventory and analysis, growth, harvesting, removalse-Res. Pap. SRS-54
Status of Capture Fisheries in Eastern Indonesia.Short Literature Review from The Nature Conservancy Southeast Asia Center for Marine Protected Areas (SEACMPA), Sanur, Bali, Indonesia.Mous, P.J. & Pet, J.S.20032017/12/14
Status of coastal and marine resources: Implications for fisheries management and poverty in Southeast AsiaWhite, A20092017/12/14
Status of Diadema antillarum populations in Grand Anse Bay, Grenada, 30 years after mass mortalityBULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCENimrod, Stephen H.; Easter-Pilcher, Andrea L.; Aiken, Karl A.; Buddo, Dayne St A.; Franco, Chiara20172017/12/14
Status of Implementation and Sources of Leverage to Enhance Ambition.Conservation Science and PracticeLinda Krueger20162017/12/14This chapter reviews the role and status of legal frameworks and other commitments for protected areas. It explores the relationship between scientific evidence and political practicality in implementing current targets and achieving the more ambitious ones. Prompted by increasingly urgent scientific warnings on biodiversity loss and supported by an emerging international community of practice around protected areas, governments have been commendably responsive both through commitment and action in developing national protected area networks. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), signed at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, has gradually emerged as the most comprehensive legal framework for protected areas. Programme of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA) remains the framework for implementing protected area goals, although it has been supplemented by the Strategic Plan Targets, the Aichi Targets, adopted at the CBD's 10th Conference of the Parties (COP 10).Convention on Biological Diversity; government commitments; protected areas; Strategic Plan Targets
Status of international monitoring and management of abandoned, lost and discarded fishing gear and ghost fishingMARINE POLICYGilman, Eric20152017/12/14
Status update for bristly cave crayfish, Cambarus setosus (Decapoda : Cambaridae), and range extension into ArkansasSouthwestern NaturalistGraening, G. O.; Hobbs, Horton H., III; Slay, Michael E.; Elliott, William R.; Brown, Arthur V.20062017/12/14
Stewards CircleNatural Areas JournalLapin, B; Nothnagle, P19952017/12/14
Stochasticity in Natural Forage Production Affects Use of Urban Areas by Black Bears: Implications to Management of Human-Bear ConflictsPLoS ONEBaruch-Mordo, Sharon; Wilson, Kenneth R.; Lewis, David L.; Broderick, John; Mao, Julie S.; Breck, Stewart W.20142017/12/14
Stomatal sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit and its relationship to hydraulic conductance in Pinus palustrisTree PhysiologyAddington, RN; Mitchell, RJ; Oren, R; Donovan, LA20042017/12/14We studied the response of stomatal conductance at leaf (g S) and canopy (GS) scales to increasing vapor pressure deficit (D) in mature Pinus palustris Mill.(longleaf pine) growing in a sandhill habitat in the coastal plain of the southeastern US
Strategic  public  land use assessment and planning   in  Victoria,  Australia:   Four  decades of  trailblazing   but  where  to  from here?Land Use PolicyCoffey, B., J.A. Fitzsimons, and R. Gormly20102017/12/14
Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the Annual Cycle: Linking Policy Alternatives, Landowner Decisions, and Biological Population OutcomesPLOS ONEDrum, Ryan G.; Ribic, Christine A.; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric; Grant, Evan; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, David C., Jr.; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David20152017/12/14
Strategies and alliances needed to protect forest from palm-oil industryNatureVenter, Oscar; Meijaard, Erik; Wilson, Kerrie20082017/12/14Lian Pin Koh and David S. Wilcove propose in their Commentary'Cashing in palm oil for conservation'(Nature 448, 993Š—–994; 2007) that non-governmental organizations (NGOs) should purchase and operate oil-palm plantations, and that they should use the reve
Strategies for offsetting seasonal impacts of pumping on a nearby streamGround WaterBredehoeft, John; Kendy, Eloise20082017/12/14Ground water pumping from aquifer systems that are hydraulically connected to streams depletes streamflow. The amplitude and timing of stream depletion depend on the stream depletion factor (SDF i) of the pumping wells, which is a function of aqu
Strategies to protect forest from palm-oil industryNatureVenter, O., E. Meijaard, and K. Wilson20072017/12/14
Stream macroinvertebrate communities across a gradient of natural gas development in the Fayetteville ShaleSCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENTJohnson, Erica; Austin, Bradley J.; Inlander, Ethan; Gallipeau, Cory; Evans-White, Michelle A.; Entrekin, Sally20152017/12/14
Striking a Balance: Socioeconomic Development and Conservation in Grassland through Community-Based ZoningPLoS ONELeisher, Craig; Brouwer, Roy; Boucher, Timothy M.; Vogelij, Rogier; Bainbridge, W. R.; Sanjayan, M.20112017/12/14
Strong-Billed Woodcreeper (Xiphyocolaptes Promeropirhynchus) Attempting To Capture A MouseSouthwestern NaturalistPeak, Rebecca G.; Perez, Selvin E.; Herrera, Pablo20092017/12/14
Structure and composition of Costa Rican montane oak forestsEcology and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Oak ForestsKappelle, M20062017/12/1410.7 Conclusions The current chapter provides some insight into the structure, composition and diversity of Costa Rica's montane oak forest. It is meant to set the stage on this particularly rich and voluminous forest, in order to better understand its sp
Structure of isolated populations of Populus tremuloides (Quaking aspen) in the davis mountains of far-west texasNatural Areas JournalVan Auken, O. W.; Bush, J. K.; Richter, F. A.; Karges, J.20072017/12/14Populus tremuloides is one of the most widespread woody species in North America, occurring across Canada, the northern United States, and at higher elevations in the southwestern United States and parts of Mexico. In Texas, it is found only at t
Structured decision making as a conservation tool for recovery planning of two endangered salamandersJournal for Nature ConservationKatherine M. OÕDonnell, Arianne F. Messerman, William J. Barichivich, Raymond D. Semlitsch, Thomas A. Gorman, Harold G. Mitchell, Nathan Allan, DantŽ Fenolio, Adam Green, Fred A. Johnson, Allison Keever, Mark Mandica, Julien Martin, Jana Mott, Terry Peacock, Joseph Reinman, Stephanie S. Roma–ach, Greg Titus, Conor P. McGowan, Susan C. Walls2017/12/14At least one-third of all amphibian species face the threat of extinction, and current amphibian extinction rates are four orders of magnitude greater than background rates. Preventing extirpation often requires both ex situ (i.e., conservation breeding programs) and in situ strategies (i.e., protecting natural habitats). Flatwoods salamanders (Ambystoma bishopi and A. cingulatum) are protected under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The two species have decreased from 476 historical locations to 63 recently extant locations (86.8% loss). We suggest that recovery efforts are needed to increase populations and prevent extinction, but uncertainty regarding optimal actions in both ex situ and in situ realms hinders recovery planning. We used structured decision making (SDM) to address key uncertainties regarding both captive breeding and habitat restoration, and we developed short-, medium-, and long-term goals to achieve recovery objectives. By promoting a transparent, logical approach, SDM has proven vital to recovery plan development for flatwoods salamanders. The SDM approach has clear advantages over other previous approaches to recovery efforts, and we suggest that it should be considered for other complex decisions regarding endangered species.Adaptive management Ambystoma Amphibians Captive breeding Decision analysis Habitat restoration
Subjective risk assessment for planning conservation projectsEnvironmental Research LettersGame, Edward T.; Fitzsimons, James A.; Lipsett-Moore, Geoff; McDonald-Madden, Eve20132017/12/14
Successes, Failures and Suggested Future Directions for Ecosystem Restoration of the Middle Sacramento River, CaliforniaSan Francisco Estuary and Watershed ScienceGolet, Gregory H.; Brown, David L.; Carlson, Melinda; Gardali, Thomas; Henderson, Adam; Holl, Karen D.; et al.20132017/12/14
Successful Community Engagement and Implementation of a Conservation Plan in the Solomon Islands: A Local PerspectiveParksKereseka, J20142017/12/14
Suitability of Laurentian Great Lakes for invasive species based on global species distribution models and local habitatECOSPHEREKramer, Andrew M.; Annis, Gust; Wittmann, Marion E.; Chadderton, William L.; Rutherford, Edward S.; Lodge, David M.; Mason, Lacey; Beletsky, Dmitry; Riseng, Catherine; Drake, John M.20172017/12/14
Supercooling of the red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera : Formicidae) on a latitudinal temperature gradient in TexasSouthwestern NaturalistQuarles, A; Kostecke, RM; Phillips, SA20052017/12/14
Surveillance for West Nile Virus and Vaccination of Free-Ranging Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis) on Santa Cruz Island, CaliforniaVector-Borne And Zoonotic DiseasesBoyce, Walter M.; Vickers, Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Sillett, T. Scott; Caldwell, Luke; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Barker, Christopher M.; Cummings, Robert; Reisen, William K.20112017/12/14
Survival and Horizontal Movement of the Freshwater Mussel Potamilus capax (Green, 1832) Following Relocation within a Mississippi Delta Stream SystemAmerican Midland NaturalistPeck, Andrew J.; Harris, John L.; Farris, Jerry L.; Christian, Alan D.20142017/12/14
Survival and Mortality of Pumas (Puma concolor) in a Fragmented, Urbanizing LandscapePLOS ONEVickers, T. Winston; Sanchez, Jessica N.; Johnson, Christine K.; Morrison, Scott A.; Botta, Randy; Smith, Trish; Cohen, Brian S.; Huber, Patrick R.; Ernest, Holly B.; Boyce, Walter M.20152017/12/14
Survival Of Planted Star Cactus, Astrophytum Asterias, In Southern TexasSouthwestern NaturalistReemts, Charlotte M.; Conner, Patrick; Janssen, Gena K.; Wahl, Kimberly20142017/12/14
Survival rates of northern quahog (Mercenaria mercenaria) transplanted into Great South Bay, NYJournal of Shellfish ResearchLoBue, Carl; Clapp, Chris; Doall, Mike20082017/12/14
Surviving urbanization: Maintaining bird species diversity in urban MelbourneVictorian NaturalistWhite, J. G., J. A. Fitzsimons, C. G. Palmer, and M. J. Antos20092017/12/14
Susceptibility of Exotic Annual Grass Seeds to FireInvasive Plant Science and ManagementSara B. Sweet, Guy B. Kyser, Joseph M. DiTomaso20082017/12/14Prescribed burning can control invasive annual grasses that threaten the biological and economic value of California grasslands. Susceptibility of grass seed to burning can depend on burn timing, exposure time, and type of exposure (direct flame heat or convective heat); thus, these factors can influence the success of a prescribed burning program. To further investigate these factors, laboratory simulations were conducted on barb goatgrass, medusahead, and ripgut brome at several stages of seed maturity, as determined by percent moisture of the inflorescences. Seeds were exposed either to direct flame using a Bunsen burner or to heated air in a muffle furnace. Flame treatments were conducted at one temperature (_400 C) and several exposure times (0 to 14 s), depending on the species. Furnace treatments included four temperatures (150, 200, 250, and 300 C) and seven exposure times (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, or 80 s). Seed germination was analyzed for each temperature series to determine the LD50 and LD90 in seconds of exposure time. Susceptibility to furnace treatments, which simulated heat exposure of seeds on the soil surface, was not statistically different within a range of seed moisture levels for all three species. The LD50 values at 250 C (typical soil temperature with grassland fire) ranged from 28 to 49 s, which far exceeds the time of exposure during a typical grassland fire. Susceptibility to flame showed a similar lack of change over maturation of medusahead and barb goatgrass seeds, with LD90 values ranging between 4.8 and 7.4 s for all seed moisture levels. In contrast, ripgut brome seeds exposed to flame showed increasing susceptibility with reduced seed moisture content. The LD90 values for exposure were less than one second for seed moisture levels at or below 10%, compared to 3.7 s for seeds at 55 to 60%. Although flame susceptibility increased for ripgut brome, seeds at all maturation stages were more sensitive than medusahead and barb goatgrass. Additionally, the LD90 values for all three species are attainable under field conditions. Thus, burn prescriptions for these three species are not constrained by maturation stage, but should occur prior to seed drop and when fuel loading is high. This will maximize exposure time of seeds to direct flame.
Sustainability and biodiversityEncyclopedia of Biodiversity, second editionCavender-Bares, J., J. Heffernan, E. King, S. Polasky, P. Balvanera, and W.C. Clark. Sustainability and biodiversity20132017/12/14
Sustainability: map the evidenceNatureMcKinnon, Madeleine C.; Cheng, Samantha H.; Garside, Ruth; Masuda, Yuta J.; Miller, Daniel C.20152017/12/14
Sustainable Floodplains Through Large-Scale Reconnection to RiversScienceOpperman, Jeffrey J.; Galloway, Gerald E.; Fargione, Joseph; Mount, Jeffrey F.; Richter, Brian D.; Secchi, Silvia20092017/12/14
Sustainable management of Australia's coastal seascapes: a case for collecting and communicating quantitative evidence to inform decision-makingWETLANDS ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENTWegscheidl, Carla J.; Sheaves, Marcus; McLeod, Ian M.; Hedge, Paul T.; Gillies, Chris L.; Creighton, Colin20172017/12/14
Sustainable management of Great Lakes watersheds dominated by agricultural land useJournal of Great Lakes ResearchKerr, John M.; DePinto, Joseph V.; McGrath, Dennis; Sowa, Scott P.; Swinton, Scott M.20162017/12/14Runoff of agricultural nutrients and sediments has led to re-eutrophication of lakes and impaired stream health in the Great Lakes Basin since around 2000 following earlier success in protecting water quality. Substantial investment in conservation actions has had insufficient impact, due in part to a limited basis for understanding the likely environmental outcomes of those investments. This article introduces a special section focusing on promoting investment that produces environmental outcomes as opposed to investing in conservation actions with unknown effects. The special section contains articles in three main categories: 1) studies based on fine-grain SWAT and other simulation modeling that can guide the type, amount, and location of conservation investments to increase their environmental impact; 2) edge-of-field measurement studies that provide updated knowledge to assist in further refining models to increase their predictive power; and 3) articles presenting innovative approaches to incentivizing outcome-oriented conservation investment. Implementation approaches discussed include certifying private crop nutrient advisors as recommending only appropriate timing, amount, and placement of nutrients; working within the existing public drain management system to incentivize conservation; and others. The special section shows that advances in SWAT modeling provide a powerful basis for targeting conservation investments to protect water quality in the Great Lakes Basin, while also demonstrating opportunities to further refine the models. It illustrates both the opportunity and the need to engage in more innovative institutional design of agricultural management programs that go beyond the traditional government programs and do more to reward outcomes and not just actions.watershed modeling; Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT); non-point source pollution; harmful algal bloom; pay for performance; agriculture
Sustainable Water Management in the Southwestern United States: Reality or Rhetoric?PLoS ONEMarshall R.M., M.D. Robles, D.R. Majka, and J.A. Hane20102017/12/14
Sustainable water use: can certification show the way?InnovationsRichter, B20092017/12/14
Sustaining conservation values in selectively logged tropical forests: the attained and the attainableConservation LettersPutz, Francis E.; Zuidema, Pieter A.; Synnott, Timothy; Pena-Claros, Marielos; Pinard, Michelle A.; Sheil, Douglas; Vanclay, Jerome K.; Sist, Plinio; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Griscom, Bronson; Palmer, John; Zagt, Roderick20122017/12/14
Sustaining Our Natural Heritage: Ten (Suggested) Conservation CommandmentsMissouriensisLadd, Douglas20092017/12/14
Sustaining the flow of the world's riversJournal American Water Works AssociationRichter, Brian20082017/12/14
Sustaining the Grassland Sea: Regional Perspectives on Identifying, Protecting and Restoring the Sky Island Region's Most Intact Grassland Valley LandscapesBodner, G.S., P. Warren, D. Gori, K. Sartor, and S. Bassett20132017/12/14
Synergies and Tradeoffs Among Environmental Impacts Under Conservation Planning of Shale Gas Surface InfrastructureENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENTMilt, Austin W.; Gagnolet, Tamara; Armsworth, Paul R.20162017/12/14
Synergistic Patterns of Threat and the Challenges Facing Global Anguillid Eel ConservationGlobal Ecology and ConservationJacoby, David M.P., John M. Casselman, Vicki Crook, Mari-Beth DeLucia, Hyojin Ahn, Kenzo Kaifu, Tagried Kurwie, et al20152017/12/14
Synthesis and review: delivering on conservation promises: the challenges of managing and measuring conservation outcomesEnvironmental Research LettersAdams, Vanessa M.; Game, Edward T.; Bode, Michael20142017/12/14
Synthesizing Global and Local Datasets to Estimate Jurisdictional Forest Carbon Fluxes in Berau, IndonesiaPLOS ONEGriscom, Bronson W.; Ellis, Peter W.; Baccini, Alessandro; Marthinus, Delon; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Ruslandi20162017/12/14
System design and management for restoring penn's woodsJournal of ForestryJenkins, DH; Devlin, D; Johnson, NC; Orndorff, SP20042017/12/14Pennsylvania has embarked on establishing a half-million-acre old-growth system within its 2.1 million acres of state forest. If successful, this system will contribute to the restoration of ecological functions associated with old-growth forests that hav
Systematic Conservation Planning in the Face of Climate Change: Bet-Hedging on the Columbia PlateauPLoS ONESchloss, Carrie A.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Larson, Eric R.; Papendick, Hilary L.; Case, Michael J.; Evans, Daniel M.; Delap, Jack H.; Langdon, Jesse G. R.; Hall, Sonia A.; Mcrae, Brad H.20112017/12/14
Systematic Conservation Planning: A Better Recipe for Managing the High Seas for Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable UseConservation LettersBan, Natalie C.; Bax, Nicholas J.; Gjerde, Kristina M.; Devillers, Rodolphe; Dunn, Daniel C.; Dunstan, Piers K.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Maxwell, Sara M.; Kaplan, David M.; Pressey, Robert L.; Ardron, Jeff A.; Game, Edward T.; Halpin, Patrick N.20142017/12/14
Systematics And BiodiversityTrends in Ecology and EvolutionRejmanek, M; Ward, Ps; Webster, Gl; Randall, Jm19942017/12/14Men love to wonder, and that is the seed of our science-Ralph Waldo Emerson ife occurs on Earth in such abundant diversity that we have come to take it for granted. Around the world, people use directly tens of thousands of species of microbes, fungi, pla
Tailoring Global Data to Guide Corporate Investments in Biodiversity, Environmental Assessments and SustainabilitySustainabilityOakleaf, James R.; Kennedy, Christina M.; Boucher, Timothy; Kiesecker, Joseph20132017/12/14
Talking Big: Lessons Learned from a 9000 Hectare Restoration in the Northern Tallgrass PrairieSustainabilityGerla, Philip J.; Cornett, Meredith W.; Ekstein, Jason D.; Ahlering, Marissa A.20122017/12/14
Tamm Review: Are fuel treatments effective at achieving ecological and social objectives? A systematic reviewForest Ecology and ManagementElizabeth L. Kalies, Larissa L. Yocom Kent20162017/12/14The prevailing paradigm in the western U.S. is that the increase in stand-replacing wildfires in historically frequent-fire dry forests is due to unnatural fuel loads that have resulted from management activities including fire suppression, logging, and grazing, combined with more severe drought conditions and increasing temperatures. To counteract unnaturally high fuel loads, fuel reduction treatments which are designed to reduce fire hazard and improve overall ecosystem functioning have been increasing over the last decade. However, until recently much of what we knew about treatment effectiveness was based on modeling and predictive studies. Now, there are many examples of wildfires burning through both treated and untreated areas, and the effectiveness of treatments versus no action can be evaluated empirically. We carried out a systematic review to address the question: Are fuel treatments effective at achieving ecological and social (saving human lives and property) objectives? We found 56 studies addressing fuel treatment effectiveness in 8 states in the western US. There was general agreement that thin + burn treatments had positive effects in terms of reducing fire severity, tree mortality, and crown scorch. In contrast, burning or thinning alone had either less of an effect or none at all, compared to untreated sites. Most studies focused on carbon storage agreed that treatments do not necessarily store more carbon after wildfire, but result in less post-wildfire emissions and less carbon loss in a wildfire due to tree mortality. Understory responses are mixed across all treatments, and the response of other ecological attributes (e.g., soil, wildlife, water, insects) to treatment post-wildfire represents an important data gap; we provide a detailed agenda for future research. Overall, evidence is strong that thin + burn treatments meet the goal of reducing fire severity, and more research is needed to augment the few studies that indicate treatments protect human lives and property.Forest restoration; Fuel management; Prescribed fire; Treatment effectiveness; Western dry forests; Wildfire
Tapped out: how can cities secure their water future?Water PolicyRichter, Brian D.; Abell, David; Bacha, Emily; Brauman, Kate; Calos, Stavros; Cohn, Alex; Disla, Carlos; O'Brien, Sarah Friedlander; Hodges, David; Kaiser, Scott; Loughran, Maria; Mestre, Cristina; Reardon, Melissa; Siegfried, Emma20132017/12/14
Targeting Abundant Fish Stocks while Avoiding Overfished Species: Video and Fishing Surveys to Inform Management after Long-Term Fishery ClosuresPLoS OneStarr, Richard M.; Gleason, Mary G.; Marks, Corina I.; Kline, Donna; Rienecke, Steve; Denney, Christian; Tagini, Anne; Field, John C.20162017/12/14
Taxonomic uniqueness of the Javan Leopard; an opportunity for zoos to save itContributions To ZoologyGippoliti, Spartaco; Meijaard, Erik20072017/12/14The Javan leopard (Panthera pardus melas) is a distinct subspecies, basal to the phylogenetic tree of Asian leopards. At present this taxon is not specifically managed in captive breeding programs in America and Europe. As it is endangered in the
Temporal and Taxonomic Variability in Response of Fauna to Riparian RestorationRestoration EcologyGolet, Gregory H.; Gardali, Thomas; Hunt, John W.; Koenig, David A.; Williams, Neal M.20112017/12/14
Temporal assessment of a west Texas stream fish assemblageSouthwestern NaturalistBonner, TH; Thomas, C; Williams, CS; Karges, JP20052017/12/14We compared fish survey data across 3 collection periods (1952 to 1968, 1976 to 1994, and 2001 to 2002) from Independence Creek (Rio Grande drainage, Terrell County, Texas) to assess long-term changes in fish assemblage structure. The number of s
Temporal patterns in seedling establishment on pocket gopher disturbancesOecologiaForbis, TA; Larmore, J; Addis, E20042017/12/14Disturbances often facilitate seedling establishment, and can change the species composition of a community by increasing recruitment of disturbance-adapted species. To understand the effects of pocket gopher disturbances on alpine seedling dynam
Temporary wetlands: challenges and solutions to conserving a 'disappearing' ecosystemBIOLOGICAL CONSERVATIONCalhoun, Aram J. K.; Mushet, David M.; Bell, Kathleen P.; Boix, Dani; Fitzsimons, James A.; Isselin-Nondedeu, Francis20172017/12/14
Ten ways remote sensing can contribute to conservationConservation BiologyRose, Robert A.; Byler, Dirck; Eastman, J. Ron; Fleishman, Erica; Geller, Gary; Goetz, Scott; Guild, Liane; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matt; Headley, Rachel; Hewson, Jennifer; Horning, Ned; Kaplin, Beth A.; Laporte, Nadine; Leidner, Allison; Leinagruber, Pe20152017/12/14
Terrain and vegetation structural influences on local avian species richness in two mixed-conifer forestsRemote Sensing Of EnvironmentVogeler, Jody C.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Vierling, Lee A.; Evans, Jeffrey; Green, Patricia; Vierling, Kern I. T.20142017/12/14
Terrestrial biodiversityNelson, E., D. R. Cameron, J. Regetz, S. Polasky, and G. Daily20112017/12/14
Terrestrial ecosystems of South AmericaSayre, R., Bow, J., Josse, C., Sotomayor, L., & Touval, J20082017/12/14
Terrestrial Reserve Networks Do Not Adequately Represent Aquatic EcosystemsConservation BiologyHerbert, Matthew E.; Mcintyre, Peter B.; Doran, Patrick J.; Allan, J. David; Abell, Robin20102017/12/14
Terrestrial Scavenging of Marine Mammals: Cross-Ecosystem Contaminant Transfer and Potential Risks to Endangered California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus)ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGYKurle, Carolyn M.; Bakker, Victoria J.; Copeland, Holly; Burnett, Joe; Scherbinski, Jennie Jones; Brandt, Joseph; Finkelstein, Myra E.20162017/12/14
Terrestrial subsidies of organic carbon support net ecosystem production in temporary forest ponds: Evidence from an ecosystem experimentEcosystemsRubbo, Michael J.; Cole, Jonathan J.; Kiesecker, Joseph M.20062017/12/14Recent research suggests that secondary production in aquatic systems can be driven by inputs of energy from terrestrial sources. Temporary forest ponds appear to be unproductive ecosystems that are reliant upon allochthonous inputs of energy to
Terrigenous sediment impact on coral recruitment and growth affects the use of coral habitat by recruit parrotfishes (F. Scaridae)Journal Of Coastal ConservationDeMartini, E.; Jokiel, P.; Beets, J.; Stender, Y.; Storlazzi, C.; Minton, D.; Conklin, E.20132017/12/14
Test of multi-species spawning aggregationsHeyman, WD20042017/12/14
Testing the effects of ant invasions on non-ant arthropods with high-resolution taxonomic dataECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONSHanna, Cause; Naughton, Ida; Boser, Christina; Holway, David20152017/12/14
Testing the use of best professional judgment to create biological benchmarks for habitat assessment of wetlands and oak savannas in northwestern IndianaECOLOGICAL INDICATORSGordon, Brad; Rothrock, Paul E.; Labus, Paul20162017/12/14
The  impact  of  nature  experience  on willingness   to   support   conservationPLoS ONEZaradic, P. A., O. R. W. Pergams, and P. Kareiva20092017/12/14
The  status  of  wintering  Golden-cheeked  Warblers  in  NicaraguaKing, D. I., E. Herrera, S. Hernandez, C. A. Lively, D. W. Mehlman, J. A. Rappole, and D. Roth20092017/12/14Background Although the message of Š—“global climate changeŠ— is catalyzing international action, it is local and regional changes that directly affect people and ecosystems and are of immediate concern to scientists, managers, and policy makers. A major
The ''business'' of conservationGeotimesSawhill, JC19972017/12/14
The 10% Target: Where Do We Stand?Spalding, M. D., L. Wood, C. Fitzgerald, and K. Gjerde20102017/12/14
The 1991-1992 rapid ecological assessment of Palau's coral reefsCoral ReefsMaragos, JE; Cook, CW19952017/12/14The rapid economic assessment identified 45 marine sites worthy of special protection. Major stresses to Palau's coral reefs include sedimentation from soil erosion, overfishing, and damage from periodic storms and waves. Minor stresses include dredge-and
The abundance, distribution and edge associations of six non-indigenous, harmful plants across North CarolinaJournal of the Torrey Botanical SocietyMerriam, RW20032017/12/14Six species of non-indigenous, harmful plants were surveyed throughout North Carolina: Lonicera japonica, Rosa multiflora, Pueraria lobata, Ligustrum sinense, Ailanthus altissima, and Celastrus orbiculatus. On 417 randomly selected sites across the state,
The Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) Framework: A Tool for Incorporating Climate Change into Natural Resource ManagementEnvironmental ManagementCross, Molly S.; Zavaleta, Erika S.; Bachelet, Dominique; Brooks, Marjorie L.; Enquist, Carolyn A. F.; Fleishman, Erica; Graumlich, Lisa J.; Groves, Craig R.; Hannah, Lee; Hansen, Lara; Hayward, Greg; Koopman, Marni; Lawler, Joshua J.; Malcolm, Jay; Nordg20122017/12/14
The Ammophila problem on the Northwest Coast of North AmericaLandscape and Urban PlanningWiedemann, AM; Pickart, A19962017/12/14
The Arkansas Endemic Fauna: An Update With Additions, Deletions, A Synthesis Of New Distributional Records, And Changes In NomenclatureTexas Journal Of ScienceMcAllister, Chris T.; Robison, Henry W.; Slay, Michael E.20092017/12/14
The Atlas  of  Global  Conservation: Changes, Challenges, and Opportunities  to Make a DifferenceHoekstra, J. M., J. L. Molnar, M. Jennings, C. Revenga, M. D. Spalding, T. M. Boucher, J. C. Robertson, T. J. Heibel, and K. Ellison20102017/12/14
The bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) industry collapse in Virginia and its implications for the successful management of scallop-seagrass habitatsMARINE POLICYOreska, Matthew P. J.; Truitt, Barry; Orth, Robert J.; Luckenbach, Mark W.20172017/12/14
The benefits of crops and field management practices to wintering waterbirds in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of CaliforniaRenewable Agriculture and Food SystemsShuford, W. David; Reiter, Matthew E.; Strum, Khara M.; Gilbert, Michelle M.; Hickey, Catherine M.; Golet, Gregory H.20162017/12/14Agricultural intensification has been a major factor in the loss of global biodiversity. Still, agricultural landscapes provide important habitat for many bird species, particularly in the Central Valley of California, USA, where >90% of the natural wildlife habitat has been lost. As wildlife professionals increasingly work with agricultural producers to promote ‘wildlife-friendly’ farming, it is important to understand the relative value of specific crops and field management practices to birds. The value to wintering waterbirds of seven treatments (crop and management practice combinations) across two crops (corn and winter wheat) was assessed at Staten Island in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta of the Central Valley. Significant variation in the relative abundance of waterbirds was found among management practices, and post-harvest flooding and chopping and rolling (mulching) of corn were most beneficial to waterbirds. As expected, most waterbirds were common in flooded treatments, but geese, cranes and long-legged waders also were numerous in some dry treatments. Our data suggest that a greater waterbird species richness and abundance can be achieved by maintaining a mosaic of dry and flooded crop types, varying water depths and continuing the chop-and-roll practice for flooded corn. The observed benefits of particular crops and field management practices in this study should aid in the development of incentive-based programs to improve the habitat value of other working lands both within, and outside, the Delta.waterbird diversity; corn; winter wheat; wildlife-friendly agriculture; beneficial field management practices; agriculture
The benefits of crops and field management practices to wintering waterbirds in the Sacramento_San Joaquin River Delta of CaliforniaRenewable Agriculture and Food StstemsShuford, W.D.; Reiter, M.E.; Strum, K.M.; Gilbert, M.M.; Hickey, C.M.; Golet, G.H.20162017/12/14
The biodiversity value of groundwater-dependent ecosystems: A cataloguing of United States federally listed species thatdepend on groundwaterWSPEmilie Blevins and Allison Aldous20112017/12/14
The biotic environment: terrestrial ecosystemsPratt, L. W. C.; Gon III, S. M.19982017/12/14
The blowgun is mightier than the chainsaw in determining population density of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) in the forests of East KalimantanBiological ConservationMarshall, AJ; Nardiyono; Engstrom, LM; Pamungkas, B; Palapa, J; Meijaard, E; Stanley, SA20062017/12/14Due to its practical relevance to conservation, considerable efforts have been devoted to understanding the effects of logging on orangutan (Pongo spp.) population densities. Despite these efforts, consistent patterns have yet to emerge. We conducted oran
The breeding biology of the Critically Endangered Seychelles Scops-owl Otus insularis: consequences for conservation and managementBird Conservation InternationalCurrie, D; Fanchette, R; Millett, J; Hoareau, C; Shah, NJ20042017/12/14The endemic Seychelles Scops-owl Otus insularis is a Critically Endangered restricted-range species currently recorded only from the montane forest of Mah’©, the largest (152 km 2) and highest (903 m) island in the granitic Seychelles. Limited re
The breeding diet of Wedge-tailed Eagles Aquila audax in the absence of rabbits: Kangaroo Island, South AustraliaCorellaFitzsimons, J.A., K. Carlyon, J.L. Thomas, A.B. Rose20142017/12/14
The Caribbean coastal marine productivity program (CARICOMP)Bulletin of Marine ScienceAlcolado, PM; Alleng, G; Bonair, K; Bone, D; Buchan, K; Bush, PG; De Meyer, K; Garcia, JR; Garzon-Ferreira, J; Gayle, PMH; Gerace, DT; Geraldes, FX; Jordan-Dahlgren, E; Kjferve, B; Klein, E; Koltes, K; Laydoo, RS; Linton, DM; Ogden, JC; Oxenford, HA; Park20012017/12/14CARICOMP is a regional scientific program to study land-sea interaction processes in the Caribbean coastal zone. It has been collecting data since 1992, when a Data Management Centre was established at the University of the West Indies in Jamaica. Initial
The case for improved forest management (IFM) as a priority REDD plus strategy in the tropicsTropical Conservation ScienceGriscom, Bronson W.; Cortez, Rane20132017/12/14
The Challenge of Sustainable Groundwater Management in CaliforniaSUSTAINABLE WATER: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS FROM CALIFORNIAWendell, Daniel; Hall, Maurice20152017/12/14
The changing role of ecohydrological science in guiding environmental flowsHydrological Sciences Journal-Journal Des Sciences HydrologiquesAcreman, M. C.; Overton, I. C.; King, J.; Wood, P. J.; Cowx, I. G.; Dunbar, M. J.; Kendy, E.; Young, W. J.20142017/12/14
The codevelopment of coastal fisheries monitoring methods to support local managementECOLOGY AND SOCIETYSchemmel, Eva; Friedlander, Alan M.; Andrade, Pelika; Keakealani, Ku'ulei; Castro, Linda M.; Wiggins, Chad; Wilcox, Bart A.; Yasutake, Yumi; Kittinger, John N.20162017/12/14
The Condor Bioreserve in Ecuador - Use of the functional landscape approach to conservation of Montane ecosystemsMountain Research And DevelopmentBenitez, PS20032017/12/14The tropical Andes region has extraordinary biological diversity with considerable endemism. The complex topography, climate, geology, and biogeographic history of the Andes have helped create a high turnover in species over distance and along st
The contribution of long-term research at Gombe National Park to chimpanzee conservationConservation BiologyPusey, Anne E.; Pintea, Lilian; Wilson, Michael L.; Kamenya, Shadrack; Goodall, Jane20072017/12/14
The coral reef crisis: The critical importance of  350 ppm CO2Marine Pollution BulletinVeron, J. E. N.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Lenton, T. M.; Lough, J. M.; Obura, D. O.; Pearce-Kelly, P.; Sheppard, C. R. C.; Spalding, M.; Stafford-Smith, M. G.; Rogers, A. D.20092017/12/14
The Coral TriangleVeron, John (Charlie) E. N.; DeVantier, Lyndon M.; Turak, Emre; Green, Alison L.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Stafford-Smith, M.; Peterson, N.20112017/12/14
The Coral Triangle Atlas: An Integrated Online Spatial Database System for Improving Coral Reef ManagementPLoS ONECros, Annick; Fatan, Nurulhuda Ahamad; White, Alan; Teoh, Shwu Jiau; Tan, Stanley; Handayani, Christian; Huang, Charles; Peterson, Nate; Li, Ruben Venegas; Siry, Hendra Yusran; Fitriana, Ria; Gove, Jamison; Acoba, Tomoko; Knight, Maurice; Acosta, Renerio;20142017/12/14
The costs of avoiding environmental impacts from shale-gas surface infrastructureCONSERVATION BIOLOGYMilt, Austin W.; Gagnolet, Tamara D.; Armsworth, Paul R.20162017/12/14
The Cosumnes River Preserve: 1987-95 fertile ground for new conservation ideasFremontiaReiner, R.19962017/12/14
The Cumberland Plateau disjunct paradox and the biodiversity and conservation of pond-breeding amphibiansAmerican Midland NaturalistCorser, J.D.20072017/12/14
The current state of knowledge on mangrove fishery values.Hutchison, J., P. zu Ermgassen, M. Spalding20152017/12/14Mangroves are widely understood to be important habitats for fisheries, supporting resident fish, crustacean, and mollusk populations as well as acting as nursery grounds for species that are targeted by offshore fisheries. There is, however, a lack of quantitative data on fisheries that operate in and around mangroves. We carried out a systematic search to gather data on mangrove fisheries from the scientific literature. We filtered the 4,358 studies returned by the search based on their title and abstract and extracted data from 169 of these. Despite the abundance of literature on mangrove fisheries, we were unable to build a data set of comparable, quantitative data of sufficient size to support numerical modeling approaches. In part, this is due to the variety of mangrove fisheries, which range from small-scale subsistence fishing for mollusks and crabs to large-scale industrialized prawn trawling. This is compounded by the broad range of reporting methods and metrics encountered in the literature. We make a number of recommendations to guide the future reporting of mangrove fisheries to allow for better quantification and comparison of fisheries values at large spatial scales.range of reporting methods and metrics encountered in the literature. We make a number of recommendations to guide the future reporting of mangrove fisheries to allow for better quantification and comparison of fisheries values at large spatial scales.mangrove
The dangers of black-and-white conservationConservation BiologyWiens, John20072017/12/14The world is a complex place. To simplify this complexity, people often reduce it to simple eitherŠ—–or choicesŠ—”black or white, do or don't, yes or no, winners or losers, nature or nurture, and so on. Even our computer systems are based on binary logic.
The decline of native freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida) in California as determined from historical and current surveysCALIFORNIA FISH AND GAMEHoward, Jeanette K.; Furnish, Joseph L.; Box, Jayne Brim; Jepsen, Sarina20152017/12/14
The difficulties of single factor thinking in restoration: Replanting a rare cactus in the Florida Keys.Biological Conservation Stiling, P., A. Rossi, and D. Gordon.20002017/12/14
The disappearing mammal fauna of northern Australia: context, cause, and responseConservation LettersWoinarski, John C. Z.; Legge, Sarah; Fitzsimons, James A.; Traill, Barry J.; Burbidge, Andrew A.; Fisher, Alaric; Firth, Ron S. C.; Gordon, Iain J.; Griffiths, Anthony D.; Johnson, Christopher N.; McKenzie, Norm L.; Palmer, Carol; Radford, Ian; Rankmore,20112017/12/14
The Distribution of fishes and patterns of  biodiversity in the Caura River BasinBulletin of Biological AssessmentChernoff, B., A. Machado-Allison, P. Willink, F. Provenzano and P. Petry20032017/12/14
The distributions of one invasive and two native crayfishes in relation to coarse-scale natural and anthropogenic factorsFreshwater BiologyWesthoff, J. T.; Rabeni, C. F.; Sowa, S. P.20112017/12/14
The Dynamic Reference Concept: Measuring Restoration Success in a Rapidly Changing No-Analogue FutureEcological RestorationHiers, J.K., R.J. Mitchell, A. Barnett, J.R. Walters, M. Mack, B. Williams, and R. Sutter20122017/12/14
The eBird enterprise: An integrated approach to development and application of citizen scienceBiological ConservationSullivan, Brian L.; Aycrigg, Jocelyn L.; Barry, Jessie H.; Bonney, Rick E.; Bruns, Nicholas; Cooper, Caren B.; Damoulas, Theo; Dhondt, Andre A.; Dietterich, Tom; Farnsworth, Andrew; Fink, Daniel; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Fredericks, Thomas; Gerbracht, Jeff;20142017/12/14
The Ecological Footprint Remains a Misleading Metric of Global SustainabilityPlos BiologyBlomqvist, Linus; Brook, Barry W.; Ellis, Erle C.; Kareiva, Peter M.; Nordhaus, Ted; Shellenberger, Michael20132017/12/14
The ecological future of the north American Bison: Conceiving long-term, large-scale conservation of wildlifeConservation BiologySanderson, Eric W.; Redforda, Kent H.; Weber, Bill; Aune, Keith; Baldes, Dick; Berger, Joel; Carter, Dave; Curtin, Charles; Derr, James; Dobrott, Steve; Fearn, Eva; Fleener, Craig; Forrest, Steve; Gerlach, Craig; Gates, Cormack; Gross, John E.; Gogan, Pet20082017/12/14
The Ecological Impact of BiofuelsFargione, Joseph E.; Plevin, Richard J.; Hill, Jason D.20102017/12/14
The ecological impact of humans and dogs on wildlife in protected areas in eastern North AmericaBIOLOGICAL CONSERVATIONParsons, Arielle Waldstein; Bland, Christina; Forrester, Tavis; Baker-Whatton, Megan C.; Schuttler, Stephanie G.; McShea, William J.; Costello, Robert; Kays, Roland20162017/12/14
The ecological importance of a recently discovered intertidal sabellariid reef in St. Croix, US Virgin IslandsCaribbean Journal Of ScienceMcCarthy, Daniel A.; Kramer, Philip; Price, Janice R.; Donato, Candace L.20082017/12/14In Florida, the reef-building polychaete Phragmatopoma lapidosa is important in enhancing local biodiversity via the shelter it provides for various fish and invertebrate species. While the range of P. lapidosa extends south to Brazil, it is r
The ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA): a new framework for developing regional environmental flow standardsFreshwater BiologyPoff, N. Leroy; Richter, Brian D.; Arthington, Angela H.; Bunn, Stuart E.; Naiman, Robert J.; Kendy, Eloise; Acreman, Mike; Apse, Colin; Bledsoe, Brian P.; Freeman, Mary C.; Henriksen, James; Jacobson, Robert B.; Kennen, Jonathan G.; Merritt, David M.; O'20102017/12/14
The Ecology, Status, And Conservation Of 2 Non-Alluvial Wetland Communities In The South-Atlantic And Eastern Gulf Coastal-Plain, UsaBiological ConservationSutter, Rd; Kral, R19942017/12/14
The Economics of Deforestation in the Amazon PrefaceEconomics Of Deforestation In The Amazon: Dispelling The MythsCampari, Joao S.20052017/12/14
The effect of benthic prey abun- dance and size on red knot (Calidris  canutus) distribution at an alternative migratory stopover site on the US Atlantic CoastJournal of OrnithologyCohen, J. B., S. M. Karpanty, J. D. Fraser, and B. R. Truitt20102017/12/14
The effect of coachwhip presence on body size of North American racers suggests competition between these sympatric snakesJournal Of ZoologySteen, D. A.; McClure, C. J. W.; Smith, L. L.; Halstead, B. J.; Dodd, C. K., Jr.; Sutton, W. B.; Lee, J. R.; Baxley, D. L.; Humphries, W. J.; Guyer, C.20132017/12/14
The effect of urban growth on landscape-scale restoration for a fire-dependent songbirdJOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENTPickens, Bradley A.; Marcus, Jeffrey F.; Carpenter, John P.; Anderson, Scott; Taillie, Paul J.; Collazo, Jaime A.20172017/12/14
The effectiveness of conservation interventions to overcome the urban-environmental paradoxYEAR IN ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION BIOLOGYMcDonald, Robert I.20152017/12/14
The effectiveness of conservation interventions to overcome the urban_environmental paradoxAnnals of the New York Academy of SciencesRobert I. McDonald20152017/12/14Globally, urbanization is rapidly growing cities and towns at a historically unprecedented rate, and this rapid urban growth is influencing many facets of the environment. This paper reviews the effectiveness of conservation interventions that are designed to increase urban sustainability. It presents evidence for an apparent urban_environmental paradox: while the process of urban growth converts natural habitat to other land covers and degrades natural resources and ecosystem function, the increase in human population can increase demand for natural resources and ecosystem services. The fundamental problem that many conservation interventions try to address is that most facets of the environment are common or public goods, and are hence undervalued in decision making (market failure). The paper presents a threefold classification of conservation interventions in cities: conservation in the city (protecting biodiversity), conservation by the city (reducing per capita resource and energy use), and conservation for cities (projects that maintain or enhance ecosystem services). It ends by discussing methods for spatially targeting conservation interventions of all three types and for quantifying the effectiveness of interventions retrospectively.
The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptationNature CommunicationsF Ferrario, MW Beck, CD Storlazzi, F Micheli, CC Shepard, L Airoldi20142017/12/14
The Effectiveness of Coral Reefs for Coastal Risk Reduction and Climate AdaptationMW Beck20152017/12/14
The effects of phenology on indirect measures of aboveground biomass in annual grassesInternational Journal Of Remote SensingButterfield, H. S.; Malmstroem, C. M.20092017/12/14Remote sensing is increasingly being used to quantify vegetation biomass across large areas, often with algorithms based on calibrated relationships between biomass and indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). To improve capacity
The effects of pollen removal on the duration of the staminate phase of Centropogon talamancensisBrenesiaKoptur, S., E.N. Davila, D.R. Gordon, B.J. Davis McPhail, C.G. Murphy and J.B. Slowinski19902017/12/14
The Effects of Sub-Regional Climate Velocity on the Distribution and Spatial Extent of Marine Species AssemblagesPLOS ONEKleisner, Kristin M.; Fogarty, Michael J.; McGee, Sally; Barnette, Analie; Fratantoni, Paula; Greene, Jennifer; Hare, Jonathan A.; Luceyl, Sean M.; McGuire, Christopher; Odell, Jay; Saba, Vincent S.; Smith, Laurel; Weaver, Katherine J.; Pinsky, Malin L.20162017/12/14Many studies illustrate variable patterns in individual species distribution shifts in response to changing temperature. However, an assemblage, a group of species that shares a common environmental niche, will likely exhibit similar responses to climate changes, and these community-level responses may have significant implications for ecosystem function. Therefore, we examine the relationship between observed shifts of species in assemblages and regional climate velocity (i.e., the rate and direction of change of temperature isotherms). The assemblages are defined in two sub-regions of the U.S. Northeast Shelf that have heterogeneous oceanography and bathymetry using four decades of bottom trawl survey data and we explore temporal changes in distribution, spatial range extent, thermal habitat area, and biomass, within assemblages. These sub-regional analyses allow the dissection of the relative roles of regional climate velocity and local physiography in shaping observed distribution shifts. We find that assemblages of species associated with shallower, warmer waters tend to shift west-southwest and to shallower waters over time, possibly towards cooler temperatures in the semi-enclosed Gulf of Maine, while species assemblages associated with relatively cooler and deeper waters shift deeper, but with little latitudinal change. Conversely, species assemblages associated with warmer and shallower water on the broad, shallow continental shelf from the Mid-Atlantic Bight to Georges Bank shift strongly northeast along latitudinal gradients with little change in depth. Shifts in depth among the southern species associated with deeper and cooler waters are more variable, although predominantly shifts are toward deeper waters. In addition, spatial expansion and contraction of species assemblages in each region corresponds to the area of suitable thermal habitat, but is inversely related to assemblage biomass. This suggests that assemblage distribution shifts in conjunction with expansion or contraction of thermal habitat acts to compress or stretch marine species assemblages, which may respectively amplify or dilute species interactions to an extent that is rarely considered. Overall, regional differences in climate change effects on the movement and extent of species assemblages hold important implications for management, mitigation, and adaptation on the U.S. Northeast Shelf.
The efficacy of salvage logging in reducing subsequent fire severity in conifer-dominated forests of Minnesota, USAEcological ApplicationsFraver, Shawn; Jain, Theresa; Bradford, John B.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Kastendick, Doug; Palik, Brian; Shinneman, Doug; Stanovick, John20112017/12/14
The efficacy of simple viability models in ecological risk assessment: does density dependence matter?EcologySabo, J., E. Holmes, and P. Kareiva20042017/12/14
The Elusive Pursuit of Interdisciplinarity at the Human-Environment InterfaceBioScienceRoy, Eric D.; Morzillo, Anita T.; Seijo, Francisco; Reddy, Sheila M. W.; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M.; Milder, Jeffrey C.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Martin, Sherry L.20132017/12/14
The Energy Footprint: How Oil, Natural Gas, and Wind Energy Affect Land for Biodiversity and the Flow of Ecosystem ServicesBioScienceJones, N.F., Pejchar, L. & Kiesecker, J.M.20152017/12/14Society's growing demand for clean and abundant energy has repercussions for biodiversity and human well-being. Directives for renewable energy, energy security, and technological advancements such as horizontal drilling in conjunction with hydraulic fracturing have spurred a rapid increase in alternative and unconventional energy production over the last decade. Given the projected increases in oil, gas, and wind energy development, we synthesize and compare known impacts on wildlife mortality, habitat loss, fragmentation, noise and light pollution, invasive species, and changes in carbon stock and water resources. The literature on these impacts is unevenly distributed among energy types, geographic regions, and taxonomic groups. Therefore, we suggest priorities for research and practice, including using a landscape approach to predict and plan for the cumulative effects of development. Understanding the full consequences of energy production is necessary for meeting demand while also safeguarding the ecological systems on which we depend.
The essential nonscience of eradication programmes: creating conditions for successIsland Invasives: Eradication and ManagementMorrison, S. A., K. R. Faulkner, L. A. Vermeer, L. Lozier, and M. R. Shaw20112017/12/14
The evidence and values underlying 'new conservation'Trends in Ecology and EvolutionMarvier, Michelle; Kareiva, Peter20142017/12/14
The evolving linkage between conservation science and practice at The Nature ConservancyJournal of Applied EcologyKareiva, Peter; Groves, Craig; Marvier, Michelle20142017/12/14
The face of conservation responding to a dynamically changing worldINTEGRATIVE ZOOLOGYWiederholt, Ruscena; Trainor, Anne M.; Michel, Nicole; Shirey, Patrick D.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Tallamy, Doug; Cook-Patton, Susan C.20152017/12/14In its 40-year history, the science of conservation has faced unprecedented challenges in terms of environmental damage and rapid global change, and environmental problems are only increasing as greater demands are placed on limited natural resources. Conservation science has been adapting to keep pace with these changes. Here, we highlight contemporary and emerging trends and innovations in conservation science that we believe represent the most effective responses to biodiversity threats. We focus on specific areas where conservation science has had to adjust its approach to address emerging threats to biodiversity, including habitat destruction and degradation, climate change, declining populations and invasive species. We also document changes in attitudes, norms and practices among conservation scientists. A key component to success is engaging and maintaining public support for conservation, which can be facilitated through the use of technology. These recent trends in conservation and management are innovative and will assist in optimizing conservation strategies, increasing our leverage with the general public and tackling our current environmental challenges.
The faces of Bacidia schweinitzii: molecular and morphological data reveal three new species including a widespread sorediate morphBRYOLOGISTLendemer, James C.; Harris, Richard C.; Ladd, Douglas20162017/12/14Bacidia schweinitzii is a common crustose lichen that is widespread in eastern North America. It is comprised of three distinct morphotypes differing in apothecial pigmentation. Here we show that molecular data from the mtSSU region affirms the distinctiveness of these morphotypes, prompting the recognition of three species: B. schweinitzii s.str., B. ekmaniana sp. nov. and B. purpurans sp. nov. We also show that a common sorediate crustose lichen, sympatric with B. schweinitzii, represents a monophyletic lineage whose relationship with B. schweinitzii s.str. could not be resolved with certainty using analyses of ITS and mtSSU sequence data. We recognize this sorediate lineage as a distinct species, B. sorediata sp. nov. All four taxa are described, illustrated and mapped.Bacidiaceae, crustose lichen, pigment morph, sterile crust
The Fate of Coho Salmon Nomads: The Story of an Estuarine-Rearing Strategy Promoting ResilienceEcology and SocietyKoski, K. V.20092017/12/14
The feasible supply of RED credits: Less than predicted by technical modelsResources for the Future Issue BriefMadeira, E.M., M.J. Coren, and C. Streck20102017/12/14
The Forest-Drinking Water Connection: Making Woodlands Work for People and NatureAmerican Water Works Authority JournalJenkins, D.H. and S. Repasch20102017/12/14
The former status of the white-shouldered ibis Pseudibis davisoni on the Barito and Teweh Rivers, Indonesian BorneoRaffles Bulletin Of ZoologyMeijaard, E; van Balen, SB; Nijman, V20052017/12/14
The Future of Global Urbanization and the EnvironmentSolutionsRobert McDonald, Burak Guneralp, W. Zipperer, Peter Marcotullio20152017/12/14Using findings of the Cities and Biodiversity Outlook (CBO), we propose three specific solutions to mitigate the loss of ecosystem services and biodiversity in our urban and urbanizing landscapes. The CBO identified continued loss of critical habitats for biodiversity conservation and degradation of many important ecosystem services due to urbanization. The fact that most ecosystem services and biodiversity itself are common goods facilitates this loss and degradation. To address this issue, a fundamental solution can be giving value to ecosystem services and biodiversity in the marketplace and firmly incorporating them in urban planning processes. This solution can be achieved with a three-pronged approach: (1) ecosystem services can be conceived as a utility similar to the provision of electricity and water, and cities can structure their governance and urban planning processes to ensure adequate ecosystem service provision; (2) the local level solutions, especially in places where urban expansion encroaches upon biodiversity hotspots, can go a long way in the conservation of biodiversity at the global level; and (3) the well-being of biodiversity and the sustainability of ecosystem services in the face of humanityÍs massive urbanization require coordination by governments at all levels. Thus, as the world becomes ever more urban, urban decision-makers and citizens will need to not only re-connect to nature, but also adopt policies to integrate nature into our daily lives.
The future role of dams in the United States of AmericaWATER RESOURCES RESEARCHHo, Michelle; Lall, Upmanu; Allaire, Maura; Devineni, Naresh; Kwon, Hyun Han; Pal, Indrani; Raff, David; Wegner, David20172017/12/14
The geography of mammals and rivers in mainland Southeast AsiaMeijaard, E. and Groves, C.P20062017/12/14
The Gray Zone: relationships between habitat loss and marine diversity and their applications in conservationJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyL Airoldi, D Balata, MW Beck20082017/12/14
The growth of easements as a conservation toolPLoS ONEFishburn, I. S., P. Kareiva, K. J. Gaston, and P. R. Armsworth20092017/12/14Background The numerous studies examining where efforts to conserve biodiversity should be targeted are not matched by comparable research efforts addressing how conservation investments should be structured and what balance of conservation approaches wor
The herpetofauna of Sonora, Mexico, with comparisons to adjoining statesChecklistEnderson, E.F., Quijada-Mascare_as, A., Turner, D.S., Rosen, P.C., Bezy, R.L.20092017/12/14Situated in the topographically complex transition between the Neotropics and the temperate biomes of North America, the state of Sonora, Mexico, has an extraordinarily diverse herpetofauna. Surprisingly little research has been conducted on the
The Herpetofauna of the Camp Shelby Joint Forces Training Center in the Gulf Coastal Plain of MississippiSoutheastern NaturalistLee, James R.20092017/12/14
The Hidden Frontier of Forest Degradation: A Review of the Science, Policy and Practice of Reducing Degradation EmissionsBronson Griscom, David Ganz, Nicole Virgilio, Fran Price, Jeff Hayward, Rane Cortez, Gary Dodge, Jack Hurd, Frank L. Lowenstein, Bill Stanley20092017/12/14
The high-elevation population of Mountain Plovers in ColoradoCondorWunder, MB; Knopf, FL; Pague, CA20032017/12/14We surveyed a discrete population of Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus) in South Park, Park County, Colorado, to determine the size and relative contribution of this geographically isolated area to the global population of plovers. First, we
The high-population of mountain plovers in ColoradoThe Condor Wunder, M. B., F. L. Knopf, and C. A. Pague20032017/12/14
The Human Footprint in Mexico: Physical Geography and Historical LegaciesPLOS ONEGonzalez-Abraham, Charlotte; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Garcillan, Pedro P.; Ortega-Rubio, Alfredo; Kolb, Melanie; Bezaury Creel, Juan E.20152017/12/14
The humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus: synopsis of a threatened and poorly known giant coral reef.Reviews in Fish Biology and FisheriesSadovy, Y; Kulbicki, M; Labrosse, P; Letourneur, Y; Lokani, P; Donaldson, TJ20032017/12/14
The hydromorphology of an urbanizing watershed using multivariate elasticityADVANCES IN WATER RESOURCESAllaire, Maura C.; Vogel, Richard M.; Kroll, Charles N.20152017/12/14
The identification, conservation, and management of estuarine and marine nurseries for fish and invertebrates: A better understanding of the habitats that serve as nurseries for marine species and the factors that create site-specific variability in nursery quality will improve conservation and management of these areasBioScienceBeck, M. W., Heck Jr, K. L., Able, K. W., Childers, D. L., Eggleston, D. B., Gillanders, B. M., ... & Weinstein, M. P.20012017/12/14
The Illinois River-Floodplain ecosystem: Conservation planning on a watershed-scaleOlmstead, CJ; Nelson, M19962017/12/14
The impact of climate change on California's ecosystem services (vol 109, S465, 2011)Climatic ChangeShaw, M. Rebecca; Pendleton, Linwood; Cameron, D. Richard; Morris, Belinda; Bachelet, Dominique; Klausmeyer, Kirk; MacKenzie, Jason; Conklin, David R.; Bratman, Gregory N.; Lenihan, James; Haunreiter, Erik; Daly, Christopher; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.20122017/12/14
The impact of combined grass and wetland easements on agricultural land values in South DakotaJournal of Property EconomicsShultz, S. and D. Pool20062017/12/14Introduction An understanding of the impact of conservation easements on the resale values of land in production agriculture is essential for the calculation of" fair market" easement payment values by numerous federal and state agencies and non-governmenreprinted from the Journal of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers, agriculture
The impact of ENSO on coral heat stress in the western equatorial PacificGLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGYKleypas, Joan A.; Castruccio, Frederic S.; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Mcleod, Elizabeth20152017/12/14The Coral Triangle encompasses an extensive region of coral reefs in the western tropical Pacific with marine resources that support millions of people. As in all other reef regions, coral reefs in the Coral Triangle have been impacted by anomalously high ocean temperature. The vast majority of bleaching observations to date have been associated with the 1998 La NiÐa phase of ENSO. To understand the significance of ENSO and other climatic oscillations to heat stress in the Coral Triangle, we use a 5-km resolution Regional Ocean Model System for the Coral Triangle (CT-ROMS) to study ocean temperature thresholds and variability for the 1960_2007 historical period. Heat-stress events are more frequent during La NiÐa events, but occur under all climatic conditions, reflecting an overall warming trend since the 1970s. Mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the region increased an average of ~ 0.1 ÁC per decade over the time period, but with considerable spatial variability. The spatial patterns of SST and heat stress across the Coral Triangle reflect the complex bathymetry and oceanography. The patterns did not change significantly over time or with shifts in ENSO. Several regions experienced little to no heat stress over the entire period. Of particular interest to marine conservation are regions where there are few records of coral bleaching despite the presence of significant heat stress, such as in the Banda Sea. Although this may be due to under-reporting of bleaching events, it may also be due to physical factors such as mixing and cloudiness, or biological factors that reduce sensitivity to heat stress.
The impact of giant panda foraging on bamboo dynamics in an isolated environmentPlant EcologyHull, Vanessa; Shortridge, Ashton; Liu, Bin; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Xiaoping; Huang, Jinyan; Zhou, Shiqiang; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo20112017/12/14
The impacts and opportunities of oil palm in Southeast Asia. What do we know and what do we need to know?CIFOR Occasional PaperSheil, D., A. Casson, E. Meijaard, M. van Noordwijk, J. Gaskell, J. Sunderland-Groves, K. Wertz, and M. Kanninen20092017/12/14
The implementation challenge: Taking stock of government policies to protect and restore environmental flowsLe Quesne T, Kendy E, Weston D.20102017/12/14
The implications of current and future urbanization for global protected areas and biodiversity conservationBiological ConservationMcdonald, Robert I.; Kareiva, Peter; Formana, Richard T. T.20082017/12/14Due to human population growth and migration, there will be nearly 2 billion new urban residents by 2030, yet the consequences of both current and future urbanization for biodiversity conservation are poorly known. Here we show that urban growth will have
The Importance of Benthic Habitats for Coastal FisheriesBIOSCIENCEKritzer, Jacob P.; Delucia, Mari-Beth; Greene, Emily; Shumway, Caroly; Topolski, Marek F.; Thomas-Blate, Jessie; Chiarella, Louis A.; Davy, Kay B.; Smith, Kent20162017/12/14
The Importance of Conserving Biodiversity Outside of Protected Areas in Mediterranean EcosystemsPLoS ONECox, Robin L.; Underwood, Emma C.20112017/12/14
The importance of interdisciplinary research in conservation networks: lessons from south-eastern AustraliaFitzsimons, James; Wescott, Geoff20132017/12/14
The Importance Of Selecting A Sampling Model Before Data-Collection - An Example Using The Endangered Humboldt Milk-Vetch (Astragalus-Agnicidus Barneby)Natural Areas JournalPickart, Aj; Stauffer, Hb19942017/12/14
The Importance of Species: Perspectives on Expendability and TriageProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesKareiva, P and S. Levin (editors)20032017/12/14A great many species are threatened by the expanding human population. Though the public generally favors environmental protection, conservation does not come without sacrifice and cost. Many decision makers wonder if every species is worth the trouble. O
The importance of the floodplain in the life cycle of migratory fishes in central AmazonCox, C.F. and P. Petry19912017/12/14
The importance of understanding self-governance efforts in coastal fisheries in Peru: insights from La Islilla and IloBULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCENakandakari, Alexis; Caillaux, Matias; Zavala, Jose; Gelcich, Stefan; Ghersi, Fernando20172017/12/14
The influence of a threatened species focus on conservation planning in East Kalimantan, IndonesiaConservation BiologyDrummond, S. P., K. Wilson, E. Meijaard, M. Watts, R. Dennis, L. Christy, and H. P. Possingham20102017/12/14
The influence of flow impoundment and river regulation on the distribution of riverine macroinvertebrates at Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, USAHydrobiologiaGrubbs, SA; Taylor, JM20042017/12/14The effects of impoundment by a low-head dam and hypolimnetic release from a reservoir on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were studied in two lowland rivers. The first river (Green River) was initially divided into three zones (impounded, t
The influence of habitat on the size distribution of groupers in the upper Florida KeysEnvironmental Biology of FishesSluka, R; Sullivan, KM19962017/12/14Synopsis The influence of habitat on the size distribution of groupers was examined at sites in the middle and upper Florida Keys. Transects were used to quantify the size distribution of groupers at study sites. There were significant differences in the
The interrelationship of hydrology and biology in a Tennessee stream, USAEcohydrologyElkin, Kimberly; Lanier, Susan; Rebecca, Monette20132017/12/14
The intrinsic vulnerability to fishing of coral reef fishes and their differential recovery in fishery closuresReviews in Fish Biology and FisheriesAbesamis, Rene A.; Green, Alison L.; Russ, Garry R.; Jadloc, Claro Renato L.20142017/12/14
The IPBES Conceptual Framework - connecting nature and peopleCurrent Opinion in Environmental SustainabilityDÕaz, S., Demissew, S., Carabias, J., Joly, C. ƒ Tallis, H. and 79 others20152017/12/14The first public product of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) is its Conceptual Framework. This conceptual and analytical tool, presented here in detail, will underpin all IPBES functions and provide structure and comparability to the syntheses that IPBES will produce at different spatial scales, on different themes, and in different regions. Salient innovative aspects of the IPBES Conceptual Framework are its transparent and participatory construction process and its explicit consideration of diverse scientific disciplines, stakeholders, and knowledge systems, including indigenous and local knowledge. Because the focus on co-construction of integrative knowledge is shared by an increasing number of initiatives worldwide, this framework should be useful beyond IPBES, for the wider research and knowledge-policy communities working on the links between nature and people, such as natural, social and engineering scientists, policy-makers at different levels, and decision-makers in different sectors of society.
The IUCN Red List of Ecosystems: motivations, challenges and applications.Conservation LettersKeith, D.A., J.P. RodrÕguez, T.M. Brooks, M.A. Burgman, E.G. Barrow, L. Bland, P.J. Comer, J. Franklin, J. Link, M.A. McCarthy, R.M. Miller, N.J. Murray, J. Nel, E. Nicholson, M.A. Olivera-Miranda, T.J. Regan, K.M. RodrÕguez-Clark, M. Rouget, M.D. Spalding20152017/12/14In response to growing demand for ecosystem-level risk assessment in biodiversity conservation, and rapid proliferation of locally tailored protocols, the IUCN recently endorsed new Red List criteria as a global standard for ecosystem risk assessment. Four qualities were sought in the design of the IUCN criteria: generality; precision; realism; and simplicity. Drawing from extensive global consultation, we explore trade-offs among these qualities when dealing with key challenges, including ecosystem classification, measuring ecosystem dynamics, degradation and collapse, and setting decision thresholds to delimit ordinal categories of threat. Experience from countries with national lists of threatened ecosystems demonstrates well-balanced trade-offs in current and potential applications of Red Lists of Ecosystems in legislation, policy, environmental management and education. The IUCN Red List of Ecosystems should be judged by whether it achieves conservation ends and improves natural resource management, whether its limitations are outweighed by its benefits, and whether it performs better than alternative methods. Future development of the Red List of Ecosystems will benefit from the history of the Red List of Threatened Species which was trialed and adjusted iteratively over 50 years from rudimentary beginnings. We anticipate the Red List of Ecosystems will promote policy focus on conservation outcomes in situ across whole landscapes and seascapes.Ecosystems
The lichen genus Chrysothrix in the Ozark Ecoregion, including a preliminary treatment for eastern and central North AmericaOpuscula PhilolichenumRICHARD C. HARRIS & DOUGLAS LADD20082017/12/14
The loss of natural habitats and the addition of artificial substrataL Airoldi, SD Connell, MW Beck20092017/12/14
The Loss of Species: Mangrove Extinction Risk and Geographic Areas of Global ConcernPLoS ONEPolidoro, Beth A.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Collins, Lorna; Duke, Norman C.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Ellison, Joanna C.; Farnsworth, Elizabeth J.; Fernando, Edwino S.; Kathiresan, Kandasamy; Koedam, Nico E.; Livingstone, Suzanne R.; Miyagi, Toyohiko; Moore, Gregg E20102017/12/14
The Lower Roanoke River Bioreserve Project - A model for private-public partnerships, North CarolinaLynch, JM19962017/12/14
The Mackinaw River ProjectRudin, D; Simpson, D19962017/12/14
The Malay Weasel Mustela nudipes: distribution, natural history and a global conservation status reviewSmall Carnivore ConservationDuckworth, JW, BPH-H Lee, E Meijaard, and S Meiri20072017/12/14Summary The Malay Weasel Mustela nudipes inhabits only the Sundaic sub-region of South-East Asia and has never been studied in the field. Overall, it is recorded only rather rarely. Given major declines in many better-known Sundaic forest vertebrates, rec
The Many Elements of Traditional Fire Knowledge: Synthesis, Classification, and Aids to Cross-cultural Problem Solving in Fire-dependent Systems Around the WorldEcology and SocietyHuffman, Mary R.20132017/12/14
The Mexican Drought Atlas: Tree-ring reconstructions of the soil moisture balance during the late pre-Hispanic, colonial, and modern erasQUATERNARY SCIENCE REVIEWSStahle, David W.; Cook, Edward R.; Burnette, Dorian J.; Villanueva, Jose; Cerano, Julian; Burns, Jordan N.; Griffin, Daniel; Cook, Benjamin I.; Acuna, Rodolfo; Torbenson, Max C. A.; Szejner, Paul; Howard, Ian M.20162017/12/14
The Micronesia Challenge: Assessing the Relative Contribution of Stressors on Coral Reefs to Facilitate Science-to-Management FeedbackPLoS ONEHouk, P., R Camacho, S. Johnson, M .McLean, S. Maxin, J. Anson, E. Joseph, O. Nedlic, M. Luckymis, K. Adams, D. Hess, E. Kabua, A. Yalon, E. Buthung, C. Graham, T. Leberer, B. Taylor, R. van Woesik20152017/12/14
The Myall Lakes: patterns and processes in an unusual coastal lake system in eastern Australia - PrefaceHydrobiologiaWilson, Joanne20082017/12/14
The National Fish Habitat Action Plan: A partnership approach to protect and restore fish populationsJournal of the American Water Works AssociationHiggins, J. V20092017/12/14
The National Wind Erosion Research Network: Building a standardized long-term data resource for aeolian research, modeling and land managementAEOLIAN RESEARCHWebb, Nicholas P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Van Zee, Justin W.; Courtright, Ericha M.; Hugenholtz, Christopher H.; Zobeck, Ted M.; Okin, Gregory S.; Barchyn, Thomas E.; Billings, Benjamin J.; Boyd, Robert; Clingan, Scott D.; Cooper, Brad F.; Duniway, Michael C.; Derner, Justin D.; Fox, Fred A.; Haystad, Kris M.; Heilman, Philip; LaPlante, Valerie; Ludwig, Noel A.; Metz, Loretta J.; Nearing, Mark A.; Norfleet, M. Lee; Pierson, Frederick B.; Sanderson, Matt A.; Sharratt, Brenton S.; Steiner, Jean L.; Tatarko, John; Tedela, Negussie H.; Toledo, David; Unnasch, Robert S.; Van Pelt, R. Scott; Wagner, Larry20162017/12/14
The natural flow regimeBioSciencePoff, NL; Allan, JD; Bain, MB; Karr, JR; Prestegaard, KL; Richter, BD; Sparks, RE; Stromberg, JC19972017/12/14H umans have long been fascinated by the dynamism of free-flowing waters. Yet we have expended great effort to tame rivers for transportation, water supply, flood control, agriculture, and power generation. It is now recognized that harnessing of streamsagriculture
The Nature Conservancy bison herd reportProceedings of the North American public bison herds symposiumHamilton, R.G.19932017/12/14La Crosse, WI.
The Nature Conservancy in Shangrila: Transnational conservation and its critiquesMoseley, R.K., and R.B. Mullen20142017/12/14
The Nature ConservancyÍs Conservation Accomplishments at Risk _ Abating the Threat of Invasive SpeciesProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesSklad, E.A., A.M. Bartuska, J.A. Randall, B.A. Rice, I.M. Tu, and D.R. Gordon20032017/12/14
The need for new ocean conservation strategies in a high-carbon dioxide worldNature Climate ChangeRau, Greg H.; McLeod, Elizabeth L.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove20122017/12/14
The Next Frontier: Projecting the Effectiveness of Broad-scale Forest Conservation StrategiesSilbernagel, Janet; Price, Jessica; Swaty, Randy; Miller, Nicholas20112017/12/14
The Odonata of MississippiBulletin of American OdonatologyKrotzer, R.S., J.T. Bried, and M.J. Krotzer20082017/12/14
The Pacific salmon wars: What science brings to the challenge of recovering speciesAnnual Review of Ecology And SystematicsRuckelshaus, MH; Levin, P; Johnson, JB; Kareiva, PM20022017/12/14Politicians, scientists, government agencies, and the public are all engaged in recovery planning for Pacific salmon. In order for science to fulfill its potential in the arena of salmon recovery planning, several shortcomings of the science and its appli
The path back: oaks (Quercus spp.) facilitate longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seedling establishment in xeric sitesECOSPHERELoudermilk, E. Louise; Hiers, J. Kevin; Pokswinski, Scott; O'Brien, Joseph J.; Barnett, Analie; Mitchell, Robert J.20162017/12/14Understanding plant_plant facilitation is critical for predicting how plant community function will respond to changing disturbance and climate. In longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystems of the southeastern United States, understanding processes that affect pine reproduction is imperative for conservation efforts that aim to maintain ecosystem resilience across its wide geographic range and edaphic gradients. Variation in wildland fire and plant_plant interactions may be overlooked in ñcoarse filterî restoration management, where actions are often prescribed over a variety of ecological conditions with an assumed outcome. For example, hardwood reduction techniques are commonly deemed necessary for ecological restoration of longleaf pine ecosystems, as hardwoods are presumed competitors with longleaf pine seedlings. Natural regeneration dynamics are difficult to test experimentally given the infrequent and irregular mast seed events of the longleaf pine. Using a long-term, large-scale restoration experiment and a long-term monitoring data site at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida (USA), this study explores the influence of native fire-intolerant oaks on longleaf regeneration. We test for historical observations of hardwood facilitation against the null hypothesis of competitive exclusion. Our results provide evidence of hardwood facilitation on newly germinated longleaf pine seedlings (
The persistence and conservation of Borneo's mammals in lowland rain forests managed for timber: observations, overviews and opportunitiesEcological ResearchMeijaard, E.; Sheil, D.20082017/12/14Lowland rainforests on Borneo are being degraded and lost at an alarming rate. Studies on mammals report species responding in various ways to habitat changes that occur in commercial forestry concessions. Here we draw together information on the
The political economy of frontier expansion and deforestation in the AmazonEconomics Of Deforestation In The Amazon: Dispelling The MythsCampari, Joao S.20052017/12/14
The Potential for Double-Loop Learning to Enable Landscape Conservation EffortsEnvironmental ManagementPetersen, Brian; Montambault, Jensen; Koopman, Marni20142017/12/14
The potential to integrate blue carbon into MPA design and managementAQUATIC CONSERVATION-MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMSHoward, Jennifer; McLeod, Elizabeth; Thomas, Sebastian; Eastwood, Erin; Fox, Matthew; Wenzel, Lauren; Pidgeon, Emily20172017/12/14
The power of partnerships: Landscape scale conservation through public/private collaborationNatural Areas JournalHiggins, Alison; Serbesoff-King, Kristina; King, Matthew; O'Reilly-Doyle, Kathy20072017/12/14Invasive exotic plants know no boundaries. If public conservation lands' managers wish to achieve long-term success, it is critical for them to reach out and collaborate with all stakeholders, including private landowners. In Florida, many region
The Prevalence and Status of Conservative Prairie and Sand Savanna Insects in the Chicago Wilderness RegionNatural Areas JournalPanzer, Ron; Gnaedinger, Karl; Derkovitz, George20102017/12/14
The promise and pitfalls of systematic conservation planningProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesMcDonald, Robert I.20092017/12/14
The protective role of coastal marshes: a systematic review and meta-analysisPLoS ONECC Shepard, CM Crain, MW Beck20112017/12/14
The quest for the optimal payment for environmental services program: Ambition meets reality, with useful lessonsForest Policy And EconomicsKroeger, Timm20132017/12/14
The questionable effectiveness of science spending by international conservation organizations in the tropicsConservation BiologyCleary, D20062017/12/14The general context of conservation in the tropicsŠ—”in the Amazon basin and elsewhereŠ—”is stagnant or declining funding and rapidly growing threat levels. For conservation programs this makes strategic deployment of limited conservation resour
The Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) decline in the western hemisphere: is there a lemming connection?Canadian Journal Of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De ZoologieFraser, J. D.; Karpanty, S. M.; Cohen, J. B.; Truitt, B. R.20132017/12/14
The relationship between female brooding and male nestling provisioning: does climate underlie geographic variation in sex roles?JOURNAL OF AVIAN BIOLOGYYoon, Jongmin; Sofaer, Helen R.; Sillett, T. Scott; Morrison, Scott A.; Ghalambor, Cameron K.20172017/12/14
The relevance of wetland conservation in arid regions: A re-examination of vanishing communities in the American SouthwestJournal Of Arid EnvironmentsMinckley, T. A.; Turner, D. S.; Weinstein, S. R.20132017/12/14
The response of wintering Kirtland's Warblers to food patch dynamics in The Bahamas and its implications for conservation on the wintering grounds.Journal of OrnithologyCurrie, D.; Wunderle Jr, J. M.; Ewert, D. N.20062017/12/14
The role of benefit transfer in ecosystem service valuationECOLOGICAL ECONOMICSRichardson, Leslie; Loomis, John; Kroeger, Timm; Casey, Frank20152017/12/14
The Role of Disturbance in Habitat Restoration and Management for the Eastern Regal Fritillary Speyeria idalia idalia) at a Military Installation in PennsylvaniaEcological RestorationLatham, RE, D Zercher, P McElhenny, P Mooreside, and B Ferster20072017/12/14
The role of ecosystems in coastal protection: Adapting to climate change and coastal hazardsOcean and Coastal ManagementSpalding, M. D., Ruffo, S., Lacambra, C., Meliane, I., Hale, L. Z., Shepard, C. C., & Beck, M. W.20142017/12/14
The role of herbivores in Great Plains conservation: comparative ecology of bison and cattleEcosphereAllred, Brady W.; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Hamilton, Robert G.20112017/12/14The Great Plains of North America evolved with significant influence from bison (Bison bison), but is presently dominated by cattle (Bos taurus). While there are a variety of opinions concerning differences between these two species, there is a lack of scientific comparisons, including those that incorporate important ecological variation. We developed a framework to study and compare the grazing behavior and effects of bison and cattle within grassland ecosystems. Environmental (e.g., resource distribution, disturbance) and animal (e.g., number, social organization) factors play a critical role in determining grazing effects and should be incorporated into discussions that compare the effects of bison and cattle. Using this framework we specifically compare the grazing behavior of both species in tallgrass prairie and discuss the implications of these differences in the context of conservation. We collared bison and cattle with global positioning systems and used resource selection functions to estimate the importance of various environmental factors on site selection. Both species preferred recently burned areas and avoided steeper slopes. Cattle selected areas that were closer to water, while bison were not limited by distance to water; cattle also preferred areas with woody vegetation, while bison avoided them. Incorporating broad scale environmental complexity allows for an effective comparison of ecological differences between bison and cattle. While there are similarities and differences in these species, a comprehensive analysis of all conditions and scenarios is not possible. It is clear, however, that the greatest differences between these species will likely be evident from broad scale studies across complex landscapes. In addition to species, conservation and land managers need to consider other environmental factors that are critical to grazing effects and overall; grassland; grazing; herbivory; restoration; species comparisons; tallgrass prairie
The Role of Local Ecological Knowledge in the Conservation and Management of Reef Fish Spawning AggregationsReef Fish Spawning Aggregations: Biology, Research And ManagementHamilton, Richard; de Mitcheson, Yvonne Sadovy; Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso20122017/12/14
The role of marine protected areas in alleviating poverty in the Asia-Pacificvan Beukering, Pieter J. H.; Scherl, Lea M.; Leisher, Craig20132017/12/14
The role of nearshore ecosystems as fish and shellfish nurseries.Issues in Ecology Beck, M. W., Heck, K. L. Jr. , Able, K. W., Childers, D. L., Eggleston, D. B., Gillanders, B. M., Halpern, B., Hays, C. G., Hoshino, K., Minello, T. J., Orth, R. J. Sheridan, P. F., Weinstein, M. P.20032017/12/14
The Role of Phragmites australis in Mediating Inland Salt Marsh Migration in a Mid-Atlantic EstuaryPLoS ONESmith, Joseph A. M.20132017/12/14
The role of protected areas for freshwater biodiversity conservation: challenges and opportunities in a rapidly changing worldAQUATIC CONSERVATION-MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMSHermoso, Virgilio; Abell, Robin; Linke, Simon; Boon, Philip20162017/12/14
The role of refugia and dispersal in primary succession on Mount St. Helens, WashingtonJournal of Vegetation ScienceFuller, R.N. and del Moral, R.20032017/12/14An intense lateral blast devastated Mount St. Helens in 1980, but forest understory species survived in some north-slope'refugia'. We explored the effects of refugia on colonization of barren pumice in 1997 and 1998, 18 yr after the eruption. The
The role of science in supporting marine protected area network planning and design in CaliforniaOcean and Coastal ManagementSaarman, Emily; Gleason, Mary; Ugoretz, John; Airame, Satie; Carr, Mark; Fox, Evan; Frimodig, Adam; Mason, Tom; Vasques, Jason20132017/12/14
The role of the National Wildlife Refuge System in conserving biodiversity: Existing challenges and future needsCassidy, TJ; Kania, GS20032017/12/14
The Sage-Grouse Habitat Mortgage: Effective Conifer Management in Space and TimeRANGELAND ECOLOGY & MANAGEMENTBoyd, Chad S.; Kerby, Jay D.; Svejcar, Tony J.; Bates, Jon D.; Johnson, Dustin D.; Davies, Kirkw.20172017/12/14
The science of targeting within landscapes and watersheds to improve conservation effectivenessManaging Agricultural Landscapes for Environmental Quality: Strengthening the Science BaseWalter, T, M Dosskey, M Khanna, J Miller, M Tomer, and J Wiens20072017/12/14agriculture
The sounds of silence: Listening to the villagers to learn about orangutansSignificanceMengersen, K., E. Meijaard, J. Wells, L. Christy, and D. Buchori20102017/12/14
The spatiotemporal dynamics of habitat use by blacktip (Carcharhinus limbatus) and lemon (Negaprion brevirostris) sharks in nurseries of St. John, United States Virgin IslandsMarine BiologyLegare, Bryan; Kneebone, Jeff; DeAngelis, Bryan; Skomal, Gregory20152017/12/14
The state of legislation and policy protecting Australia's mangrove and salt marsh and their ecosystem servicesMARINE POLICYRogers, Kerrylee; Boon, Paul I.; Branigan, Simon; Duke, Norman C.; Field, Colin D.; Fitzsimons, James A.; Kirkman, Hugh; Mackenzie, Jock R.; Saintilan, Neil20162017/12/14
The State of the Birds 2014 Watch ListRosenberg, K.V., D. Pashley, B. Andres, P. J. Blancher, G.S. Butcher, W.C. Hunter, D. Mehlman, A.O. Panjabi, M. Parr, G. Wallace, and D. Wiedenfeld20142017/12/14
The stream-dwelling tadpole of Hyloscirtus charazani (Anura : Hylidae) from Andean BoliviaStudies On Neotropical Fauna And EnvironmentLotters, S; Reichle, S; Faivovich, J; Bain, RH20052017/12/14
The sum is greater than the partsConservation BiologyMolnar, J., Marvier, M. and P. Kareiva20042017/12/14The practice of conservation and the designation of protected areas are clearly in the best interest of humankind and are embraced by a large fraction of the world's peoples and governments. The goals of conservation, however, and thus the targets and pri
The sustainability of subsistence hunting in the neotropicsConservation BiologyAlvard, MS; Robinson, JG; Redford, KH; Kaplan, H19972017/12/14Hunting is an important component of native subsistence strategies in Amazonia. It is also a serious threat to biodiversity in some areas. We present data on the faunal harvests of two native Neotropical subsistence hunting peoples, Machiguenga
The theory behind, and the challenges of, conserving nature's stage in a time of rapid changeCONSERVATION BIOLOGYLawler, Joshua J.; Ackerly, David D.; Albano, Christine M.; Anderson, Mark G.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Gill, Jacquelyn L.; Heller, Nicole E.; Pressey, Robert L.; Sanderson, Eric W.; Weiss, Stuart B.20152017/12/14
The threat of invasive alien species to biological diversity: setting a future courseAnnals of the Missouri Botanical GardenChornesky, E.A. and J.M. Randall20032017/12/14Over the past decade, mounting evidence has shown the pervasive and escalating harmful impacts of invasive alien species on native species and ecosystems. Thousands of non-native species are established in the United States and many more worldwide. Few ar
The total number of naturalized species can be a reliable predictor of the number of alien pest speciesDiversity and DistributionsRejmanek, M; Randall, JM20042017/12/14In her recent paper, Shawna J. Dark (2004) concluded that the distributions of 'invasive alien plants' and 'non-invasive alien plants' in California were significantly correlated. She found the highest numbers of both 'invasive'and 'non-invasive'species i
The turnover hypothesis of Amazon deforestation: conceptual frameworkEconomics Of Deforestation In The Amazon: Dispelling The MythsCampari, Joao S.20052017/12/14
The unglamorous essential foundation of conservation scienceOryxSalafsky, N; Salzer, D20052017/12/14There has been a growing interest among biodiversity conservation practitioners and organizations in concepts such as monitoring, adaptive management, evidencebased conservation, and learning networks (see for example Bill Sutherland's Editorial in the .
The Use of Prescribed Fire to Control Invasive Exotic Weeds at Jepson Prairie PreservePollak, O.; Kan, T.19982017/12/14
The use of regional advance mitigation planning (RAMP) to integrate transportation infrastructure impacts with sustainability; a perspective from the USAEnvironmental Research LettersThorne, James H.; Huber, Patrick R.; O'Donoghue, Elizabeth; Santos, Maria J.20142017/12/14
The Use Of Social Cues In Habitat Selection By Wetland BirdsCondorWard, Michael P.; Benson, Thomas J.; Semel, Brad; Herkert, James R.20102017/12/14
The Value of Coastal Wetlands for Flood Damage Reduction in the Northeastern USASCIENTIFIC REPORTSNarayan, Siddharth; Beck, Michael W.; Wilson, Paul; Thomas, Christopher J.; Guerrero, Alexandra; Shepard, Christine C.; Reguero, Borja G.; Franco, Guillermo; Ingram, Jane Carter; Trespalacios, Dania20172017/12/14As exposure to coastal hazards increases there is growing interest in nature-based solutions for risk reduction. This study uses high-resolution flood and loss models to quantify the impacts of coastal wetlands in the northeastern USA on (i) regional flood damages by Hurricane Sandy and (ii) local annual flood losses in Barnegat Bay in Ocean County, New Jersey. Using an extensive database of property exposure, the regional study shows that wetlands avoided $625 Million in direct flood damages during Hurricane Sandy. The local study combines these models with a database of synthetic storms in Ocean County and estimates a 16% average reduction in annual flood losses by salt marshes with higher reductions at lower elevations. Together, the studies quantify the risk reduction ecosystem services of marsh wetlands. Measuring these benefits in collaboration with the risk modelling industry is crucial for assessing risk accurately and, where appropriate, aligning conservation and risk reduction goals.Ecosystem servicesNatural hazards
The value of ecosystem services provided by the US National Wildlife Refuge System in the contiguous USEcological EconomicsIngraham, Molly W.; Foster, Shonda Gilliland20082017/12/14
The value of flexibility in conservation financingCONSERVATION BIOLOGYLennox, Gareth D.; Fargione, Joseph; Spector, Sacha; Williams, Gwyn; Armsworth, Paul R.20172017/12/14
The vascular plant flora of the south Puget Sound prairies. Washington, USADavidsoniaDunwiddie, P., E. Alverson, A. Stanley, R. Gilbert, S. Pearson, D. Hays, J. Arnett, E. Delvin, D. Grosboll, & C. Marschner20062017/12/14
The voice of the fishermen of the Gulf of Honduras: Improving regional fisheries management through fisher participationFisheries ResearchHeyman, William D.; Granados-Dieseldorff, Pablo20122017/12/14
The vulnerability of Amazon freshwater ecosystemsConservation LettersCastello, Leandro; McGrath, David G.; Hess, Laura L.; Coe, Michael T.; Lefebvre, Paul A.; Petry, Paulo; Macedo, Marcia N.; Reno, Vivian F.; Arantes, Caroline C.20132017/12/14
The watershed approach: Lessons learned through a collaborative effortNational Wetlands NewsletterWilkinson, Jessica, Mark P. Smith, and Nicholas Miller20132017/12/14
The Watershed Conservation Screening Tool: A Resource for Large Water UsersJOURNAL AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATIONMcdonald, Robert I.20162017/12/14
The World's Protected Areas. Status, values, and prospects in the twenty-first century.Stuart Chape, Mark D. Spalding, M.D. Jenkins20082017/12/14protected areas
Think before you plan: Introducing preplanning considerations in conservationJournal of Indonesian Natural HistoryMeijaard, E., C. Leisher, E.T. Game, and C. Groves20132017/12/14
Thinking about knowing: conceptual foundations for interdisciplinary environmental researchEnvironmental ConservationKhagram, Sanjeev; Nicholas, Kimberly A.; Bever, Dena Macmynowski; Warren, Justin; Richards, Elizabeth H.; Oleson, Kirsten; Kitzes, Justin; Katz, Rebecca; Hwang, Rebeca; Goldman, Rebecca; Funk, Jason; Brauman, Kate A.20102017/12/14
Thinking Big: Lessons Learned from a Landscape-Scale Approach to Coastal Habitat ConservationCOASTAL MANAGEMENTChabot, Helen; Farrow, Dan; York, Dawn; Harris, Janine; Cosentino-Manning, Natalie; Watson, Lani; Hum, Kim; Wiggins, Chad20162017/12/14
Thinking outside of the lake: Can controls on nutrient inputs into Lake Erie benefit stream conservation in its watershed?JOURNAL OF GREAT LAKES RESEARCHKeitzer, S. Conor; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Sowa, Scott P.; Annis, Gust; Arnold, Jeff G.; Daggupati, Prasad; Froehlich, August M.; Herbert, Matt E.; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V.; Sasson, Anthony M.; Yen, Haw; White, Mike J.; Rewa, Charles A.20162017/12/14
Threats and biodiversity in the mediterranean biomeDiversity and DistributionsUnderwood, Emma C.; Viers, Joshua H.; Klausmeyer, Kirk R.; Cox, Robin L.; Shaw, M. Rebecca20092017/12/14
Threats to imperiled freshwater faunaConservation BiologyRichter, BD; Braun, DP; Mendelson, MA; Master, LL19972017/12/14Threats to imperiled freshwater fauna in the US were assessed through an experts survey addressing anthropogenic stressors and their sources. Specifically, causes of historic declines and current limits to recovery were identified for 135 imperiled freshw
Three levels of monitoring intensity for rare plant speciesNatural Areas JournalMenges, E.S. and D.R. Gordon19962017/12/14
Three new species of western California springsnails previously confused with Pyrgulopsis stearnsiana (Caenogastropoda, Hydrobiidae)ZooKeysHershler, Robert; Liu, Hsiu-Ping; Babbitt, Caitlin; Kellogg, Michael G.; Howard, Jeanette K.20162017/12/14We describe three new, allopatric species of springsnails (genus Pyrgulopsis) from western California (P. lindae, P. ojaiensis, P. torrida) that were previously identified as P. stearnsiana. The new species are differentiated from P. stearnsiana and each other both by mtCOI sequences (3.9-9.9%) and details of penial morphology. We also provide a phylogeny with increased sampling which confirms a previous finding that P. stearnsiana sensu stricto is paraphyletic relative to two other California species (P. diablensis, P. giulianii). Our molecular and morphological evidence suggests that P. stearnsiana paraphyly is an artifact of conservative taxonomy, however additional studies utilizing rapidly evolving genetic markers will be needed to confidently tease apart the cryptic diversity in this widely ranging springsnail. The new species described herein are narrowly distributed and vulnerable to anthropogenic stressors. The single known population of P. torrida may have become extirpated between 2000 and 2015.Gastropoda; United States; freshwater; taxonomy; conservation
Thresholds and multiple scale interaction of environment, resource use, and market proximity on reef fishery resources in the Solomon IslandsBiological ConservationBrewer, Tom D.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Green, Alison; Pandolfi, John M.20092017/12/14Reef fish are critical in maintaining the ecological function of coral reefs and providing food security for coastal communities in developing countries. Reef fishery stocks are under increasing threat from factors such as climate-related habitat degradat
Timber, Fuel, and FiberSampson, R.N., N. Bystriakova, S. Brown, P. Gonzalez, L.C. Irland, P. Kauppi, R. Sedjo, and I.D. Thompson20062017/12/14
TNC Raja Ampat marine protect area perception monitoring trend analysisHess, S., S.N. Larsen, and C. Leisher20112017/12/14
TNC's whole-system freshwater conservation projectsKendy E, Smith MP, Higgins J, Benjamin G, Hawes T, Lutz K, McGrath D, Reuter M.20122017/12/14
To introduce or not to introduce: trade-offs of non-indigenous organismsTrends in Ecology and EvolutionDaehler, C.C. and D.R. Gordon19972017/12/14
Tolerance of frugivorous birds to habitat disturbance in a tropical cloud forestBiological ConservationGomes, L.G.L., V. Oostra, V. Nijman, A.M. Cleef, M. Kappelle20082017/12/14In view of the continued decline in tropical forest cover around the globe, forest restoration has become a key tool in tropical rainforest conservation. One of the mainŠ—–and least expensiveŠ—–restoration strategies is natural forest regeneration. By aid
Top 40 Priorities for Science to Inform US Conservation and Management PolicyBioScienceFleishman, Erica; Blockstein, David E.; Hall, John A.; Mascia, Michael B.; Rudd, Murray A.; Scott, J. Michael; Sutherland, William J.; Bartuska, Ann M.; Brown, A. Gordon; Christen, Catherine A.; Clement, Joel P.; DellaSala, Dominick; Duke, Clifford S.; Ea20112017/12/14
Topography influences the distribution of autumn frost damage on trees in a Mediterranean-type Eucalyptus forestTrees-Structure And FunctionMatusick, George; Ruthrof, Katinka X.; Brouwers, Niels C.; Hardy, Giles St. J.20142017/12/14
Toward a community ecology of landscapes: predicting multiple predator-prey interactions across geographic spaceECOLOGYSchmitz, Oswald J.; Miller, Jennifer R. B.; Trainor, Anne M.; Abrahms, Briana20172017/12/14
Toward Best Practices for Developing Regional Connectivity MapsConservation BiologyBeier, Paul; Spencer, Wayne; Baldwin, Robert F.; McRae, Brad H.20112017/12/14
Toward representative protection of the world's coasts and oceans-progress, gaps, and opportunitiesConservation LettersSpalding, Mark D.; Fish, Lucy; Wood, Louisa J.20082017/12/14
Towards a comprehensive strategy to recover river herring on the Atlantic seaboard: lessons from Pacific salmonIces Journal Of Marine ScienceBowden, Alison A.20142017/12/14
Towards an environmental history of the Amazon: From prehistory to the nineteenth centuryLatin American Research ReviewCleary, D20012017/12/14This article reviews the environmental history of the Amazon basin from early prehistory to the 1850s, concluding at the start of the rubber boom. It argues that the Amazon's past can be understood in terms of a transition from wilderness to landscape, in
Towards dynamic flow regime management for floodplain restoration in the Atchafalaya River Basin, LouisianaENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & POLICYKozak, Justin P.; Bennett, Micah G.; Piazza, Bryan P.; Remo, Jonathan W. F.20162017/12/14This study proposes a novel approach for establishing adaptive environmental-flow prescriptions for rivers, channels, and floodways with substantial flow augmentation and a limited decision space using the highly altered Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB) in Louisiana as an example. Development of the ARB into the primary floodway of the Mississippi River and Tributaries Project has contributed to hydrologic changes basin-wide that have altered the river-floodplain interface threatening important ecosystems, notably the expansive baldcypress-water tupelo swamp forests. Current restoration efforts only address the spatial distribution of water in local areas of the basin; however, the timing, frequency, magnitude, and duration of ecologically-important high and low flows are determined at the basin-wide scale by the daily implementation of a federal flow mandate that limits available water management options. We used current hydrologic conditions and established flow-ecology relationships from the literature to develop an environmental flow prescription for the ARB that provides basin-wide flow targets to complement ongoing restoration efforts. Hydrologic analysis of current flows and the flow-ecology requirements for these wetland forests revealed an overlap in the range of flow variability under the current water management model, suggesting environmental flows can be complementary with the desired hydraulic and geomorphic characteristics of the floodway. The result is a first step towards an adaptive flow regime that strives to balance important flow-ecology relationships within a decision space limited by a federal flow mandate. We found high potential for success in managing water for nature while accommodating other management needs for the river.Environmental flow; Water management; Flood mitigation; Floodplains; Wetland forest
Towards integrated social-ecological sustainability indicators: Exploring the contribution and gaps in existing global dataECOLOGICAL ECONOMICSSelomane, Odirilwe; Reyers, Belinda; Biggs, Reinette; Tallis, Heather; Polasky, Stephen20152017/12/14
Tracking Progress Toward the 2010 Biodiversity Target and BeyondScienceWalpole, Matt; Almond, Rosamunde E. A.; Besancon, Charles; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Carr, Genevieve M.; Collen, Ben; Collette, Linda; Davidson, Nick C.; Dulloo, Ehsan; Fazel, Asghar M.; Galloway, James N.; Gill, Michael; Goverse,20092017/12/14
Trade-offs between data resolution, accuracy, and cost when choosing information to plan reserves for coral reef ecosystemsJournal of Environmental ManagementVivitskaia J. Tullocha, Carissa J. Klein, Stacy D. Jupiter, Ayesha I.T. Tulloch, Chris Roelfsema, Hugh P. Possingham20172017/12/14Conservation planners must reconcile trade-offs associated with using biodiversity data of differing qualities to make decisions. Coarse habitat classifications are commonly used as surrogates to design marine reserve networks when fine-scale biodiversity data are incomplete or unavailable. Although finely-classified habitat maps provide more detail, they may have more misclassification errors, a common problem when remotely-sensed imagery is used. Despite these issues, planners rarely consider the effects of errors when choosing data for spatially explicit conservation prioritizations. Here we evaluate trade-offs between accuracy and resolution of hierarchical coral reef habitat data (geomorphology and benthic substrate) derived from remote sensing, in spatial planning for Kubulau District, Fiji. For both, we use accuracy information describing the probability that a mapped habitat classification is correct to design marine reserve networks that achieve habitat conservation targets, and demonstrate inadequacies of using habitat maps without accuracy data. We show that using more detailed habitat information ensures better representation of biogenic habitats (i.e. coral and seagrass), but leads to larger and more costly reserves, because these data have more misclassification errors, and are also more expensive to obtain. Reduced impacts on fishers are possible using coarsely-classified data, which are also more cost-effective for planning reserves if we account for data collection costs, but using these data may under-represent reef habitats that are important for fisheries and biodiversity, due to the maps low thematic resolution. Finally, we show that explicitly accounting for accuracy information in decisions maximizes the chance of successful conservation outcomes by reducing the risk of missing conservation representation targets, particularly when using finely classified data.Marine protected area; Conservation; Spatial planning; Cost-effectiveness; Surrogate; Habitat classification
Trade-offs in identifying global conservation priority areasMurdoch, W. M., Bode, J. Hoekstra, P. Kareiva, S. Polasky, H. P. Possingham, K. A. Wilson20102017/12/14
Trade-offs in making ecosystem services and human well-being conservation prioritiesBenner (nee Goldman), R. L., Daily, G. C. and Kareiva, P20102017/12/14
Trading carbon for food: Global comparison of carbon stocks vs. crop yields on agricultural landProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesWest, Paul C.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Monfreda, Chad; Wagner, John; Barford, Carol C.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Foley, Jonathan A.20102017/12/14agriculture
Trajectories and magnitude of change in coral reef fish populations in Philippine marine reserves: a meta-analysisCoral ReefsMaliao, R. J.; White, A. T.; Maypa, A. P.; Turingan, R. G.20092017/12/14
Trajectories of change in sagebrush steppe vegetation communities in relation to multiple wildfiresEcological ApplicationsDavies, G. M.; Bakker, J. D.; Dettweiler-Robinson, E.; Dunwiddie, P. W.; Hall, S. A.; Downs, J.; Evans, J.20122017/12/14
Trans-boundary infrastructure and land cover change: Highway paving and community-level deforestation in a tri-national frontier in the AmazonLand Use PolicyPerz, Stephen G.; Qiu, Youliang; Xia, Yibin; Southworth, Jane; Sun, Jing; Marsik, Matthew; Rocha, Karla; Passos, Veronica; Rojas, Daniel; Alarcon, Gabriel; Barnes, Grenville; Baraloto, Christopher20132017/12/14
Transboundary conservation: An ecoregional approach to protect neotropical migratory birds in South AmericaEnvironmental ManagementRoca, R; Adkins, L; Wurschy, MC; Skerl, K19962017/12/14Future conservation efforts will need to transcend geopolitical boundaries in efforts to protect entire landscapes and ecosystems. Neotropical migratory birds are as a group a useful conservation tool for linking diverse landscapes and people due
Transferring landscape ecological knowledge in a multi-partner landscape:  the Border Lakes region of Minnesota and OntarioLytle, D.E., M.W. Cornett and M.S. Harkness20062017/12/14
Translocation of species into conservation areas:  A key for natural resource managersNatural Areas JournalGordon, D.R.19942017/12/14
Tree diameter increments following silvicultural treatments in a dipterocarp forest in Kalimantan, Indonesia: A mixed-effects modelling approachFOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENTRuslandi; Cropper, W. P., Jr.; Putz, F. E.20172017/12/14
Tree diversity in relation to maximum tree height: evidence for the harshness hypothesis of species diversity gradientsECOLOGY LETTERSMarks, Christian O.; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Tilman, David20172017/12/14
Tree diversity, tree height and environmental harshness in eastern and western North AmericaEcology LettersChristian O. Marks, Helene C. Muller-Landau, David Tilman20162017/12/14Does variation in environmental harshness explain local and regional species diversity gradients? We hypothesise that for a given life form like trees, greater harshness leads to a smaller range of traits that are viable and thereby also to lower species diversity. On the basis of a strong dependence of maximum tree height on site productivity and other measures of site quality, we propose maximum tree height as an inverse measure of environmental harshness for trees. Our results show that tree species richness is strongly positively correlated with maximum tree height across multiple spatial scales in forests of both eastern and western North America. Maximum tree height co-varied with species richness along gradients from benign to harsh environmental conditions, which supports the hypothesis that harshness may be a general mechanism limiting local diversity and explaining diversity gradients within a biogeographic region.
Tree responses to longleaf pine sandhill restoration treatments in NW FloridaForest Ecology and ManagementProvencher, D. R. Gordon, L., B. Herring, H. L. Rodgers, G. W. Tanner, J. L. Hardesty, and L. A. Brennan20012017/12/14
Tree-ring dating the 1700 Cascadia earthquakeNatureYamaguchi, DK; Atwater, BF; Bunker, DE; Benson, BE; Reid, MS19972017/12/14Geological evidence shows that an earthquake attended by a tsunami, or a series of such earthquakes, ruptured at least 900 km of the Cascadia subduction zonealong the west coast of North America between the years 1700 and 1720 1. Satake et al. 2 found evi
Trends in Piping Plover Reproduction at Jones Beach State Park, NY, 1995-2007Northeastern NaturalistMcIntyre, Annie F.; Heath, Julie A.; Jannsen, Joseph20102017/12/14
Trends in reproductive success of Hawaiian seabirds: is guild membership a good criterion for choosing indicator species?Biological ConservationDearborn, DC; Anders, AD; Flint, EN20012017/12/14Because it is rarely possible to monitor all species that occur in sensitive or threatened ecosystems, much theoretical consideration has been given to the process of choosing indicator species. We evaluated whether foraging guild classification or nest s
Trophic considerations in eradicating multiple pestsIsland Invasives: Eradication and ManagementMorrison, S.A20112017/12/14
Tropical Marine EBM Feasibility: A Synthesis of Case Studies and Comparative AnalysesCoastal ManagementChristie, Patrick; Pollnac, Richard B.; Fluharty, David L.; Hixon, Mark A.; Lowry, Gordon K.; Mahon, Robin; Pietri, Diana; Tissot, Brian N.; White, Alan T.; Armada, Nygiel; Eisma-Osorio, Rose-Liza20092017/12/14This overview compares and synthesizes the articles of this theme issue. It highlights that progress has been made toward the goals of marine ecosystem-based management (EBM) in tropical regions. Four key findings are presented:(1) Tailoring EBM to specif
Tropical montane cloud forests: State of knowledge and sustainability perspectives in a changing worldBruijnzeel, L. A., M. Kappelle, M. Mulligan, and F. N. Scatena20092017/12/14
Tropical Montane ForestsKappelle, M20042017/12/14
Turnover on farming plotsEconomics Of Deforestation In The Amazon: Dispelling The MythsCampari, Joao S.20052017/12/14agriculture
Two challenges for U.S. irrigation due to climate change: increasing irrigated area in wet states and increasing irrigation rates in dry statesPLoS ONEMcDonald, R. and E. Girvetz20132017/12/14
Two new pinicolous Arthonia (Arthoniaceae; Arthoniomycetes) from the Delmarva Peninsula of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in eastern North AmericaBRYOLOGISTLendemer, James C.; Ray, David20172017/12/14Two new non-lichenized Arthonia are described from the branches and wood of pine trees (Pinus spp.) in the Coastal Plain of southeastern North America. Arthonia samdykeana is a characterized by its lack of photobiont, large irregularly shaped ascomata, and 6Ð9(Ð10Ð12)-celled ascospores that are macrocephallic. Arthonia gutberletiana is characterized by its lack of photobiont, black circular apothecia with persistent margins, hyaline 2-celled ascospores and occurrence on pine wood.Industrial forestry, lichenization, mycobiont
Two new species of Phacelia (Hydrophyllaceae) from the southwestern United StatesNovonAtwood, ND; Smith, FJ; Knight, TA20022017/12/14Phacelia filiae ND Atwood, FJ Smith & TA Knight is an undescribed species from Clark, Nye, and Lincoln Counties, Nevada. It is closely related to Phacelia parishii of California, Arizona, and Nevada and Phacelia beatleyae of southern Nevada. Phacelia petr
Two scales are better than one: Monitoring multiple-use northern temperate forestsForest Ecology and ManagmentMark A. White, Meredith W. Cornett, Peter T. Wolter20172017/12/14Managing forests for multiple, often conflicting values, coupled with the uncertainty of global environmental change, requires a more flexible approach to maintaining functioning ecosystems into the future. Adaptive management offers such flexibility, but is often hampered by a lack of targeted monitoring data collected in a consistent mannerÑthe evidence base. Moreover, effective management of expansive forest ecosystems requires data on both landscape scale processes, as well as finer-scale data on vegetation structure and composition. To address the challenges of adaptive management in forest ecosystems, we tested the ability of a small set of multi-scale indicators to inform management of MinnesotaÕs Northern Great Lakes forest. Using remotely sensed and field data, we monitored changes in forest condition over a 20-year period in the 42,000 ha Manitou forest landscape in northeastern Minnesota. We used multi-temporal remote sensing data to assess landscape-scale changes in disturbance rates, patch size and age structure. With field data, we used a chronosequence method to assess management effects over time on finer scale characteristics such as canopy composition, tree regeneration, vertical structure and coarse woody debris. Combining remotely sensed and field data provided a more robust evidence base for decision-making than either approach could have provided alone. For example, examining remote-sensing data alone indicates that the rate of severe disturbance (timber harvest) peaked during the 20-year analysis period, and has declined in recent years. As disturbance rates declined, patch size and the proportion of forest in later successional stages all increased from year 2000 levels. These indicators of landscape structure showed positive shifts towards conservation objectives, but only tell part of the whole story. Field data elucidate a number of negative trends, including poor regeneration of key species (Picea glauca, Pinus strobus, Thuja occidentalis, Betula alleghaniensis), and simplified structure in young and mature growth stages. In addition, much of the mature forest transitioning into later-successional growth stages lacks the long-lived species and structural characteristics needed to develop late-successional conditions. An evidence base compiled from data gathered at both the stand and landscape scale provides the flexibility on which sound adaptive management depends.Adaptive management; Evidence base; Complexity; Adaptive capacity; Species diversity; Remote sensing
Umbrella potential of plants and dragonflies for wetland conservation: a quantitative case study using the umbrella indexJournal of Applied EcologyBried, JT, BD Herman, and GN Ervin20072017/12/14Summary 1. Shortcuts to measuring biodiversity enable prioritization of conservation effort in the face of limited time, personnel and funding. The conservation umbrella approach focuses management effort according to individual species that may confer pr
Una sinopsis de la herpetofauna con comentarios sobre las prioridades en investigacion y conservacionEnderson, E. F., A. Quijada-Mascarenas, D. S. Turner, R. L. Bezy, and P. C. Rosen20102017/12/14
Uncertainty analysis of least-cost modeling for designing wildlife linkagesEcological ApplicationsBeier, Paul; Majka, Daniel R.; Newell, Shawn L.20092017/12/14Least-cost models for focal species are widely used to design wildlife corridors. To evaluate the least-cost modeling approach used to develop 15 linkage designs in southern California, USA, we assessed robustness of the largest and least constrained link
Unconventional oil and gas spills: Materials, volumes, and risks to surface waters in four states of the USSCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENTMaloney, Kelly O.; Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Patterson, Lauren A.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Entrekin, Sally A.; Fargione, Joseph E.; Kiesecker, Joseph M.; Konschnik, Kate E.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Trainor, Anne M.; Saiers, James E.; Wiseman, Hannah J.20172017/12/14Extraction of oil and gas from unconventional sources, such as shale, has dramatically increased over the past ten years, raising the potential for spills or releases of chemicals, waste materials, and oil and gas. We analyzed spill data associated with unconventional wells from Colorado, New Mexico, North Dakota and Pennsylvania from 2005 to 2014, where we defined unconventional wells as horizontally drilled into an unconventional formation. We identified materials spilled by state and for each material we summarized frequency, volumes and spill rates. We evaluated the environmental risk of spills by calculating distance to the nearest stream and compared these distances to existing setback regulations. Finally, we summarized relative importance to drinking water in watersheds where spills occurred. Across all four states, we identified 21,300 unconventional wells and 6622 reported spills. The number of horizontal well bores increased sharply beginning in the late 2000s; spill rates also increased for all states except PA where the rate initially increased, reached a maximum in 2009 and then decreased. Wastewater, crude oil, drilling waste, and hydraulic fracturing fluid were the materials most often spilled; spilled volumes of these materials largely ranged from 100 to 10,000 L. Across all states, the average distance of spills to a stream was highest in New Mexico (1379 m), followed by Colorado (747 m), North Dakota (598 m) and then Pennsylvania (268 m), and 7.0, 13.3, and 20.4% of spills occurred within existing surface water setback regulations of 30.5, 61.0, and 91.4 m, respectively. Pennsylvania spills occurred in watersheds with a higher relative importance to drinking water than the other three states. Results from this study can inform risk assessments by providing improved input parameters on volume and rates of materials spilled, and guide regulations and the management policy of spills.Shale oil and gas; Hydraulic fracturing; Extraction; Spill rates; Wells; Colorado; New Mexico; North Dakota; Pennsylvania; Setback regulations
Unconventional Oil and Gas Spills: Risks, Mitigation Priorities, and State Reporting RequirementsENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGYPatterson, Lauren A.; Konschnik, Katherine E.; Wiseman, Hannah; Fargione, Joseph; Maloney, Kelly O.; Kiesecker, Joseph; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Entrekin, Sally; Trainor, Anne; Saiers, James E.20172017/12/14Rapid growth in unconventional oil and gas (UOG) has produced jobs, revenue, and energy, but also concerns over spills and environmental risks. We assessed spill data from 2005 to 2014 at 31_481 UOG wells in Colorado, New Mexico, North Dakota, and Pennsylvania. We found 2Ð16% of wells reported a spill each year. Median spill volumes ranged from 0.5 m3 in Pennsylvania to 4.9 m3 in New Mexico; the largest spills exceeded 100 m3. Seventy-five to 94% of spills occurred within the first three years of well life when wells were drilled, completed, and had their largest production volumes. Across all four states, 50% of spills were related to storage and moving fluids via flowlines. Reporting rates varied by state, affecting spill rates and requiring extensive time and effort getting data into a usable format. Enhanced and standardized regulatory requirements for reporting spills could improve the accuracy and speed of analyses to identify and prevent spill risks and mitigate potential environmental damage. Transparency for data sharing and analysis will be increasingly important as UOG development expands. We designed an interactive spills data visualization tool ( to illustrate the value of having standardized, public data.
Understanding and managing human threats to the coastal marine environmentAnnals of the New York Academy of SciencesCM Crain, BS Halpern, MW Beck, CV Kappel20092017/12/14
Understanding climate change impacts and vulnerabilityGross, J. K. Johnson, P. Glick, and K. Hall20142017/12/14
Understanding fen hydrology across multiple scalesHYDROLOGICAL PROCESSESSampath, Prasanna Venkatesh; Liao, Hua-Sheng; Curtis, Zachary Kristopher; Herbert, Matthew E.; Doran, Patrick J.; May, Christopher A.; Landis, Douglas A.; Li, Shu-Guang20162017/12/14
Understanding rarity: A review of recent conceptual advances and implications for conservation of rare speciesThe Forestry ChronicleDrever, C.R., M.C. Drever and D.J.H. Sleep20122017/12/14
Understanding the contribution of habitats and regional variation to long-term population trends in tricolored blackbirdsEcology and EvolutionGraves, E.E., M. Holyoak, T. Rodd Kelsey, and R.J. Meese20132017/12/14
Understanding the Groundwater Hydrology of a Geographically-Isolated Prairie Fen: Implications for ConservationPLOS ONESampath, Prasanna Venkatesh; Liao, Hua-Sheng; Curtis, Zachary Kristopher; Doran, Patrick J.; Herbert, Matthew E.; May, Christopher A.; Li, Shu-Guang20152017/12/14The sources of water and corresponding delivery mechanisms to groundwater-fed fens are not well understood due to the multi-scale geo-morphologic variability of the glacial landscape in which they occur. This lack of understanding limits the ability to effectively conserve these systems and the ecosystem services they provide, including biodiversity and water provisioning. While fens tend to occur in clusters around regional groundwater mounds, Ives Road Fen in southern Michigan is an example of a geographically-isolated fen. In this paper, we apply a multi-scale groundwater modeling approach to understand the groundwater sources for Ives Road fen. We apply Transition Probability geo-statistics on more than 3000 well logs from a state-wide water well database to characterize the complex geology using conditional simulations. We subsequently implement a 3-dimensional reverse particle tracking to delineate groundwater contribution areas to the fen. The fen receives water from multiple sources: local recharge, regional recharge from an extensive till plain, a regional groundwater mound, and a nearby pond. The regional sources deliver water through a tortuous, 3-dimensional ñpipelineî consisting of a confined aquifer lying beneath an extensive clay layer. Water in this pipeline reaches the fen by upwelling through openings in the clay layer. The pipeline connects the geographically-isolated fen to the same regional mound that provides water to other fen clusters in southern Michigan. The major implication of these findings is that fen conservation efforts must be expanded from focusing on individual fens and their immediate surroundings, to studying the much larger and inter-connected hydrologic network that sustains multiple fens.
Understory restoration in longleaf pine sandhillsNatural Areas JournalCox, A.C., D.R. Gordon, J.L. Slapcinsky, and G.S. Seamon20042017/12/14
Updating conservation priorities over 111 years of species observationsJournal of Applied EcologyMilt, Austin W.; Palmer, Sally R.; Armsworth, Paul R.20142017/12/14
Upgrading Marine Ecosystem Restoration Using Ecological_Social ConceptsBioScienceAbelson, A., Halpern, B.S., Reed, D.C., Orth, R.J., Kendrick, G.A., Beck, M.W., Belmaker, J., Krause, G., Edgar, G.J., Airoldi, L., Brokovich, E., France, R., Shashar, N., Blaeij, A. de, Stambler, N., Salameh, P., Shechter, M. & Nelson, P.A.20162017/12/14Conservation and environmental management are principal countermeasures to the degradation of marine ecosystems and their services. However, in many cases, current practices are insufficient to reverse ecosystem declines. We suggest that restoration ecology, the science underlying the concepts and tools needed to restore ecosystems, must be recognized as an integral element for marine conservation and environmental management. Marine restoration ecology is a young scientific discipline, often with gaps between its application and the supporting science. Bridging these gaps is essential to using restoration as an effective management tool and reversing the decline of marine ecosystems and their services. Ecological restoration should address objectives that include improved ecosystem services, and it therefore should encompass social_ecological elements rather than focusing solely on ecological parameters. We recommend using existing management frameworks to identify clear restoration targets, to apply quantitative tools for assessment, and to make the re-establishment of ecosystem services a criterion for success.
Upstream solutions to coral reef conservation: The payoffs of smart and cooperative decision-makingJournal of Environmental ManagementKirsten L.L. Oleson, Kim A. Falinski, Joey Lecky Clara Rowe, Carrie V. Kappel, Kimberly A.Selkoe, Crow White20172017/12/14Land-based source pollutants (LBSP) actively threaten coral reef ecosystems globally. To achieve the greatest conservation outcome at the lowest cost, managers could benefit from appropriate tools that evaluate the benefits (in terms of LBSP reduction) and costs of implementing alternative land management strategies. Here we use a spatially explicit predictive model (InVEST-SDR) that quantifies change in sediment reaching the coast for evaluating the costs and benefits of alternative threat-abatement scenarios. We specifically use the model to examine trade-offs among possible agricultural road repair management actions (water bars to divert runoff and gravel to protect the road surface) across the landscape in West Maui, Hawaii, USA. We investigated changes in sediment delivery to coasts and costs incurred from management decision-making that is (1) cooperative or independent among landowners, and focused on (2) minimizing costs, reducing sediment, or both. The results illuminate which management scenarios most effectively minimize sediment while also minimizing the cost of mitigation efforts. We find targeting specific ÒhotspotsÓ within all individual parcels is more cost-effective than targeting all road segments. The best outcomes are achieved when landowners cooperate and target cost-effective road repairs, however, a cooperative strategy can be counter-productive in some instances when cost-effectiveness is ignored. Simple models, such as the one developed here, have the potential to help managers make better choices about how to use limited resources.Sediment, Roads Trade-off analysis, Cost-effectiveness, Cooperation, Coral reef, Resource management, Watershed, Land-sea interface, Soil erosion
Urban effects, distance, and protected areas in an urbanizing worldLandscape and Urban PlanningMcdonald, Robert I.; Forman, Richard T. T.; Kareiva, Peter; Neugarten, Rachel; Salzer, Dan; Fisher, Jon20092017/12/14
Urban forests and pollution mitigation: Analyzing ecosystem services and disservicesEnvironmental PollutionEscobedo, Francisco J.; Kroeger, Timm; Wagner, John E.20112017/12/14
Urban growth, climate change, and freshwater availabilityProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesMcDonald, Robert I.; Green, Pamela; Balk, Deborah; Fekete, Balazs M.; Revenga, Carmen; Todd, Megan; Montgomery, Mark20112017/12/14
US Natural Resources and Climate Change: Concepts and Approaches for Management AdaptationEnvironmental ManagementWest, Jordan M.; Julius, Susan H.; Kareiva, Peter; Enquist, Carolyn; Lawler, Joshua J.; Petersen, Brian; Johnson, Ayana E.; Shaw, M. Rebecca20092017/12/14
Use of a natural river water flow-through culture system for rearing juvenile freshwater mussels (Bivalvia : Unionidae) and evaluation of the effects of substrate size, temperature, and stocking densityAmerican Malacological BulletinBeaty, BB; Neves, RJ20042017/12/14
Use of generalised dissimilarity modelling to improve the biological discrimination of river and stream classificationsFreshwater BiologyLeathwick, J. R.; Snelder, T.; Chadderton, W. L.; Elith, J.; Julian, K.; Ferrier, S.20112017/12/14
Use of GIS to Prioritize Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) Control on Camp Shelby Joint Forces Training Center, MississippiInvasive Plant Science and ManagementYager, Lisa Y.; Smith, Matt20092017/12/14
Use of Historical Logging Patterns to Identify Disproportionately Logged Ecosystems within Temperate Rainforests of Southeastern AlaskaConservation BiologyAlbert, David M.; Schoen, John W.20132017/12/14
Use of limestone karst forests by Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) in the Sangkulirang Peninsula, East Kalimantan, IndonesiaAmerican Journal of PrimatologyMarshall, A J, L A Salas, S Stephens, Nardiyono, L Engstr_m, E Meijaard, and S A Stanley20072017/12/14Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) are confined to the lowland and midelevation forests of the large Southeast Asian island of Borneo [Rijksen & Meijaard, 1999]. At all locations for which we have reliable data, orangutan populations appear to be in dram
Use of Linkage Mapping and Centrality Analysis Across Habitat Gradients to Conserve Connectivity of Gray Wolf Populations in Western North AmericaConservation BiologyCarroll, Carlos; McRae, Brad H.; Brookes, Allen20122017/12/14
Use of meteorological data to predict mosquito-borne encephalitis risk in California: Preliminary observations in Kern countyReisen, WK20032017/12/14
Use of monitoring data to support conservation management and policy decisions in MicronesiaCONSERVATION BIOLOGYMontambault, Jensen Reitz; Wongbusarakum, Supin; Leberer, Trina; Joseph, Eugene; Andrew, Wayne; Castro, Fran; Nevitt, Brooke; Golbuu, Yimnang; Oldiais, Noelle W.; Groves, Craig R.; Kostka, Willy; Houk, Peter20152017/12/14
Use of patch selection models as a decision support tool to evaluate mitigation strategies of human-wildlife conflictBiological ConservationBaruch-Mordo, Sharon; Webb, Colleen T.; Breck, Stewart W.; Wilson, Kenneth R.20132017/12/14
Use of resistance surfaces for landscape genetic studies: considerations for parameterization and analysisMolecular EcologySpear, Stephen F.; Balkenhol, Niko; Fortin, Marie-Josee; McRae, Brad H.; Scribner, Kim20102017/12/14
Using a multiscale, probabilistic approach to identify spatial-temporal wetland gradientsREMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENTGabrielsen, Charlotte G.; Murphy, Melanie A.; Evans, Jeffrey S.20162017/12/14
Using anurans as bioindicators of PCB contaminated streamsJournal Of HerpetologyDeGarady, CJ; Halbrook, RS20062017/12/14Because polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) persist in the environment and are lipophilic they can accumulate in wildlife. Little is known about accumulation or effects of PCBs in anurans; therefore, we chose them for study at a PCB contaminated Sup
Using Circuit Theory To Model Connectivity In Ecology, Evolution, And ConservationEcologyMcRae, Brad H.; Dickson, Brett G.; Keitt, Timothy H.; Shah, Viral B.20082017/12/14
Using cultural ecosystem services to inform restoration priorities in the Laurentian Great LakesFRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTAllan, J. David; Smith, Sigrid D. P.; McIntyre, Peter B.; Joseph, Christine A.; Dickinson, Caitlin E.; Marino, Adrienne L.; Biel, Reuben G.; Olson, James C.; Doran, Patrick J.; Rutherford, Edward S.; Adkins, Jeffrey E.; Adeyemo, Adesola O.20152017/12/14
Using Ecological Land Units for Conservation Planning in a Southwestern Ohio WatershedNatural Areas JournalZimmerman, C. L.; Runkle, J. R.20102017/12/14
Using ecoregional assessments to predict the biodiversity impacts of major transportation corridorsKelly, E.M., K. Freeman, and D.R. Gordon20072017/12/14Atlanta, GA
Using ecosystem services valuation to measure the economic impacts of land-use changes on the Spanish Mediterranean coast (El Maresme, 1850-2010)REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGEDupras, Jerome; Parcerisas, Lluis; Brenner, Jorge20162017/12/14
Using expert knowledge to develop a vulnerability and adaptation framework and methodology for application in tropical island communitiesCoastal ManagementMcleod, E., B. Szuster, E.L. Tompkins, N. Marshall, T. Downing, S. Wongbusarakum, A. Patwardhan, M. Hamza, C. Anderson, S. Bharwani, L. Hansen, P. Rubinoff20152017/12/14Climate change threatens tropical coastal communities and ecosystems. Governments, resource managers, and communities recognize the value of assessing the social and ecological impacts of climate change, but there is little consensus on the most effective framework to support vulnerability and adaptation assessments. The framework presented in this research is based on a gap analysis developed from the recommendations of climate and adaptation experts. The article highlights social and ecological factors that affect vulnerability to climate change; adaptive capacity and adaptation options informing policy and conservation management decisions; and a methodology including criteria to assess current and future vulnerability to climate change. The framework is intended for conservation practitioners working in developing countries, small island nations, and traditional communities. It identifies core components that assess climate change impacts on coastal communities and environments at the local scale, and supports the identification of locally relevant adaptation strategies. Although the literature supporting vulnerability adaptation assessments is extensive, little emphasis has been placed on the systematic validation of these tools. To address this, we validate the framework using the Delphi technique, a group facilitation technique used to achieve convergence of expert opinion, and address gaps in previous vulnerability assessments.
Using fire and bison to restore a functional tallgrass prairie landscapeHamilton, R.G.19962017/12/14
Using fire to control skunk vine (Paederia foetida) in an invaded sandhillGordon, D.R., G.D. Gann, S.C. Morrison, and J.H. Fisher19992017/12/14
Using food-web theory to conserve ecosystemsNATURE COMMUNICATIONSMcDonald-Madden, E.; Sabbadin, R.; Game, E. T.; Baxter, P. W. J.; Chades, I.; Possingham, H. P.20162017/12/14
Using fuzzy C-means and local autocorrelation to cluster satellite-inferred burn severity classesInternational Journal of Wildland FireHolden, Zachary A.; Evans, Jeffrey S.20102017/12/14
Using Gambusia affinis growth and condition to assess estuarine habitat quality: a comparison of indicesMarine Ecology Progress SeriesPiazza, Bryan P.; La Peyre, Megan K.20102017/12/14
Using Models To Assess Fire Regime Conditions And Develop Restoration Strategies In Grassland Systems At Landscape And Global ScalesShlisky, Ayn J.; Hickey, S.; Bragg, T. B.20072017/12/14
Using multiple watershed models to assess the water quality impacts of alternate land development scenarios for a small communityCATENASharifi, Amirreza; Yen, Haw; Boomer, Kathleen M. B.; Kalin, Latif; Li, Xuyong; Weller, Donald E.20172017/12/14Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in North America, is impaired by excess nutrient discharges, especially from urban and agricultural land. Watershed simulation models have provided key insights to understanding land-to-water connections, but rarely are these models applied to guide local land management to explore and communicate uncertainty in the model predictions. In this study, three watershed simulation models; the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), the Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF) model, and the Chesapeake Bay Program's Chesapeake Watershed Model (CBP-CWM) were implemented to predict water, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus discharges from small tributaries in the town of Queenstown, Maryland, USA. Based on our evaluation metrics, none of the models consistently provided better results. In general, there was a good agreement on annual average water flow between the SWAT and CBP-CWM models, and the GWLF and CBP-CWM models predicted similar TN and TP loads. Each model has strengths and weaknesses in flow and nutrient predictions, and predictions differed among models even when models were initialized with the same data. Using multiple models may enhance the quality of model predictions and the decision making process. However, it could also be the case that the complexity of implemented watershed models and resolution of our understanding currently are not yet suited to provide scientifically credible solutions.watershed modeling; multiple model comparisons; SWAT; GWLF; CBP-CWM; Chesapeake Bay; agriculture
Using Past, Present And Future Estimates Of Water Filtration As A Target For Oyster RestorationJournal of Shellfish ResearchErmgassen, Philine Zu; Spalding, Mark; Brumbaugh, Rob; Grizzle, Ray20122017/12/14
Using Plant Community Diversity In Reserve Design For Pothole Prairie On The Blackfeet-Indian-Reservation, Montana, UsaBiological ConservationLesica, P19932017/12/14
Using practical and social information to influence flood adaptation behaviorWATER RESOURCES RESEARCHAllaire, Maura C.20162017/12/14
Using reef fish movement to inform marine reserve designJournal of Applied EcologyWeeks, Rebecca; Green, Alison L.; Joseph, Eugene; Peterson, Nate; Terk, Elizabeth20162017/12/14A central tenet of protected area design is that conserva-tion areas must be adequate to ensure the persistence ofthe features that they aim to conserve. These featuresmight include species, populations, communities and/orenvironmental processes. Protected area adequacy entailsboth good design (e.g. size, conÞguration, replication) andmanagement effectiveness (e.g. level of protection, compli-ance with regulations). With respect to design, guidelinesrecommend that protected area size be informed by spe-ciesÕ home ranges, as individuals that move beyond pro-tected area boundaries are exposed to threats and arethus only partially protected (Kramer & Chapman 1999).This is especially important for species that are directlyexploited, as are many coral reef-associated Þshes.Information on movement patterns of coral reef Þsheshas only recently been summarized in the literature, alongwith guidelines on how this information might be used toinform the adequate design of marine protected areas(MPAs; Green et al. 2015). Here, we demonstrate, usingan example from Micronesia, how these guidelines can beadapted and applied within a particular socio-ecologicalcontext to guide discussions with stakeholders aimed atimproving the efÞcacy of an existing protected area net-work. We discuss aspects of this process that were suc-cessful and those that were challenging, and in so doing,identify areas where future ecological research effortmight beneÞt protected area planning and design.adaptive management; adequacy; community-based conservation; conservation planning; home range; marine reserves; Micronesia; movement; protected areas; reef fishes
Using Remote Sensing to Evaluate the Influence of Grassland Restoration Activities on Ecosystem Forage Provisioning ServicesRestoration EcologyMalmstrom, Carolyn M.; Butterfield, H. Scott; Barber, Christopher; Dieter, Barbara; Harrison, Richard; Qi, Jiaquo; Riano, David; Schrotenboer, Abbie; Stone, Scott; Stoner, Chantal J.; Wirka, Jeanne20092017/12/14
Using science to assign value to natureFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentRuffo, S., and P. Kareiva20092017/12/14
Using science to evaluate restoration efforts and ecosystem health on the Sacramento River Project, CaliforniaGolet GH, DL Brown, EE Crone, GR Geupel, SE Greco, KD Holl, DE Jukkola, GM Kondolf, EW Larsen, FK Ligon, RA Luster, MP Marchetti, N Nur, BK Orr, DR Peterson, ME Power, WE Rainey, MD Roberts, JG Silveira, SL Small, JC Vick, DS Wilson, & DM Wood20032017/12/14The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and its partners are attempting to restore the riparian ecosystem of the Sacramento River over~ 100 river miles, from Red Bluff to Colusa. To evaluate baseline ecosystem conditions, determine how the system is respon
Using soundscapes to detect variable degrees of human influence on tropical forests in Papua New GuineaConservation BiologyBurivalova, Zuzana; Towsey, Michael; Boucher, Tim; Truskinger, Anthony; Apelis, Cosmas; Roe, Paul; Game, Edward T.20172017/12/14There is global concern about tropical forest degradation, in part, because of the associated loss of biodiversity. Communities and indigenous people play a fundamental role in tropical forest management and they are often efficient at preventing forest degradation. However, monitoring changes in biodiversity due to degradation, especially at a scale appropriate to local tropical forest management, is marred with difficulties including the need for expert training, inconsistency across observers, and the lack of baseline or reference data. We used a new biodiversity remote sensing technology, the recording of soundscapes, to test whether the acoustic saturation of a soundscape decreases with increasing land use intensity by the communities that manage the tropical forests in Papua New Guinea. We found that land use zones where forest cover was fully retained had a significantly higher soundscape saturation during peak acoustic activity times, corresponding to the dawn and dusk chorus, compared with land use types with fragmented forest cover. We conclude that, in Papua New Guinea, the relatively simple measure of soundscape saturation may provide a cheap, objective, reproducible, and effective tool to monitor tropical forest deviation from intact state, particularly through detecting the presence of an intact dawn and dusk chorus.avifauna, bioacoustics, community forest management, forest degradation, hunting, subsistence agriculture, land use planning, vocalizing biodiversity
Using surrogate species and groups for conservation planning and managementBioScienceWiens, John A.; Hayward, Gregory D.; Holthausen, Richard S.; Wisdom, Michael J.20082017/12/14In species management and conservation, surrogate species or groups of species can be used as proxies for broader sets of species when the number of species of concern is too great to allow each to be considered individually. However, these surro
Using systematic conservation planning to minimize REDD plus conflict with agriculture and logging in the tropicsConservation LettersVenter, Oscar; Possingham, Hugh P.; Hovani, Lex; Dewi, Sonya; Griscom, Bronson; Paoli, Gary; Wells, Phillip; Wilson, Kerrie A.20132017/12/14agriculture
Using the IUCN Green List of Protected and Conserved Areas to promote conservation impact through marine protected areasAQUATIC CONSERVATION-MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMSWells, Sue; Addison, Prue F. E.; Bueno, Paula A.; Costantini, Marco; Fontaine, Anne; Germain, Laurent; Lefebvre, Thierry; Morgan, Lance; Staub, Francis; Wang, Bin; White, Alan; Zorrilla, Maria X.20162017/12/14
Using Very-Large-Scale Aerial Imagery for Rangeland Monitoring and Assessment: Some Statistical ConsiderationsRangeland Ecology & ManagementKarl, Jason W.; Duniway, Michael C.; Nusser, Sarah M.; Opsomer, Jean D.; Unnasch, Robert S.20122017/12/14agriculture, ranching
Using water funds to finance watershed conservation in the Andes and Costa RicaMountain ForumBenÍtez, S., A. Blanco, J. Cole, M. Ibˆ_ez, J. J. RodrÍguez, and S. Halloy20102017/12/14
Utility of computer simulations in landscape geneticsMolecular EcologyEpperson, Bryan K.; McRae, Brad H.; Scribner, Kim; Cushman, Samuel A.; Rosenberg, Michael S.; Fortin, Marie-Josee; James, Patrick M. A.; Murphy, Melanie; Manel, Stephanie; Legendre, Pierre; Dale, Mark R. T.20102017/12/14
Utility of high-density plantings in bay scallop, Argopecten irradians irradians, restorationAquaculture InternationalTettelbach, Stephen T.; Barnes, Debra; Aldred, John; Rivara, Gregg; Bonal, Dennis; Weinstock, Andrew; Fitzsimons-Diaz, Chelsea; Thiel, Josh; Cammarota, M. Chase; Stark, Adam; Wejnert, Katherine; Ames, Richard; Carroll, John20112017/12/14
Valuing investments in sustainable land management in the Upper Tana River basin, KenyaJournal of Environmental ManagementVogl, Adrian L.; Bryant, Benjamin P.; Hunink, Johannes E.; Wolny, Stacie; Apse, Colin; Droogers, Peter20172017/12/14We analyze the impacts of investments in sustainable land use practices on ecosystem services in the Upper Tana basin, Kenya. This work supports implementation of the Upper Tana-Nairobi Water Fund, a public-private partnership to safeguard ecosystem service provision and food security. We apply an integrated modelling framework, building on local knowledge and previous field- and model-based studies, to link biophysical landscape changes at high temporal and spatial resolution to economic benefits for key actors in the basin. The primary contribution of this study is that it a) presents a comprehensive analysis for targeting interventions that takes into account stakeholder preferences, local environmental and socio-economic conditions, b) relies on detailed, process-based, biophysical models to demonstrate the biophysical return on those investments for a practical, decision-driven case, and c) in close collaboration with downstream water users, links those biophysical outputs to monetary metrics, including: reduced water treatment costs, increased hydropower production, and crop yield benefits for agricultural producers in the conservation area. This study highlights the benefits and trade-offs that come with conducting participatory research as part of a stakeholder engagement process: while results are more likely to be decision-relevant within the local context, navigating stakeholder expectations and data limitations present ongoing challenges.water fund; integrated modeling; valuation; SWAT; RIOS; sustainable land management; agriculture
Valuing nature: protected areas and ecosystem servicesFiggis, Penelope; Mackey, Brendan; Fitzsimons, James; Irving, Jason; Clarke, Pepe20152017/12/14
Valuing visitor services and access to protected areas: The case of Nyungwe National Park in RwandaTOURISM MANAGEMENTLal, Pankaj; Wolde, Bernabas; Masozera, Michel; Burli, Pralhad; Alavalapati, Janaki; Ranjan, Aditi; Montambault, Jensen; Banerjee, Onil; Ochuodho, Thomas; Mugabo, Rodrigue20172017/12/14
Variation in a sparrow's reproductive success with rainfall: food and predator-mediated processesOecologiaMorrison, SA; Bolger, DT20022017/12/14From 1997 to 1999, we monitored the reproductive success of individual rufous-crowned sparrows (Aimophila ruficeps) in coastal sage scrub habitat of southern California, USA. Annual reproductive output of this ground-nesting species varied stron
Variation in the Hormonal Stress Response Among Larvae of Three Amphibian SpeciesJournal Of Experimental Zoology Part A-Ecological Genetics And PhysiologyBelden, Lisa K.; Wingfield, John C.; Kiesecker, Joseph M.20102017/12/14
Vegetation And Flora Of Pine Butte Fen, Teton County, MontanaGreat Basin NaturalistLesica, P19862017/12/14The Pine Butte Fen, situated east of the Rocky Mountains in north central Montana, is a boreal, patterned peatland occurring in a relatively dry climatic region. It is one of the southernmost mires of its kind in North America. The vegetation communities
Vegetation dynamics in the dry valleys of Yunnan, China, during the last 150 years: implications for ecological restorationJournal of Plant EcologyMoseley, R.K. and Y. Tang20062017/12/14In southwestern China, there are many opinions about past environmental conditions and the historical drivers of change, but little direct evidence. Such is the case in Dry Valley ecosystems, where current conservation programs appear to be based more on
Vegetation removal and seed addition contribute to coastal sandplain grassland establishment on former agricultural fieldsRESTORATION ECOLOGYWheeler, Megan M.; Neill, Christopher; Loucks, Elizabeth; Weiler, Annalisa; Von Holle, Betsy; Pelikan, Matthew; Chase, Tom20152017/12/14Creating native-species-rich grasslands to replace agricultural grasslands can be an important strategy for supplementing the area of grasslands, which are in decline in many regions. In the northeastern United States, sandplain grasslands support a diverse plant community and rare plant and animal species that are declining because of reductions in historical disturbances such as fire and grazing. We designed an experiment on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, to test methods of establishing native-species-rich coastal sandplain grassland on former agricultural land. We tested the efficacy of: (1) tilling, herbicide, hot foam, and plastic cover in removing initial nonnative vegetation, and (2) combinations of tilling and seeding for establishing native species. We measured native and nonnative species richness and percent cover before and for 5 years after treatment. Herbicide, plastic cover, and spring, summer, and fall tilling were about equally effective in reducing nonnative species cover and promoting native species cover. Tilling and seeding each increased native species richness and percent cover, and seeding and tilling together increased native species richness and cover more than either treatment alone. Combined seeding and disturbance also reduced the cover of nonnative species, but nonnative species cover remained higher than in adjacent reference sandplain grassland. Results indicated that native species establishment was enhanced by the availability of seeds and by reduction of initial nonnative plant cover. The most efficient method of converting coastal agricultural grasslands to sandplain grassland with a higher number and proportion of native species is a single season of plant removal and seeding.
Vegetation Responses to Pinyon-Juniper Treatments in Eastern NevadaRangeland Ecology & ManagementProvencher, Louis; Thompson, Julie20142017/12/14
Viability of Aquatic Plant Fragments following DesiccationInvasive Plant Science and ManagementBarnes, Matthew A.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Keller, Doug; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Howeth, Jennifer G.; Lodge, David M.20132017/12/14
Vinecology: pairing wine with natureConservation LettersViers, Joshua H.; Williams, John N.; Nicholas, Kimberly A.; Barbosa, Olga; Kotze, Inge; Spence, Liz; Webb, Leanne B.; Merenlender, Adina; Reynolds, Mark20132017/12/14
Visions of Restoration in Fire-Adapted Forest Landscapes: Lessons from the Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration ProgramENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENTUrgenson, Lauren S.; Ryan, Clare M.; Halpern, Charles B.; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Belote, R. Travis; Franklin, Jerry F.; Haugo, Ryan D.; Nelson, Cara R.; Waltz, Amy E. M.20172017/12/14
Visual obstruction: Weight technique for estimating production on northwestern bunchgrass prairie rangelands.Journal Of Animal ScienceDamiran, D.; DelCurto, T.; Darambazar, E.; Clark, A. A.; Kennedy, P. L.; Taylor, R. V.20072017/12/14
Vocal repertoire of Forster's TernColonial WaterbirdsHall, JA19982017/12/14Nine vocalizations are identified that contribute to the vocal repertoire of adult Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri): Advertisement, Recognition, Contact, Pair-Bond, Submissive, Alarm, Agonistic, Threat, and Swoop-and-Soar. Audiospectrograms are provided
Vulnerability and adaptation of US shellfisheries to ocean acidificationNature Climate ChangeEkstrom, Julia A.; Suatoni, Lisa; Cooley, Sarah R.; Pendleton, Linwood H.; Waldbusser, George G.; Cinner, Josh E.; Ritter, Jessica; Langdon, Chris; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Gledhill, Dwight; Wellman, Katharine; Beck, Michael W.; Brander, Luke M.; Rittschof, D20152017/12/14
Waiting can be an optimal conservation strategy, even in a crisis disciplinePROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICAIacona, Gwenllian D.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Bode, Michael20172017/12/14
Warbling Vireo Nesting Ecology in the Northern Sierra NevadaWestern BirdsSmith, J., M.D. Reynolds, and G. LeBuhn20042017/12/14In California, for unknown reasons, the Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus swainsonii) has poor reproductive success, and its numbers have declined over the past 20 years. From June through August 1998 we monitored 70 nests of the Warbling Vireo in a
Warbling Vireo reproductive success and nest-site characteristics in the northern Sierra Nevada, CaliforniaJournal of Field OrnithologySmith, JI; Reynolds, MD; LeBuhn, G20052017/12/14Over the past 20 yr Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus) populations have declined in California. We monitored Warbling Vireo nests in the high elevations of the northern Sierra Nevada in the Tahoe National Forest near Truckee, California. Nest survivor
Warm-water coral reefs and climate change.ScienceSpalding, M.D., B.E. Brown20152017/12/14Coral reefs are highly dynamic ecosystems that are regularly exposed to natural perturbations. Human activities have increased the range, intensity, and frequency of disturbance to reefs. Threats such as overfishing and pollution are being compounded by climate change, notably warming and ocean acidification. Elevated temperatures are driving increasingly frequent bleaching events that can lead to the loss of both coral cover and reef structural complexity. There remains considerable variability in the distribution of threats and in the ability of reefs to survive or recover from such disturbances. Without significant emissions reductions, however, the future of coral reefs is increasingly bleak.water, coral reefs, climate change
Warming Seas in the Coral Triangle: Coral Reef Vulnerability and Management ImplicationsCoastal ManagementMcLeod, Elizabeth; Moffitt, Russell; Timmermann, Axel; Salm, Rodney; Menviel, Laurie; Palmer, Michael J.; Selig, Elizabeth R.; Casey, Kenneth S.; Bruno, John F.20102017/12/14
Was the kouprey a feral hybrid? A response to Galbreath et al. (2006)Journal Of ZoologyHedges, S.; Groves, C. P.; Duckworth, J. W.; Meijaard, E.; Timmins, R. J.; Burton, J. A.20072017/12/14
Water depletion: An improved metric for incorporating seasonal and dry-year water scarcity into water risk assessmentsElementa: Science of the AnthropoceneBrauman, Kate A.; Richter, Brian D.; Postel, Sandra; Malsy, Marcus; Florke, Martina20162017/12/14We present an improved water-scarcity metric we call water depletion, calculated as the fraction of renewable water consumptively used for human activities. We employ new data from the WaterGAP3 integrated global water resources model to illustrate water depletion for 15,091 watersheds worldwide, constituting 90% of total land area. Our analysis illustrates that moderate water depletion at an annual time scale is better characterized as high depletion at a monthly time scale and we are thus able to integrate seasonal and dry-year depletion into the water depletion metric, providing a more accurate depiction of water shortage that could affect irrigated agriculture, urban water supply, and freshwater ecosystems. Applying the metric, we find that the 2% of watersheds that are more than 75% depleted on an average annual basis are home to 15% of global irrigated area and 4% of large cities. An additional 30% of watersheds are depleted by more than 75% seasonally or in dry years. In total, 71% of world irrigated area and 47% of large cities are characterized as experiencing at least periodic water shortage.agriculture
Water funds and payments for ecosystem services: practice learns from theory and theory can learn from practiceOryxGoldman-Benner, Rebecca L.; Benitez, Silvia; Boucher, Timothy; Calvache, Alejandro; Daily, Gretchen; Kareiva, Peter; Kroeger, Timm; Ramos, Aurelio20122017/12/14
Water funds: A new ecosystem service and biodiversity conservation strategyEncyclopedia of Biodiversity, second editionGoldman-Benner, R.L., S. Benitez, A. Calvache, A. Ramos, and F. Veiga20132017/12/14
Water limits to closing yield gapsAdvances in Water ResourcesDavis, Kyle Frankel; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Garrassino, Francesco; Chiarelli, Davide; Seveso, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo20172017/12/14Agricultural intensification is often seen as a suitable approach to meet the growing demand for agricultural products and improve food security. It typically entails the use of fertilizers, new cultivars, irrigation, and other modern technology. In regions of the world affected by seasonal or chronic water scarcity, yield gap closure is strongly dependent on irrigation (blue water). Global yield gap assessments have often ignored whether the water required to close the yield gap is locally available. Here we perform a gridded global analysis (10 km resolution) of the blue water consumption that is needed annually to close the yield gap worldwide and evaluate the associated pressure on renewable freshwater resources. We find that, to close the yield gap, human appropriation of freshwater resources for irrigation would have to increase at least by 146%. Most study countries would experience at least a doubling in blue water requirement, with 71% of the additional blue water being required by only four crops – maize, rice, soybeans, and wheat. Further, in some countries (e.g., Algeria, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen) the total volume of blue water required for yield gap closure would exceed sustainable levels of freshwater consumption (i.e., 40% of total renewable surface and groundwater resources).irrigation water; yield gap; freshwater resources; food production; water scarcity; agriculture
Water markets as a response to scarcityWater PolicyDebaere, Peter; Richter, Brian D.; Davis, Kyle Frankel; Duvall, Melissa S.; Gephart, Jessica Ann; O'Bannon, Clark E.; Pelnik, Carolyn; Powell, Emily Maynard; Smith, Tyler William20142017/12/14
Water Markets: A New Tool for Securing Urban Water Supplies?Journal American Water Works AssociationRichter, Brian20142017/12/14
Water on an urban planet: Urbanization and the reach of urban water infrastructureGlobal Environmental Change-Human And Policy DimensionsMcDonald, Robert I.; Weber, Katherine; Padowski, Julie; Floerke, Martina; Schneider, Christof; Green, Pamela A.; Gleeson, Thomas; Eckman, Stephanie; Lehner, Bernhard; Balk, Deborah; Boucher, Timothy; Grill, Guenther; Montgomery, Mark20142017/12/14
Water Quality Monitoring Station Design For Remote Sites Experiencing Extreme Water Level FluctuationRiver Research And ApplicationsRice, C. L.; Weber, D. S.; Haase, C. S.; Piazza, B. P.20152017/12/14
Water relations in grassland and desert ecosystems exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2OecologiaMorgan, JA; Pataki, DE; Korner, C; Clark, H; Del Grosso, SJ; Grunzweig, JM; Knapp, AK; Mosier, AR; Newton, PCD; Niklaus, PA; Nippert, JB; Nowak, RS; Parton, WJ; Polley, HW; Shaw, MR20042017/12/14Atmospheric CO 2 enrichment may stimulate plant growth directly through (1) enhanced photosynthesis or indirectly, through (2) reduced plant water consumption and hence slower soil moisture depletion, or the combination of both. Herein we describ
Water Savings of Crop Redistribution in the United StatesWaterDavis, Kyle Frankel; Seveso, Antonio; Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo20172017/12/14Demographic growth, changes in diet, and reliance on first-generation biofuels are increasing the human demand for agricultural products, thereby enhancing the human pressure on global freshwater resources. Recent research on the food-water nexus has highlighted how some major agricultural regions of the world lack the water resources required to sustain current growth trends in crop production. To meet the increasing need for agricultural commodities with limited water resources, the water use efficiency of the agricultural sector must be improved. In this regard, recent work indicates that the often overlooked strategy of changing the crop distribution within presently cultivated areas offers promise. Here we investigate the extent to which water in the United States could be saved while improving yields simply by replacing the existing crops with more suitable ones. We propose crop replacement criteria that achieve this goal while preserving crop diversity, economic value, nitrogen fixation, and food protein production. We find that in the United States, these criteria would greatly improve calorie (+46%) and protein (+34%) production and economic value (+208%), with 5% water savings with respect to the present crop distribution. Interestingly, greater water savings could be achieved in water-stressed agricultural regions of the US such as California (56% water savings), and other western states.water footprint; water resources; agriculture; irrigation; nutrition; sustainability
Water sector benchmarking and environmental sustainabilityJournal American Water Works AssociationGritsinin, Alexander20082017/12/14
Water Sustainability Risk Assessment Part 1: Defining the Area of Influence and Sustainability BoundariesJournal American Water Works AssociationVigerstol, Kari20112017/12/14
Water Sustainability Risk Assessment, Part 2: Primary and Secondary EffectsJournal American Water Works AssociationVigerstol, Kari20112017/12/14
Watershed based, institutional approach to developing clean water resourcesJournal of the American Water Resources AssociationRandhir, T; Genge, C20052017/12/14
Watershed-scale impacts of stormwater green infrastructure on hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and combined sewer overflows in the mid-Atlantic regionSCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENTPennino, Michael J.; McDonald, Rob I.; Jaffe, Peter R.20162017/12/14
We Really Can Get There from Here: Important Steps Toward Ecosystem-Based Fishery ManagementMcGee, Sally20122017/12/14
Weed Risk Assessment for Aquatic Plants: Modification of a New Zealand system for the United States.PLoS ONEGordon, D.R., C.A. Gantz, C.L. Jerde, W.L. Chadderton, R.P. Keller, and P.D. Champion.20122017/12/14
Weed Risk Assessments Are an Effective Component of Invasion Risk ManagementInvasive Plant Science and ManagementGordon, D.R., S.L. Flory, D. Lieurance, P.E. Hulme, C. Buddenhagen, B. Caton, P.D. Champion, T.M. Culley, C. Daehler, F. Essl, J.E. Hill, R.P. Keller, L. Kohl, A.L. Koop, S. Kumschick, D.M. Lodge, R.N. Mack, L.A. Meyerson, G.R. Pallipparambil, F.D. Panetta, R. Porter, P. Py_ek, L.D. Quinn, D.M. Richardson, D. Simberloff, and M. Vilö.20162017/12/14
Weed-control fabric successfully stops spread of invasive saltmeadow cordgrassEcological RestorationPickering, D.L.20042017/12/14
West Nile virus impacts in American crow populations are associated with human land use and climateEcological ResearchLaDeau, Shannon L.; Calder, Catherine A.; Doran, Patrick J.; Marra, Peter P.20112017/12/14
Western Lake Erie Basin: Soft-data-constrained, NHDPlus resolution watershed modeling and exploration of applicable conservation scenarios.Science of the Total EnvironmentHaw Yena, Michael J. Whiteb, Jeffrey G. Arnoldb, S. Conor Keitzerc, Mari-Vaughn V. Johnsond, Jay D. Atwoodd, Prasad Daggupatie, Matthew E. Herbertf, Scott P. Sowaf, Stuart A. Ludsinc, Dale M. Robertsong, Raghavan Srinivasane, Charles A. Rewah20162017/12/14Complex watershed simulation models are powerful tools that can help scientists and policy-makers address challenging topics, such as land use management and water security. In the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB), complex hydrological models have been applied at various scales to help describe relationships between land use and water, nutrient, and sediment dynamics. This manuscript evaluated the capacity of the current Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT2012) to predict hydrological and water quality processes within WLEB at the finest resolution watershed boundary unit (NHDPlus) along with the current conditions and conservation scenarios. The process based SWAT model was capable of the fine-scale computation and complex routing used in this project, as indicated by measured data at five gaging stations. The level of detail required for fine-scale spatial simulation made the use of both hard and soft data necessary in model calibration, alongside other model adaptations. Limitations to the model's predictive capacity were due to a paucity of data in the region at the NHDPlus scale rather than due to SWAT functionality. Results of treatment scenarios demonstrate variable effects of structural practices and nutrient management on sediment and nutrient loss dynamics. Targeting treatment to acres with critical outstanding conservation needs provides the largest return on investment in terms of nutrient loss reduction per dollar spent, relative to treating acres with lower inherent nutrient loss vulnerabilities. Importantly, this research raises considerations about use of models to guide land management decisions at very fine spatial scales. Decision makers using these results should be aware of data limitations that hinder fine-scale model interpretation.Lake Erie; NHDPlus model; Soft data; Conservation practice; Swat-SAS; Model calibration
Wet/Dry Mapping: Using Citizen Scientists to Monitor the Extent of Perennial Surface Flow in Dryland RegionsEnvironmental ManagementTurner, Dale S.; Richter, Holly E.20112017/12/14
Whales are big and it mattersWhales, Whaling and Ocean EcosystemsKareiva, P., Yuan-Farrell, C, and C. OêConnor20062017/12/14Whales have a unique place in conservation lore. Their plight is widely known, and the beaching of even a single whale is a major news event, typically drawing hundreds of spectators. In addition, as a marine mammal, whales are given favored legal protect
What are the effects of nature conservation on human well-being? A systematic map of empirical evidence from developing countriesEnvironmental EvidenceMcKinnon, Madeleine C.; Cheng, Samantha H.; Dupre, Samuel; Edmond, Janet; Garside, Ruth; Glew, Louise; Holland, Margaret B.; Levine, Eliot; Masuda, Yuta J.; Miller, Daniel C.; Oliveira, Isabella; Revenaz, Justine; Roe, Dilys; Shamer, Sierra; Wilkie, David; Wongbusarakum, Supin; Woodhouse, Emily20162017/12/14Global policy initiatives and international conservation organizations have sought to emphasize and strengthen the link between the conservation of natural ecosystems and human development. While many indices have been developed to measure various social outcomes to conservation interventions, the quantity and strength of evidence to support the effects, both positive and negative, of conservation on different dimensions of human well-being, remain unclear, dispersed and inconsistent.biodiversity conservation; natural resource management; human welfare; poverty; human development; sustainability
What are we conserving? Establishing multiscale conservation goals and objectives in the face of global threatsScott, J.M., and T.H. Tear20072017/12/14The conservation movement is entering a new era defined by increasing uncertainty and complexity, driven primarily by largescale human-induced threats impacting conservation efforts at global and local scales. In this context, how is it possible
What is a REDD+ pilot? A preliminary typology based on early actions in IndonesiaCIFOR infobriefMadeira, E.M., E. Sills, M. Brockhaus, L. Verchot, and M. Kanninen20102017/12/14
What Is Conservation Science?BioScienceKareiva, Peter; Marvier, Michelle20122017/12/14
What preys on piping plover eggs and chicks?Wildlife Society BulletinIvan, JS; Murphy, RK20052017/12/14Recovery of the imperiled northern Great Plains population of piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) largely depends on reducing predation on the plover's eggs and chicks, but sources of predation are poorly understood. We examined differences in th
Whatês so new about ecosystem services?Bulletin of the British Ecological SocietyWiens, J20072017/12/14
When one whale mattersNatureKareiva, P20012017/12/14The northern right whale is one of the rarest mammals in the world. Hunted nearly to extinction in the nineteenth century, right whales have been protected for the past 65 years. Yet, after starting to recover, the North Atlantic population resumed its pe
Where Does Your Water Come From?Journal American Water Works AssociationHerrin, Misty; Richter, Brian20112017/12/14
Where have all the scallops gone? Trends in Rhode Island's bay scallop populationsJournal of Shellfish ResearchChintala, Marnita M.; Tammi, Karin A.; Hancock, Boze20082017/12/14
Where now for protected areas? Setting the stage for the 2014 World Parks CongressOryxDudley, Nigel; Groves, Craig; Redford, Kent H.; Stolton, Sue20142017/12/14
Where to draw the line: integrating feasibility into connectivity planningConnectivity ConservationMorrison, S.A. and M.D. Reynolds20062017/12/14
Where to Restore Ecological Connectivity? Detecting Barriers and Quantifying Restoration BenefitsPLoS ONEMcRae, Brad H.; Hall, Sonia A.; Beier, Paul; Theobald, David M.20122017/12/14
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) alter herbaceous species diversity and understory forest structure in the Hiawatha National Forest, Michigan, USAAmerican Midland NaturalistHolmes, S.A., L.M. Curran, and K.R. Hall20082017/12/14
Whither the Rangeland?: Protection and Conversion in California's Rangeland EcosystemsPLoS ONECameron, D. Richard; Marty, Jaymee; Holland, Robert F.20142017/12/14
Who loses? Tracking ecosystem service redistribution from road development and mitigation in the Peruvian AmazonFRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTMandle, Lisa; Tallis, Heather; Sotomayor, Leonardo; Vogl, Adrian L.20152017/12/14
Who needs to spend money on conservation science anyway?Conservation BiologyHiggins, Jonathan V.; Touval, Jerome L.; Unnasch, Robert S.; Reichle, Steffen; Oren, David C.; Waldman, William R.; Hoekstra, Jonathan M.20062017/12/14... Who Needs to Spend Money on Conservation Science Anyway? ... Additional Information. Howto Cite. Higgins, JV, Touval, JL, Unnasch, RS, Reichle, S., Oren, DC, Waldman, WR and Hoekstra,JM (2006), Who Needs to Spend Money on Conservation Science Anyway?.
Whose sustainability? Top-down  participation  and emergent rules in marine protected area management in IndonesiaMarine PolicyGlaser, M., W . Baitoningsih, S.C.A. Ferse, M. Neil, R. Deswandi20102017/12/14
Why climate change makes riparian restoration more important than ever: Recommendations for practice and researchEcological RestorationSeavy, N. E., T. Gardali, G. H. Golet, F. T. Griggs, C. A. Howell, T. R. Kelsey, S. Small, J. H. Viers, and J. F. Weigand20092017/12/14
Why conservation needs religionCoastal ManagementMcleod, E. and M. Palmer20152017/12/14Conservationists have been criticized for failing to protect nature in the face of mounting threats including overexploitation, species loss, habitat destruction, and climate change. Resource managers and scientists have yet to fully engage a major segment of the global population in their outreach efforts to protect the environment: religious communities. The world's religions have been recognized as a surprising driver of support for conservation of biological diversity, and numerous examples demonstrate religious and conservation groups working together to achieve conservation outcomes. However, many conservation organizations do not effectively engage religious groups. When conservation organizations do engage religious groups, efforts to do so are often ad hoc and such partnerships may wane over time. A more systematic approach is needed that directly engages religious communities, develops effective partnerships, supports and sustains dialogue aimed at finding common ground despite potentially divergent worldviews, and establishes supporting mechanisms to maintain the partnerships that are developed. Effective partnerships between religious and conservation groups represent significant untapped potential which can directly support conservation outcomes; such partnerships are likely to become increasingly important with dwindling support for conservation.
Why do we fly? Ecologists' sins of emissionFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentFox, Helen E.; Kareiva, Peter; Silliman, Brian; Hitt, Jessica; Lytle, David A.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Hawkes, Christine V.; Lawler, Joshua; Neel, Maile; Olden, Julian D.; Schlaepfer, Martin A.; Smith, Katherine; Tallis, Heather20092017/12/14We write to address an increasingly unsustainable paradox: a hallmark of modern science is frequent air travel, but the realities of global climate change will force us to find creative and constructive ways to reduce our carbon emissions (IPCC 1999; Paca
Why Don't We Ask? A Complementary Method for Assessing the Status of Great ApesPLoS ONEMeijaard, Erik; Mengersen, Kerrie; Buchori, Damayanti; Nurcahyo, Anton; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wich, Serge; Atmoko, Sri Suci Utami; Tjiu, Albertus; Prasetyo, Didik; Nardiyono; Hadiprakarsa, Yokyok; Christy, Lenny; Wells, Jessie; Albar, Guillaume; Marshall, Andre20112017/12/14
Why we disagree about assisted migration: Ethical implications of a key debate regarding the future of Canada's forestsForestry ChronicleAubin, I.; Garbe, C. M.; Colombo, S.; Drever, C. R.; McKenney, D. W.; Messier, C.; Pedlar, J.; Saner, M. A.; Venier, L.; Wellstead, A. M.; Winder, R.; Witten, E.; Ste-Marie, C.20112017/12/14
Why we should aim for zero extinctionTrends in Ecology and EvolutionParr, Michael J.; Bennun, Leon; Boucher, Tim; Brooks, Tom; Chutas, Constantino Aucca; Dinerstein, Eric; Drummond, Glaucia Marie; Eken, Guven; Fenwick, George; Foster, Matt; Martinez-Gomez, Juan E.; Mittermeier, Russell; Molur, Sanjay20092017/12/14
Wild Pollinators Enhance Fruit Set of Crops Regardless of Honey Bee AbundanceScienceGaribaldi, Lucas A.; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Winfree, Rachael; Aizen, Marcelo A.; Bommarco, Riccardo; Cunningham, Saul A.; Kremen, Claire; Carvalheiro, Luisa G.; Harder, Lawrence D.; Afik, Ohad; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Benjamin, Faye; Boreux, Virginie; Cariv20132017/12/14
Wildlife conservation in Bornean timber concessionsEcology & SocietyMeijaard, E., Sheil, D., Nasi, R. & Stanley, S20062017/12/14There is an increasing awareness that wildlife species in Kalimantan can benefit from forests that are managed for sustainable timber extraction (Col’_n, 1999; Lammertink, 2004b; Sheil et al., 2004). In the last few decades, conservation efforts have focu
Wildlife Response to Restoration on the Sacramento River.San Francisco Estuary and Watershed ScienceGolet G.H., T. Gardali, C. Howell, J. Hunt, R. Luster, B. Rainey, M. Roberts, H. Swagerty, N. Williams.20082017/12/14Studies that assess the success of riparian restoration projects seldom focus on wildlife. More generally, vegetation characteristics are studied, with the assumption that animal populations will recover once adequate habitats are established. On the Sacramento River, millions of dollars have been spent on habitat restoration, yet few studies of wildlife response have been published. Here we present the major findings of a suite of studies that assessed responses of four taxonomic groups (insects, birds, bats, and rodents). Study designs fell primarily into two broad categories: comparisons of restoration sites of different ages, and comparisons of restoration sites with agricultural and remnant riparian sites. Older restoration sites showed increased abundances of many species of landbirds and bats relative to younger sites, and the same trend was observed for the Valley elderberry longhorn beetle (Desmocerus californicus dimorphus), a federally threatened species. Species richness of landbirds and grounddwelling beetles appeared to increase as restoration sites matured. Young restoration sites provided benefits to species that utilize early successional riparian habitats, and after about 10 years, the sites appeared to provide many of the complex structural habitat elements that are characteristic of remnant forest patches. Eleven-year old sites were occupied by both cavity-nesting birds and special-status crevice-roosting bats. Restored sites also supported a wide diversity of bee species, and had richness similar to remnant sites. Remnant sites had species compositions of beetles and rodents more similar to older sites than to younger sites.wildlife, Sacramento river
Will a forest carbon deal fuel forest loss?Conservation BiologyVenter, O., J. Watson, E. Meijaard, W. F. Laurance, and H. P. Possingham20092017/12/14
Will land-use change erode our conservation gains?Bulletin of the British Ecological SocietyWiens, J.A20072017/12/14
Willamette River, Oregon: moving toward basin-wide flow and floodplain restorationIMPACT (American Water Resources Association)Bach, L. B., M. Rea, M. K. Scullion, K. Kanbergs, and J. J. Opperman20072017/12/14
Win-Win for Wind and Wildlife: A Vision to Facilitate Sustainable DevelopmentPLoS ONEKiesecker, Joseph M.; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Fargione, Joe; Doherty, Kevin; Foresman, Kerry R.; Kunz, Thomas H.; Naugle, Dave; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Niemuth, Neal D.20112017/12/14
Wind and wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: Identifying low-impact areas for wind developmentPLoS ONEFargione, J., J. Kiesecker, M.J. Slaats, and S. Olimb20122017/12/14
Winter avian distribution and relative abundance in six terrestrial habitats on southern Eleuthera, The BahamasCaribbean Journal Of ScienceCurrie, D; Wunderle, JM; Ewert, DN; Davis, A; McKenzie, Z20052017/12/14We studied winter avian distribution and relative abundance in six common terrestrial broadleaf habitats, selected on a continuum of disturbance from recently disturbed (abandoned plantation) to mature vegetation (tall coppice), on the island
Winter management of California's rice fields to maximize waterbird habitat and minimize water useAgriculture Ecosystems and EnvironmentStrum, K. M., Reiter, M. E., Hartman, C. A., Iglecia, M. N., Kelsey, T. R., & Hickey, C. M.20132017/12/14
Winter relative abundance and habitat associations of swamp rabbits in eastern ArkansasSoutheastern NaturalistFowler, Allison and Robert E. Kissell, Jr20072017/12/14Habitat loss coupled with decline in harvest has raised concern for Sylvilagus aquaticus (swamp rabbit) in Arkansas. We assessed relative abundance and habitat associations of swamp rabbits in eastern Arkansas using presence of latrine sites. We
Wintering bird response to hardwood reduction in northwest Florida longleaf pine sandhill ForestsThe AukProvencher. L., N. M. Gobris, and L. A. Brennan20022017/12/14
Women-Water Nexus for Sustainable Global Water ResourcesJOURNAL OF WATER RESOURCES PLANNING AND MANAGEMENTOyanedel-Craver, Vinka; Cotel, Aline; Saito, Laurel; Abu-Dalo, Muna; Gough, Heidi; Verstraeten, Ingrid20172017/12/14
Wood Energy: The Dangers of Combustion ResponseScienceRichter, Daniel de B., Jr.; Jenkins, Dylan H.; Karakash, John T.; Knight, Josiah; Mccreery, Lew R.; Nemestothy, Kasimir P.20092017/12/14
Woody debris as a component of ecological diversity in thinned and unthinned northern hardwood forestsNatural Areas JournalHura, CE; Crow, TR20042017/12/14Description: We examined the effects of management on coarse woody debris, both standing and downed, in thinned and unthinned northern hardwood forests in upper Michigan. The unthinned conditions included old growth and second growth, while the thinned co
Woody Shrubs as a Barrier to Invasion by Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica)Invasive Plant Science and ManagementYager, Lisa Y.; Miller, Deborah L.; Jones, Jeanne20112017/12/14
Working With New Hampshire Residents To Restore Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica) Populations To The Great Bay EstuaryJournal of Shellfish ResearchWard, Krystin; Grizzle, Ray; Konisky, Raymond20112017/12/14
World Atlas of MangrovesSpalding, M. D., M. Kainuma, and L. Collins20102017/12/14
Yuman fringe-toed lizard. In Lizards of the American Southwest: a Photographic Field GuideTurner, D.S., Rorabaugh, J.C.20092017/12/14
Global agriculture and carbon trade-offsProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesJohnson, Justin Andrew; Runge, Carlisle Ford; Senauer, Benjamin; Foley, Jonathan; Polasky, Stephen20142017/12/14agriculture
Global assessment of the status of coral reef herbivorous fishes: evidence for fishing effectsProceedings Of The Royal Society B-Biological SciencesEdwards, C. B.; Friedlander, A. M.; Green, A. G.; Hardt, M. J.; Sala, E.; Sweatman, H. P.; Williams, I. D.; Zgliczynski, B.; Sandin, S. A.; Smith, J. E.20142017/12/14
Global Biodiversity: Indicators of Recent DeclinesScienceButchart, S.H.M., et al. (incl. 44 co-authors, and TNC's C. Revenga20102017/12/14
Global development and the future of the protected area strategyBiological ConservationMcDonald, Robert I.; Boucher, Timothy M.20112017/12/14
Global diversity of drought tolerance and grassland climate-change resilienceNature Climate ChangeCraine, J.M., T.W. Ocheltree, J.B. Nippert, E.G. Towne, A.M. Skibbe, S.W. Kembel, and J.E. Fargione20122017/12/14
Global Human Footprint on the Linkage between Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning in Reef FishesPlos BiologyMora, Camilo; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Ayala Bocos, Arturo; Ayotte, Paula M.; Banks, Stuart; Bauman, Andrew G.; Beger, Maria; Bessudo, Sandra; Booth, David J.; Brokovich, Eran; Brooks, Andrew; Chabanet, Pascale; Cinner, Joshua E.; Cortes, Jorge; Cruz-Mott20112017/12/14
Global Introductions of Crayfishes: Evaluating the Impact of Species Invasions on Ecosystem ServicesLodge, David M.; Deines, Andrew; Gherardi, Francesca; Yeo, Darren C. J.; Arcella, Tracy; Baldridge, Ashley K.; Barnes, Matthew A.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Feder, Jeffrey L.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Howard, Geoffrey W.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Peters, Brett W.; P20122017/12/14
Global Monthly Water Scarcity: Blue Water Footprints versus Blue Water AvailabilityPLoS ONEHoekstra, Arjen Y.; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Chapagain, Ashok K.; Mathews, Ruth E.; Richter, Brian D.20122017/12/14agriculture, water footprint
Global stressors and the global decline of amphibians: tipping the stress immunocompetency axisEcological ResearchKiesecker, Joseph M.20112017/12/14
Global urban growth and the geography of water availability, quality and deliveryAmbioMcDonald, R.I., I. Doublas, C. Revenga, R. Hale, N. Grimm, J. Gronwall, and B. Fekete20112017/12/14
Global versus Local Conservation Focus of US State Agency Endangered Bird Species ListsPLoS ONEWells, Jeffrey V.; Robertson, Bruce; Rosenberg, Kenneth V.; Mehlman, David W.20102017/12/14
Globalization and Bioinvasions: The International Policy ProblemPerrings, Charles; Burgiel, Stas; Lonsdale, Mark; Mooney, Harold; Williamson, Mark20102017/12/14
Governing and Delivering a Biome-Wide Restoration Initiative: The Case of Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact in BrazilForestsPinto, Severino R.; Melo, Felipe; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Padovesi, Aurelio; Mesquita, Carlos A.; de Mattos Scaramuzza, Carlos Alberto; Castro, Pedro; Carrascosa, Helena; Calmon, Miguel; Rodrigues, Ricardo; Cesar, Ricardo Gomes; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.20142017/12/14
Government Commitments for Protected Areas: Status of Implementation and Sources of Leverage to Enhance AmbitionKrueger, L.20162017/12/14This chapter reviews the role and status of legal frameworks and other commitments for protected areas. It explores the relationship between scientific evidence and political practicality in implementing current targets and achieving the more ambitious ones. Prompted by increasingly urgent scientific warnings on biodiversity loss and supported by an emerging international community of practice around protected areas, governments have been commendably responsive both through commitment and action in developing national protected area networks. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), signed at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, has gradually emerged as the most comprehensive legal framework for protected areas. Programme of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA) remains the framework for implementing protected area goals, although it has been supplemented by the Strategic Plan Targets, the Aichi Targets, adopted at the CBD's 10th Conference of the Parties (COP 10).
Gradient modeling of conifer species using random forestLandscape EcologyEvans, J. S., and S. A. Cushman20092017/12/14
Grass carp in the Great Lakes region: establishment potential, expert perceptions, and re-evaluation of experimental evidence of ecological impactCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic SciencesWittmann, Marion E.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Howeth, Jennifer G.; Maher, Sean P.; Deines, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Burbank, Sarah R.; Chadderton, William L.; Mahon, Andrew R.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Keller, Reuben P20142017/12/14
Grassland community composition drives small-scale spatial patterns in soil properties and processesGeodermaParker, Sophie S.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Schimel, Joshua P.20122017/12/14
Grassland restoration with and without fire: evidence from a tree-removal experimentEcological ApplicationsHalpern, C. B., R. D. Haugo, J. A. Antos, S. S. Kaas, and A. L. Kilanowski20122017/12/14
Great Basin Land Management planning using ecological modelingEnvironmental ManagementForbis, Tara A.; Provencher, Louis; Frid, Leonardo; Medlyn, Gary20062017/12/14This report describes a land management modeling effort that analyzed potential impacts of proposed actions under an updated Bureau of Land Management Resource Management Plan that will guide management for 20 years on 4.6 million hectares in the
Great Plains ecosystems: past, present and futureWildlife Society BulletinSamson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.; Ostlie, Wayne20042017/12/14Little question exists that the main bodies of North American prairie (i.e., the tall-grass, mixed, and shortgrass) are among the most endangered resources on the continent. The purpose of this paper is to provide a past and present biological baseline by which to understand North American prairies and to provide a platform for future conservation. Events both immediate to the end of the Pleistocene and historic suggest that the present grassland conditions are different from those within which most of the grassland organisms evolved. Our analysis suggests that few grassland landscapes remain adequate in area and distribution to sustain diversity sufficient to include biota and ecological drivers native to the landscape. A robust and history-based scenario to conserve Great Plains grasslands is to 1) identify areas large enough to sustain an ecological system with all its biodiversity, 2) reverse significant losses in area of native grasslands, 3) ensure that restoration matches the grassland previously existing at that site, 4) refocus the profession of range management, and 5) establish a more meaningful agency design for grassland and natural resource management.biological diversity; conservation planning; ecological drivers; grasslands; management; prairie; restoration
Greenhouse gas implications of land use and land conversion to biofuel cropsBiofuels: Environmental Consequences and Interactions with Changing Land UseRavindranath, N. H., R. Manuvie, J. Fargione, J. G. Canadell, G. Berndes, J. Woods, H. Watson, and J. Sathaye20092017/12/14
Ground water discharge by evapotranspiration in wetlands of an arid intermountain basinJournal of HydrologySanderson, John S.; Cooper, David J.20082017/12/14To improve basin-scale modeling of ground water discharge by evapotranspiration (ET) in relation to water table depth, daily ET was measured using the Bowen ratio energy balance method during 1999Š—–2005 in five herbaceous plant dominated wetlands in an a
Ground-based photomonitoring of ecoregional ecological changes in northwestern Yunnan, ChinaMonitoring Science and Technology Symposium: Unifying Knowledge for Sustainability in the Western HemisphereLassoie, J.P., K.E. Goldman, and R.K. Moseley20062017/12/14Description: Barring abrupt natural or anthropogenic disasters, ecological changes in terrestrial landscapes proceed at a pace not readily detected by humans. The use of historical repeat photography can provide valuable information about such changes, buProceedings RMRS-P-42CD. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station
Ground-foraging techniques of welcome swallows (Hirundo neoxena), including an instance of kleptoparasitismAustralian Field OrnithologyFitzsimons, J.A. and J.L. Thomas20122017/12/14
Ground-water management in Montana: On the road from beleaguered law to science-based policyPublic Land and Resources Law Review (University of Montana)Ziemer LS, Kendy E, Wilson J.20062017/12/14
Groundwater declines are linked to changes in Great Plains stream fish assemblagesPROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICAPerkin, Joshuah S.; Gido, Keith B.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Fausch, Kurt D.; Crockett, Harry; Johnson, Eric R.; Sanderson, John20172017/12/14Groundwater pumping for agriculture is a major driver causing declines of global freshwater ecosystems, yet the ecological consequences for stream fish assemblages are rarely quantified. We combined retrospective (1950Ð2010) and prospective (2011Ð2060) modeling approaches within a multiscale framework to predict change in Great Plains stream fish assemblages associated with groundwater pumping from the United States High Plains Aquifer. We modeled the relationship between the length of stream receiving water from the High Plains Aquifer and the occurrence of fishes characteristic of small and large streams in the western Great Plains at a regional scale and for six subwatersheds nested within the region. Water development at the regional scale was associated with construction of 154 barriers that fragment stream habitats, increased depth to groundwater and loss of 558 km of stream, and transformation of fish assemblage structure from dominance by large-stream to small-stream fishes. Scaling down to subwatersheds revealed consistent transformations in fish assemblage structure among western subwatersheds with increasing depths to groundwater. Although transformations occurred in the absence of barriers, barriers along mainstem rivers isolate depauperate western fish assemblages from relatively intact eastern fish assemblages. Projections to 2060 indicate loss of an additional 286 km of stream across the region, as well as continued replacement of large-stream fishes by small-stream fishes where groundwater pumping has increased depth to groundwater. Our work illustrates the shrinking of streams and homogenization of Great Plains stream fish assemblages related to groundwater pumping, and we predict similar transformations worldwide where local and regional aquifer depletions occur.ecology, conservation, freshwater, Great Plains, fishes
Groundwater nitrogen processing in Northern Gulf of Mexico restored marshesJournal Of Environmental ManagementSparks, Eric L.; Cebrian, Just; Tobias, Craig R.; May, Christopher A.20152017/12/14
Groundwater use by native plants in response to changes in precipitation in an intermountain basinJournal of Arid EnvironmentsJ.A. Kray; D.J. Cooper; J.S. Sanderson20122017/12/14Many arid basins in western North America are likely to experience future changes in precipitation timing and amount. Where shallow water tables occur, plant acquisition of groundwater and soil water may be influenced by growing season precipitation. We conducted a rainfall manipulation experiment to investigate responses of four common native plant species to ambient, increased, and decreased summer monsoon rainfall. We measured plant xylem pressure potentials (_) and stable oxygen isotope signatures (_18O) to assess effects of altered precipitation on plant water relations and water acquisition patterns. Reduced rainfall decreased _ more in the grasses Sporobolus airoides and Distichlis spicata than the more deeply rooted shrubs Sarcobatus vermiculatus and Ericameria nauseosa. E. nauseosa had little response to natural or experimental differences in available soil water. Plant xylem water _18O indicated that S. airoides and D. spicata are almost entirely dependent on rain-recharged soil water, while E. nauseosa is almost entirely groundwater-dependent. Sarcobatus vermiculatus used groundwater during dry periods, but utilized precipitation from soil layers after large rainfall events. Persistent changes in precipitation patterns could cause shifts in plant community composition that may alter basin-scale groundwater consumption by native plants, affecting water availability for human and ecosystem uses.
Groundwater-dependent ecosystems in Oregon: an assessment of their distribution and associated threatsFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentBrown, Jenny; Bach, Leslie; Aldous, Allison; Wyers, Abby; DeGagne, Julia20112017/12/14
Groundwater: a global assessment of scale and significanceShah T, et al.20072017/12/14
Growing Carnivorous PlantsMeyers-Rice, B.A20062017/12/14... Search help. Growing carnivorous plants [2006]. rdf logo rdf logo. Meyers-Rice, Barry.Translate with Translator. This translation tool is powered by Google. AGRIS andFAO are not responsible for the accuracy of translations. fao, ...
Growth and life history variability of the grey reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) across its rangePLOS ONEBradley, Darcy; Conklin, Eric; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Pollock, Kydd; Kendall, Bruce E.; Gaines, Steven D.; Caselle, Jennifer E.20172017/12/14
Growth and reproduction of three cladoceran species from a small wetland in the south-eastern USAFreshwater BiologyLemke, AM; Benke, AC20032017/12/14
Growth, reproduction, and production dynamics of a littoral microcrustacean, Eurycercus vernalis (Chydoridae), from a southeastern wetland, USAJournal of the North American Benthological SocietyLemke, AM; Benke, AC20042017/12/14Population and production dynamics of the chydorid Eurycercus vernalis were studied in the laboratory and in a small wetland during a 2-y period. Laboratory growth studies were conducted to measure the effects of temperature on E. vernalis growth
Guidance for addressing the Australian Weed Risk Assessment questionsPlant Protection QuarterlyGordon, D.R., B. Mitterdorfer, P.C. Pheloung, S. Ansari, C. Buddenhagen, C. Chimera, C.C. Daehler, W. Dawson, J.S. Denslow, A. LaRosa, T. Nishida, D.A. Onderdonk, F.D. Panetta, P. Py_ek, R.P. Randall, D.M. Richardson, N.J. Tshidada, J.G. Virtue, and P.A.20102017/12/14
Guidelines for evaluating performance of oyster habitat restorationRESTORATION ECOLOGYBaggett, Lesley P.; Powers, Sean P.; Brumbaugh, Robert D.; Coen, Loren D.; DeAngelis, Bryan M.; Greene, Jennifer K.; Hancock, Boze T.; Morlock, Summer M.; Allen, Brian L.; Breitburg, Denise L.; Bushek, David; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Grizzle, Raymond E.; Grosholz, Edwin D.; La Peyre, Megan K.; Luckenbach, Mark W.; McGraw, Kay A.; Piehler, Michael F.; Westby, Stephanie R.; Ermgassen, Philine S. E. Zu20152017/12/14
Guiding concepts for park and wilderness stewardship in an era of global environmental changeFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentHobbs, Richard J.; Cole, David N.; Yung, Laurie; Zavaleta, Erika S.; Aplet, Gregory H.; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; Landres, Peter B.; Parsons, David J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; White, Peter S.; Graber, David M.; Higgs, Eric S.; Millar, Constance I.; Randall,20102017/12/14
Guiding conservation and renewable energy development using a paired return-on-investment approachBIOLOGICAL CONSERVATIONHoward, Timothy G.; Schlesinger, Matthew D.; Lee, Cara; Lampman, Gregory; Tear, Timothy H.20162017/12/14Return-on-investment (ROI) can help integrate prioritization efforts for developers and conservation organizations alike. To examine this complementarity and to investigate improving dialogue across these two sectors, we conducted paired ROI assessments from the perspective of wind development and biodiversity conservation in the northeastern United States. Spatially explicit layers defined the three ROI components: benefit, cost, and probability of success. For the wind development ROI, we modeled turbine suitability using the random forest algorithm to develop the benefit surface. We treated biodiversity information related to permitting and development as a cost surface and applied land conservation status towards the probability of success term. The conservation ROI applied biodiversity priorities as the benefit surface, applied a higher environmental cost to areas with high wind turbine development value, and used estimates of ecosystem resilience to define the probability of success. This ROI highlighted conservation potential after applying the constraints of wind energy development. The analysis suggests that New York State, US, may be able to accommodate 16,000 Megawatts of power generation while avoiding conservation priorities, more than sufficient landscape to situate turbines up to the predicted capacity based on grid reliability (6600 MW). Further, the two ROI models taken together are more instructive than results from either model alone. Sensitivity analyses revealed that altering the weightings of the biodiversity input variables rarely changed the relationship among the two ROI models from place to place. We suggest that applying ROI from different perspectives may help form an important communication bridge between conservation and development tradeoffs, and prove valuable in the debate over renewable energy production options in the context of their environmental impacts.Return on investment; ROI; Wind turbine development; Development priorities; Conservation priorities
Guiding ecological principles for marine spatial planningMarine PolicyFoley, Melissa M.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Armsby, Matthew H.; Caldwell, Margaret R.; Crain, Caitlin M.; Prahler, Erin; Rohr, Nicole; Sivas, Deborah; Beck, Michael W.; Carr, Mark H.; Crowder, Larry B.; Duffy, J. Emmett; Hacker, Sally D.;20102017/12/14
Habitat availability for multiple avian species under modeled alternative conservation scenarios in the Two Hearted River watershed in Michigan, USAJournal for Nature ConservationNixon, Kristina; Silbernagel, Janet; Price, Jessica; Miller, Nicholas; Swaty, Randy20142017/12/14
Habitat Complexity, Brain, and BehaviorBrain Behavior and EvolutionShumway, Caroly A.20082017/12/14More complex brains and behaviors have arisen repeatedly throughout both vertebrate and invertebrate evolution. The challenge is to tease apart the forces underlying such change. In this review, I show how habitat complexity influences both brain
Habitat destruction, fragmentation, and disturbance promote invasion by habitat generalists in a multispecies metapopulationRisk AnalysisMarvier, M.A., P. Kareiva, and M.G. Neubert20042017/12/14Species invasions are extremely common and are vastly outpacing the ability of resource agencies to address each invasion, one species at a time. Management actions that target the whole landscape or ecosystem may provide more cost-effective protection ag
Habitat distribution of birds wintering in Central Andros, The Bahamas: Implications for managementCaribbean Journal Of ScienceCurrie, D; Wunderle, JM; Ewert, DN; Anderson, MR; Davis, A; Turner, J20052017/12/14We studied winter avian distribution in three representative pine-dominated habitats and three broadleaf habitats in an area recently designated as a National Park on Andros Island, The Bahamas, 1-23 February 2002. During 180 five-minute point
Habitat expansion and contraction in anchovy and sardine populationsProgress In OceanographyBarange, Manuel; Coetzee, Janet; Takasuka, Akinori; Hill, Kevin; Gutierrez, Mariano; Oozeki, Yoshioki; van der Lingen, Carl; Agostini, Vera20092017/12/14
Habitat mapping and conservation analysis to identify critical streams for Arizona's native fishAquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater EcosystemsTurner, D.S. and M.D. List20072017/12/14
Habitat occupancy patterns of a forest dwelling songbird: causes and consequencesCanadian Journal Of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De ZoologieDoran, PJ; Holmes, RT20052017/12/14We examined patterns of habitat use and reproductive performance of a migratory songbird, the black-throated blue warbler (Dendroica caerulescens (Gmelin, 1789)), within a 3160-ha forested landscape. We surveyed 371 sites over a 3-year period. Some sites
Habitat re-creation (ecological restoration) as a strategy for conserving insect communities in highly fragmented landscapesInsectsShuey, J. A.20132017/12/14
Habitat selection and dispersal of the cobblestone tiger beetle (Cicindela marginipennis Dejean) along the Genesee River, New YorkAmerican Midland NaturalistHudgins, R., C. Norment, M.D. Schlesinger, and P.G. Novak20112017/12/14
Harnessing values to save the rhinoceros: insights from NamibiaORYXMuntifering, Jeff R.; Linklater, Wayne L.; Clark, Susan G.; Uri-Khob, Simson; Kasaona, John K.; Uiseb, Kenneth; Du Preez, Pierre; Kasaona, Kapoi; Beytell, Petrus; Ketji, Jermain; Hambo, Boas; Brown, Matthew A.; Thouless, Chris; Jacobs, Shayne; Knight, Andrew T.20172017/12/14The rate at which the poaching of rhinoceroses has escalated since 2010 poses a threat to the long-term persistence of extant rhinoceros populations. The policy response has primarily called for increased investment in military-style enforcement strategies largely based upon simple economic models of rational crime. However, effective solutions will probably require a context-specific, stakeholder-driven mix of top-down and bottom-up mechanisms grounded in theory that represents human behaviour more realistically. Using a problem-oriented approach we illustrate in theory and practice how community-based strategies that explicitly incorporate local values and institutions are a foundation for combating rhinoceros poaching effectively in specific contexts. A case study from Namibia demonstrates how coupling a locally devised rhinoceros monitoring regime with joint-venture tourism partnerships as a legitimate land use can reconcile individual values represented within a diverse stakeholder group and manifests as both formal and informal community enforcement. We suggest a social learning approach as a means by which international, national and regional governance can recognize and promote solutions that may help empower local communities to implement rhinoceros management strategies that align individual values with the long-term health of rhinoceros populations.
Harttia merevari, a new species of catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from VenezuelaNeotropical IchthyologyProvenzano, F. R., A. Machado-Allison, B. Chernoff, P. W. Willink & P. Petry20052017/12/14
Has urbanization changed ecological streamflow characteristics in Maine (USA)?Hydrological Sciences Journal-Journal Des Sciences HydrologiquesMartin, Erik H.; Kelleher, Christa; Wagener, Thorsten20122017/12/14
Hawaiian agro-ecosystems and their spatial distributionLadefoged, T. N.; Kirch, P. V.; Gon III, S. O.; Chadwick, O. A.; Hartshorn, A. S.; Vitousek, P. M.20112017/12/14
Hawaiian Islands, Hawaiïi, U.S.A.Sohmer, S.; Gon III, S. M.19952017/12/14
Hawksbill turtles as significant predators on hard coralCoral ReefsObura, D. O.; Harvey, A.; Young, T.; Eltayeb, M. M.; von Brandis, R.20102017/12/14
Healing small-scale fisheries by facilitating complex socio-ecological systemsReviews in Fish Biology and FisheriesMcClanahan, Timothy R.; Castilla, Juan Carlos; White, Alan T.; Defeo, Omar20092017/12/14
Hec-Rpt - Software For Facilitating Development Of River Management AlternativesRiver Research And ApplicationsHickey, J. T.; Newbold, S. J.; Warner, A. T.20152017/12/14
Helminth community structure and pattern in sympatric populations of black-bellied and fulvous whistling-ducksCanadian Journal Of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De ZoologieFedynich, AM; Pence, DB; Bergan, JF19962017/12/14Helminth communities of 25 black-bellied (Dendrocygna autumnalis) and 25 fulvous (Dendrocygna bicolor) whistling-ducks from south Texas varied in composition, prevalence, dominance, and abundance. Twenty-eight helminth species were found, of which 20 ...
Helminth community structure and pattern in sympatric populations of double-crested and neotropic cormorantsJournal Of The Helminthological Society Of WashingtonFedynich, AM; Pence, DB; Bergan, JF19972017/12/14... Titre du document / Document title. Helminth community structure and pattern in sympatricpopulations of double-crested and neotropic cormorants. Auteur(s) / Author(s). FEDYNICH AM(1) ; PENCE DB (1) ; BERGAN JF (2) ; Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs /
Helping coastal communities adapt to climate changeSolutionsLC Hale, S Newkirk, M Beck20112017/12/14
Heme biomolecule as redox mediator and oxygen shuttle for efficient charging of lithium-oxygen batteriesNATURE COMMUNICATIONSRyu, Won-Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S.; Thomsen, Julianne M.; Li, Jinyang; Schwab, Mark J.; Brudvig, Gary W.; Taylor, Andre D.20162017/12/14
Herbicide effects on ground layer vegetation in southern pinelands (USA): A reviewNatural Areas JournalLitt, A. R., B. J. Herring, and L. Provencher20012017/12/14
Herpetofauna  of the Rincon Mountains, Southeastern ArizonaSouthwestern NaturalistFlesch, A.D., D.E. Swann, D.S. Turner, and B.F. Powell20102017/12/14
Herpetofaunal responses to restoration treatments of longleaf pine sandhills in FloridaRestoration EcologyLitt, AR; Provencher, L; Tanner, GW; Franz, R20012017/12/14The hypothesis that habitat restoration will provide for community reestablishment and the creation of habitat heterogeneity was examined with regards to the herpetofauna of longleaf pine sandhills in northwest Florida. The herpetofaunal response
Hierarchical distance-sampling models to estimate population size and habitat-specific abundance of an island endemicEcological ApplicationsSillett, T. Scott; Chandler, Richard B.; Royle, J. Andrew; Kery, Marc; Morrison, Scott A.20122017/12/14
Hierarchical tree classifiers to find suitable sites for sandplain grasslands and heathlands on Martha's Vineyard Island, MassachusettsBiological ConservationChase, Tom; Rothley, Kristina D.20072017/12/14The grasslands and heathlands of Martha's Vineyard Island, Massachusetts provide habitat for unusual, rare, and endangered species. Currently, these globally rare ecosystems exist as fragments on the southern coast of the island within a matrix of wooded,
High-resolution mapping of the world's reservoirs and dams for sustainable river-flow managementFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentLehner, Bernhard; Liermann, Catherine Reidy; Revenga, Carmen; Voeroesmarty, Charles; Fekete, Balazs; Crouzet, Philippe; Doell, Petra; Endejan, Marcel; Frenken, Karen; Magome, Jun; Nilsson, Christer; Robertson, James C.; Roedel, Raimund; Sindorf, Nikolai;20112017/12/14
High-Resolution Satellite Imagery Is an Important yet Underutilized Resource in Conservation BiologyPLoS ONEBoyle, Sarah A.; Kennedy, Christina M.; Torres, Julio; Colman, Karen; Perez-Estigarribia, Pastor E.; de la Sancha, Noe U.20142017/12/14
High-strength magnetically switchable plasmonic nanorods assembled from a binary nanocrystal mixtureNATURE NANOTECHNOLOGYZhang, Mingliang; Magagnosc, Daniel J.; Liberal, Inigo; Yu, Yao; Yun, Hongseok; Yang, Haoran; Wu, Yaoting; Guo, Jiacen; Chen, Wenxiang; Shin, Young Jae; Stein, Aaron; Kikkawa, James M.; Engheta, Nader; Gianola, Daniel S.; Murray, Christopher B.; Kagan, Cherie R.20172017/12/14
Historic emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in Mato Grosso, Brazil: 1) source data uncertaintiesCarbon Balance and ManagementMorton, Douglas C.; Sales, Marcio H.; Souza Jr., Carlos M.; Griscom, Bronson20112017/12/14Background Historic carbon emissions are an important foundation for proposed efforts to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhance forest carbon stocks through conservation and sustainable forest management (REDD+). The level of uncertainty in historic carbon emissions estimates is also critical for REDD+, since high uncertainties could limit climate benefits from credited mitigation actions. Here, we analyzed source data uncertainties based on the range of available deforestation, forest degradation, and forest carbon stock estimates for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 1990-2008. Results Deforestation estimates showed good agreement for multi-year periods of increasing and decreasing deforestation during the study period. However, annual deforestation rates differed by > 20% in more than half of the years between 1997-2008, even for products based on similar input data. Tier 2 estimates of average forest carbon stocks varied between 99-192 Mg C ha-1, with greatest differences in northwest Mato Grosso. Carbon stocks in deforested areas increased over the study period, yet this increasing trend in deforested biomass was smaller than the difference among carbon stock datasets for these areas. Conclusions Estimates of source data uncertainties are essential for REDD+. Patterns of spatial and temporal disagreement among available data products provide a roadmap for future efforts to reduce source data uncertainties for estimates of historic forest carbon emissions. Specifically, regions with large discrepancies in available estimates of both deforestation and forest carbon stocks are priority areas for evaluating and improving existing estimates. Full carbon accounting for REDD+ will also require filling data gaps, including forest degradation and secondary forest, with annual data on all forest transitions.Amazon; REDD+; IPCC; Tier; Approach; Landsat
Historical ecology with real numbers: past and present extent and biomass of an imperilled estuarine habitatProceedings Of The Royal Society B-Biological SciencesErmgassen, Philine S. E. Zu; Spalding, Mark D.; Blake, Brady; Coen, Loren D.; Dumbauld, Brett; Geiger, Steve; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Grizzle, Raymond; Luckenbach, Mark; McGraw, Kay; Rodney, William; Ruesink, Jennifer L.; Powers, Sean P.; Brumbaugh, Rober20122017/12/14
Historical landscape change in northwestern Yunnan, China - Using repeat photography to assess the perceptions and realities of biodiversity lossMountain Research And DevelopmentMoseley, Robert K.20062017/12/14Biodiversity conservation programs rely on accurate knowledge about past rates of ecological change and patterns of human use. In remote areas of the world, empirical data on historical trends rarely exist to inform conservation planning. Such is
Historical Vegetation of the Willamette Valley, Oregon, circa 1850Northwest ScienceChristy, John A.; Alverson, Edward R.20112017/12/14
Horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2011Trends in Ecology and EvolutionSutherland, William J.; Bardsley, Sarah; Bennun, Leon; Clout, Mick; Cote, Isabelle M.; Depledge, Michael H.; Dicks, Lynn V.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Fellman, Liz; Fleishman, Erica; Gibbons, David W.; Impey, Andrew J.; Lawton, John H.; Lickorish, Fiona; Lindenm20112017/12/14
Hotspots and ColdspotsAmerican Scientist Kareiva, P. and M. Marvier20032017/12/14
How Climate Change Affects Extremes in Maize and Wheat Yield in Two Cropping RegionsJOURNAL OF CLIMATEUmmenhofer, Caroline C.; Xu, Hong; Twine, Tracy E.; Girvetz, Evan H.; McCarthy, Heather R.; Chhetri, Netra; Nicholas, Kimberly A.20152017/12/14
How do en route events around the Gulf of Mexico influence migratory landbird populations?CONDORCohen, Emily B.; Barrow, Wylie C., Jr.; Buler, Jeffrey J.; Deppe, Jill L.; Farnsworth, Andrew; Marra, Peter P.; McWilliams, Scott R.; Mehlman, David W.; Wilson, R. Randy; Woodrey, Mark S.; Moore, Frank R.20172017/12/14Habitats around the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) provide critical resources for NearcticÐNeotropical migratory landbirds, the majority of which travel across or around the GOM every spring and fall as they migrate between temperate breeding grounds in North America and tropical wintering grounds in the Caribbean and Central and South America. At the same time, ecosystems in the GOM are changing rapidly, with unknown consequences for migratory landbird populations, many of which are experiencing population declines. In general, the extent to which events encountered en route limit migratory bird populations is not well understood. At the same time, information from weather surveillance radar, stable isotopes, tracking, eBird, and genetic datasets is increasingly available to address many of the unanswered questions about bird populations that migrate through stopover and airspace habitats in the GOM. We review the state of the science and identify key research needs to understand the impacts of en route events around the GOM region on populations of intercontinental landbird migrants that breed in North America, including: (1) distribution, timing, and habitat associations; (2) habitat characteristics and quality; (3) migratory connectivity; and (4) threats to and current conservation status of airspace and stopover habitats. Finally, we also call for the development of unified and comprehensive long-term monitoring guidelines and international partnerships to advance our understanding of the role of habitats around the GOM in supporting migratory landbird populations moving between temperate breeding grounds and wintering grounds in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean.Gulf of Mexico, landbird migration, NearcticÐNeotropical bird population, stopover habitat, airspace habitat, Gulf coast, migratory connectivity, avian monitoring
How Do We Know an Agricultural System is Sustainable?Fisher, Jonathan R.B.; Boucher, Timothy M.; Attwood, Samantha K.; Kareiva, Peter20142017/12/14agriculture, metrics
How drought-induced forest die-off alters microclimate and increases fuel loadings and fire potentialsINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF WILDLAND FIRERuthrof, Katinka X.; Fontaine, Joseph B.; Matusick, George; Breshears, David D.; Law, Darin J.; Powell, Sarah; Hardy, Giles20162017/12/14
How Human Household Size Affects the Habitat of Black-and-White Snub-Nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) in Hongla Snow Mountain Nature Reserve in Tibet, ChinaInternational Journal Of PrimatologyQuan, Rui-Chang; Huang, Yong; Warren, Matthew W.; Zhao, Qi-Kun; Ren, Guopeng; Huo, Sheng; Long, Yongcheng; Zhu, Jianguo20112017/12/14
How monitoring demonstrated effective control of blast fishing in Komodo National ParkMonitoring Coral Reef Marine Protected Areas. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network & Australian Institute of Marine Science, TownsvilleMous, P.J., Pet, J.S., D. Gede R., Subijanto, J., Muljadi, A.H. & Djohani, R.H.20032017/12/14
How much conservation is enough? Defining implementation goals for healthy fish communities in agricultural riversJournal of Great Lakes ResearchSowa, Scott P.; Herbert, Matthew; Mysorekar, Sagar; Annis, Gust M.; Hall, Kimberly; Nejadhashemi, A. Pouyan; Woznicki, Sean A.; Wang, Lizhu; Doran, Patrick J.20162017/12/14“How much conservation is enough?” is one of the most important and difficult questions to answer. In this work, we demonstrate an approach to specifically answer this question for conservation strategies designed to address nonpoint source pollution in agriculturally-dominated watersheds. We developed empirical models relating conservation investments and actions to measures of stream water quality and fish community health. Our results are consistent with other studies that demonstrate a need for extensive implementation of conservation practices in agricultural landscapes to see measurable improvements in ecological conditions. Our results also demonstrate the influence spatial grain can have on answering “how much conservation is enough?” Our coarse-grained analyses suggest that water quality in at the outlets of four watersheds could be improved to the point that water quality was no longer limiting the fish community with only about 18% of the agricultural lands treated with conservation practices and incentive payments totaling $7.7M. Yet, finer-grained subbasin analyses predict fish communities would still be limited in many tributaries of these watersheds even with ~ 50% of lands treated and incentive payments totaling ~$44M. Consequently, coarsegrained analyses could significantly underestimate scope of the solution needed to address these impacts to stream ecosystems. Finding balanced solutions to address agricultural nonpoint source pollution throughout the Great Lakes will require unprecedented collaboration from local to regional scales. Herein, we provide examples of how this work is supporting collaborative efforts to establish realistic ecological goals and associated performance measures and strategic implementation of practices throughout the Saginaw Bay drainage.streams; index of biotic integrity; water quality; non-point source pollution; agriculture; cost-benefit analyses
How much is enough? The recurrent problem of setting measurable objectives in conservationBioScienceTear, TH; Kareiva, P; Angermeier, PL; Comer, P; Czech, B; Kautz, R; Landon, L; Mehlman, D; Murphy, K; Ruckelshaus, M; Scott, JM; Wilhere, G20052017/12/14International agreements, environmental laws, resource management agencies, and environmental nongovernmental organizations all establish objectives that define what they hope to accomplish. Unfortunately, quantitative objectives in conservation
HOW MUCH IS ENOUGH? USING ECOSYSTEM SERVICES TO SET OBJECTIVES FOR OYSTER HABITAT RESTORATIONJOURNAL OF SHELLFISH RESEARCHHancock, Boze; Ermgassen, Line Zu; Brumbaugh, Robert; DeAngelis, Bryan; Greene, Jennifer; Spalding, Mark; Scheuster, Elizabeth20152017/12/14
How much SOM is needed for sustainable agriculture?FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTOldfield, Emily E.; Wood, Stephen A.; Palm, Cheryl A.; Bradford, Mark A.20152017/12/14
How much water does a river need?Freshwater BiologyRichter, BD; Baumgartner, JV; Wigington, R; Braun, DP19972017/12/14SUMMARY 1. This 'paper introduces a new approach for setting stream´Œäow-based river ecosystem management targets and this method is called the 'Range of Variability Approach'(RVA). The proposed approach derives from aquatic ecology theory concerning ...
How protected are coral reefs?ScienceSpalding, Mark; Kelleher, Graeme; Boucher, Timothy; Fish, Lucy20062017/12/14
How successful are plant species reintroductions?Biological ConservationGodefroid, Sandrine; Piazza, Carole; Rossi, Graziano; Buord, Stephane; Stevens, Albert-Dieter; Aguraiuja, Ruth; Cowell, Carly; Weekley, Carl W.; Vogg, Gerd; Iriondo, Jose M.; Johnson, Isabel; Dixon, Bob; Gordon, Doria; Magnanon, Sylvie; Valentin, Bertille20112017/12/14
How to sell ecosystem services: a guide for designing new marketsFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentBanerjee, Simanti; Secchi, Silvia; Fargione, Joseph; Polasky, Stephen; Kraft, Steven20132017/12/14
How will the distribution and size of subalpine abies georgei forest respond to climate change? A study in Northwest Yunnan, ChinaPhysical GeographyHang-gi Wong, M., C.Q. Duan, Y.C. Long, Y. Luo, and G.Q. Xie20102017/12/14
Human Dimensions of State-and-Transition Simulation Model Applications to Support Decisions in Wildland Fire ManagementBlankenship, K. L. Provencher, L. Frid, C. Daniel and J. Smith20132017/12/14
Hunting and the likelihood of extinction of Amazonian mammalsConservation BiologyBodmer, RE; Eisenberg, JF; Redford, KH19972017/12/14Species inhabiting tropical forests are thought to be on the verge of mass extinction. Much work has focused on extinction rates caused by deforestation; however, many of the recorded extinctions that have occurred since 1600 were a result of overhunting.
Hurricane effects on subtropical pine rocklands of the Florida KeysClimatic ChangeSaha, Sonali; Bradley, Keith; Ross, Michael S.; Hughes, Phillip; Wilmers, Thomas; Ruiz, Pablo L.; Bergh, Chris20112017/12/14
Hurricane-Induced Sedimentation Improves Marsh Resilience and Vegetation Vigor under High Rates of Relative Sea Level RiseWETLANDSBaustian, Joseph J.; Mendelssohn, Irving A.20152017/12/14
Hybridization between longnose and alligator gars in captivity, with comments on possible gar hybridization in natureTransactions Of The American Fisheries SocietyHerrington, Steven J.; Hettiger, Kurt N.; Heist, Edward J.; Keeney, Devon B.20082017/12/14Although hybridization occurs widely in fishes, it has never been recorded in gars. Here, we describe the first known hybrids of the longnose gar Lepisosteus osseus and alligator gar Atractosteus spatula from four specimens spawned in an aquarium
Hydro-ecology of groundwater-dependent ecosystems: applying basic science to groundwater managementHydrological Sciences Journal-Journal Des Sciences HydrologiquesAldous, Allison R.; Bach, Leslie B.20142017/12/14
Hydrodynamic and ecological assessment of nearshore restoration: A modeling studyEcological ModellingYang, Zhaoqing; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Heatwole, Danelle; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Thom, Ronald; Fuller, Roger20102017/12/14
Hydrogeomorphic Classification Of Washington State Rivers To Support Emerging Environmental Flow Management StrategiesRiver Research And ApplicationsLiermann, C. A. Reidy; Olden, J. D.; Beechie, T. J.; Kennard, M. J.; Skidmore, P. B.; Konrad, C. P.; Imaki, H.20122017/12/14
Hydrologic Alterations from Climate Change Inform Assessment of Ecological Risk to Pacific Salmon in Bristol Bay, AlaskaPLOS ONEWobus, Cameron; Prucha, Robert; Albert, David; Woll, Christine; Loinaz, Maria; Jones, Russell20152017/12/14We developed an integrated hydrologic model of the upper Nushagak and Kvichak watersheds in the Bristol Bay region of southwestern Alaska, a region under substantial development pressure from large-scale copper mining. We incorporated climate change scenarios into this model to evaluate how hydrologic regimes and stream temperatures might change in a future climate, and to summarize indicators of hydrologic alteration that are relevant to salmon habitat ecology and life history. Model simulations project substantial changes in mean winter flow, peak flow dates, and water temperature by 2100. In particular, we find that annual hydrographs will no longer be dominated by a single spring thaw event, but will instead be characterized by numerous high flow events throughout the winter. Stream temperatures increase in all future scenarios, although these temperature increases are moderated relative to air temperatures by cool baseflow inputs during the summer months. Projected changes to flow and stream temperature could influence salmon through alterations in the suitability of spawning gravels, changes in the duration of incubation, increased growth during juvenile stages, and increased exposure to chronic and acute temperature stress. These climate-modulated changes represent a shifting baseline in salmon habitat quality and quantity in the future, and an important consideration to adequately assess the types and magnitude of risks associated with proposed large-scale mining in the region.
Hydrologic and geomorphic considerations in restoration of river-floodplain connectivity in a highly altered river system, Lower Missouri River, USAWetlands Ecology And ManagementJacobson, Robert B.; Janke, Tyler P.; Skold, Jason J.20112017/12/14
Hydrologic regime controls soil phosphorus fluxes in restoration and undisturbed wetlandsRestoration EcologyAldous, A; McCormick, P; Ferguson, C; Graham, S; Craft, C20052017/12/14Many wetland restoration projects occur on former agricultural soils that have a history of disturbance and fertilization, making them prone to phosphorus (P) release upon flooding. To study the relationship between P release and hydrologic regimagriculture
Hydrological conditions and evaluation of sustainable groundwater use in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, southeastern ArizonaBruce Gungle, James B. Callegary, Nicholas V. Paretti, Jeffrey R. Kennedy, Christopher J. Eastoe, Dale S. Turner, Jesse E. Dickinson, Lainie R. Levick, and Zachary P. Sugg20162017/12/14This study assessed progress toward achieving sustainable groundwater use in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona, through evaluation of 14 indicators of sustainable use. Sustainable use of groundwater in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed requires, at a minimum, a stable rate of groundwater discharge to, and thus base flow in, the San Pedro River. Many of the 14 indicators are therefore related to long-term or short-term effects on base flow and provide us with a means to evaluate groundwater discharge to and base flow in the San Pedro River. The indicators were based primarily on 10 to 20 years of data monitoring in the subwatershed, ending in 2012, and included subwatershedwide indicators, riparian-system indicators, San Pedro River indicators, and springs indicators. Groundwater management actions including voluntary retirement of irrigation pumping in the subwatershed resulted in about a 5,100 acre-feet (acre-ft) reduction in net human use from 2002 to 2012. Subwatershed population increased more than 10,000 during the same period. Most of the reduction occurred during 2002_07 and included reductions in groundwater pumping and increases in managed recharge; net human use varied annually by a few hundred acre-ft during 2007_12. The groundwater budget for 2012 showed a deficit of about 5,000 acre-ft, although the total water-budget uncertainty was about 5,500 acre-ft. In the vicinity of the U.S. ArmyÍs Fort Huachuca, regional-aquifer water levels were in steady decline beginning in at least the mid-1990s (in older wells since at least the early-1970s), as the cone of depression centered on the Sierra Vista and Fort Huachuca pumping centers continued to deepen. This was evident in the individual water levels on Fort Huachuca, as well as from the horizontal hydraulic gradients that extend from the pumping centers toward the San Pedro and Babocomari Rivers. Basin water levels in wells southeast of Sierra Vista, away from the river, were also experiencing declines, while some water levels closer to the river were rising. Near-stream vertical gradients along the San Pedro River showed no clear increasing or decreasing trends that would indicate a shift in the direction of subsurface flow between the riverbed and the alluvial aquifer, or a trend in the magnitude of groundwater/surface-water exchange. Annual streamflow permanence data showed no clear change in streamflow permanence trends in any of the river reaches, other than those related to precipitation trends. Similarly, the single-day, dry-season, wet-dry streamflow analysis of all subwatershed river reaches indicated no change in condition over the past 14 years, with the exception of the Hereford reach, which has seen a statistically significant increase in wetted length. Dry-season, alluvial-aquifer water levels in the Hereford reach also showed a statistically significant increase. These improvements are attributed to the end of irrigation pumping in the area. Although data indicate that the length of the Fairbank North wetted reach may be in decline, it is not yet statistically significant. Stable-isotope data indicated reduced groundwater discharge to the Babocomari River in the vicinity of the Babocomari River near Tombstone gaging station and to the San Pedro River near the San Pedro River at Palominas gaging station and near the Lewis Springs DCP stage recorder. The Babocomari River near Tombstone gaging station is downgradient of the major pumping centers. The change in isotopic signature at the Lewis Springs stage recorder could have been the result of alterations in groundwater/surface-water interactions there caused by beaver damming of the river. Base flow in the San Pedro River declined over the periods of record at the three San Pedro River gaging stations in the subwatershed (Palominas, Charleston, and Tombstone), as well as at the Babocomari River near Tombstone gaging station. Precipitation declined slightly from the 1990s to the 2000s, although there is no statistically significant trend in subwatershed precipitation from 1991 to 2012. The occurrence of large winter discharge events appeared to decline and that of large summer discharge events appeared to increase over this same period. Data for physical parameters, general chemistry, nutrient species, select trace elements, and suspended sediment were collected at San Pedro River at Charleston stream-gaging station. These data were summarized over time and analyzed in relation to discharge and season as a means to assess trends over the period of analysis. Federal and State of Arizona drinking-water and human-contact standards were all met and few exceedances occurred for the ecological thresholds investigated. Several constituents showed a significant trend over the period of analysis, but only concentration and flux data for total phosphate, orthophosphate, total nitrogen, suspended sediment, and sulfate were suitable to be used in a weighted regression analysis that statistically accounted for time, discharge, and season. Sulfate concentrations and flux showed a significant downward trend over the period of analysis, whereas total phosphorus and ortho-phosphate showed a relatively small magnitude upward trend relative to standards. Suspended sediment concentrations and flux both showed a significant downward trend in the 1980s, an effect attributed to reduction of cattle in the subwatershed at about this time, and (or) increased cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and willow (Salix goodingii) recruitment, and (or) the curtailment of sand and gravel mining adjacent to the San Pedro River with the designation of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area in 1988. A spike in sediment flux in 2006 may be attributable to the more than 100 debris flows in the Huachuca Mountains during the summer monsoon of that year. Spring discharge along the San Pedro River generally increased at three sites proximate to the Sierra Vista treated effluent recharge facility and varied somewhat with climate at two other sites. Median annual discharge at the recharge facility peaked in 2006, and at Murray Springs and Horsethief Spring, downgradient of the recharge facility, in 2009. Sampling for trace organic compounds in flow from springs was carried out using both discrete sampling and passive sampling methods. Spring samples thus collected showed the presence of trace-organic compounds. Lewis Springs (background site) had the least number of detections, whereas Murray Springs, located directly downgradient of the City of Sierra VistaÍs treated effluent recharge facility, had the greatest number of detections of all the springs. Discrete samples from the recharge facility had more than twice the detections found in discrete samples from Murray Spring and at much higher concentrations. Few similar trace-organic compounds were detected at both the springs and the treated effluent recharge facility, and the number of detections did not increase during the collection period. Limitations of the study prevented the determination of trace-organic concentration in passive samplers and also prevented linking trace organic compounds detected at the treated effluent recharge facility with compounds detected from the springs. In particular, trace organic compounds could also derive from other sources such as septic systems. Looking at the subwatershed as a whole, base flow was in decline along the entire river reach, but determination of the specific cause of the decline was beyond the scope of this report. Conditions in the area from the municipal pumping center of Sierra Vista and Fort Huachuca northeast to the river (from about the Charleston to Tombstone gaging stations) were more commonly in decline than in regions further south. Both long-term indicators, such as regional aquifer groundwater levels and horizontal gradients, and the isotope analysis indicated that groundwater discharge to the river and thus base flow may continue to decline in that area. South of Charleston, indicators were more mixed. Some indicators in the Hereford reach suggest groundwater discharge to the San Pedro River may be increasing there, whereas some indicators in the Palominas reach suggest groundwater discharge to the river there may be declining.Scientific Investigations Report 2016-5114
Hydrological response to an environmental flood: Pulse flow 2014 on the Colorado River DeltaECOLOGICAL ENGINEERINGRamirez-Hernandez, Jorge; Eliana Rodriguez-Burgueno, J.; Kendy, Eloise; Salcedo-Peredia, Adrian; Lomeli, Marcelo A.20172017/12/14Increasing pressure on water availability in the Colorado River Basin due to a long and severe drought, water over-allocation, increasing water demands, and a warming climate point toward the need to optimize use of water to meet all goals, including environmental restoration. In this paper, we analyze the hydrologic response of the Colorado River Delta to the 2014 pulse flow. In so doing, we identify hydrological criteria for optimizing the use of water for riparian restoration. We analyzed continuous hydrographs obtained from discharge measurement sites along the river channel, quantified areas inundated by water, and interpreted groundwater dynamics and their implications for riparian vegetation. Our most important finding is that 91.4% of the delivered water infiltrated into the first 61.2 km of the riverbed (between Morelos Dam and Pescaderos), recharging the underlying aquifer. This large volume of infiltration occurred mainly because several obstructions along the main channel impeded downstream surface flow, abandoned river meanders acted as infiltration basins, sandy riverbed and terrace sediments allowed for rapid infiltration, and a depressed groundwater table created a large unsaturated zone to fill. Most of the water was delivered at Morelos Dam. However, smaller water deliveries via Mexicali ValleyÕs irrigation canal system bypassed the reaches of maximum infiltration, enabling the achievement of longitudinal river connectivity from Morelos Dam to the Gulf of California, and inundating important flood-dependent restoration sites. To optimize future environmental water deliveries, we encourage the use of irrigation infrastructure to deliver water directly to specific restoration sites to the extent possible, thereby avoiding reaches with high infiltration capacity and low riparian restoration potential. To improve river channel functionality in high-infiltration reaches, we recommend strategies to flood only the main channel and avoid off-channel depressions. By considering hydrological responses to environmental flow deliveries, riparian restoration goals can be achieved efficiently, even in highly controlled rivers with limited water availability.Environmental flows; Colorado river delta; Minute 319; Regulated rivers; Riparian restoration
Hydrometeorology and variability of water discharge and sediment load in the inner Gulf of Honduras, western CaribbeanJournal Of HydrometeorologyThattai, D; Kjerfve, R; Heyman, WD20032017/12/14The hydrological and meteorological characteristics of the watersheds of the inner Gulf of Honduras in the western Caribbean, including runoff, sediment load and yield, and the effects of the El Ni’±o-La Ni’±a cycle, are examined using available
Hydropower within the climate, energy and water nexusJeffrey J. Opperman, Joerg Hartmann and David Harrison20152017/12/14
Hydropower, Salmon and the Penobscot River (Maine, USA): Pursuing Improved Environmental and Energy Outcomes Through Participatory Decision-Making and Basin-Scale Decision ContextOpperman, Jeffrey J.; Apse, Colin; Ayer, Fred; Banks, John; Day, Laura Rose; Royte, Joshua; Seebach, John20112017/12/14
Hyperstability masks declines in bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) populationsCORAL REEFSHamilton, Richard J.; Almany, Glenn R.; Stevens, Don; Bode, Michael; Pita, John; Peterson, Nate A.; Choat, J. Howard20162017/12/14Bolbometopon muricatum, the largest species of parrotfish, is a functionally important species that is characterised by the formation of aggregations for foraging, reproductive, and sleeping behaviours. Aggregations are restricted to shallow reef habitats, the locations of which are often known to local fishers. Bolbometopon muricatum fisheries are therefore vulnerable to overfishing and are likely to exhibit hyperstability, the maintenance of high catch per unit effort (CPUE) while population abundance declines. In this study, we provide a clear demonstration of hyperstable dynamics in a commercial B. muricatum fishery in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. Initially, we used participatory mapping to demarcate the Kia fishing grounds into nine zones that had experienced different historic levels of fishing pressure. We then conducted comprehensive underwater visual census (UVC) and CPUE surveys across these zones over a 21-month period in 2012_2013. The individual sites for replicate UVC surveys were selected using a generalised random tessellation stratified variable probability design, while CPUE surveys involved trained provincial fisheries officers and local spearfishers. A comparison of fishery-independent abundance data and fishery-dependent CPUE data indicate extreme hyperstability, with CPUE maintained as B. muricatum abundance declines towards zero. Hyperstability may explain the sudden collapses of many B. muricatum spear fisheries across the Pacific and highlights the limitations of using data-poor fisheries assessment methods to evaluate the status of commercially valuable coral reef fishes that form predicable aggregations.
Hypolimnetic oxygenation in Twin Lakes, WA. Part I: Distribution and movement of troutLake And Reservoir ManagementMoore, Barry C.; Cross, Benjamin K.; Clegg, Emily M.; Lanouette, Brian P.; Skinner, Megan; Preece, Ellen; Child, Andrew; Gantzer, Paul; Shallenberger, Ed; Christensen, David; Nine, Bret20142017/12/14
ICO approaches to tropical forest conservationConservation BiologyPrice, SV; Reichle, S20042017/12/14Romero and Andrade (2004) argue that powerful international conservation organizations (ICOs) distort the value of tropical forest resources in developing countries by treating these resources as private rather than social assets. They perceive ICOs as be
IdentificaciÑn de areas prioritarias de conservaciÑn en la cuenca del RÕo Caura, estado Bolivar, VenezuelaActa Biologica VenezuelicaMachado-Allison, A., B. Chernoff, F. Provenzano, P. Willink, A. Marcano, P. Petry, and B. Sidlauskas20022017/12/14this is good stuff
Identificaci„n de vacÍos en la representatividad de ecosistemas terrestres en el Sistema Nacional de reas Protegidas  de Costa RicaRecursos Naturales y AmbienteArias, E., O. Chac„n, G. Induni, B. Herrera, H. Acevedo, L. Corrales, J. R. Barborak, M. Coto, J. Cubero, and P. Paaby20092017/12/14
Identification and Implementation of Native Fish Conservation Areas in the Upper Colorado River BasinFisheriesDaniel C. Dauwalter; John S. Sanderson; Jack E. Williams; James R. Sedell20112017/12/14Freshwater fishes continue to decline at a rapid rate despite substantial conservation efforts. Native fish conservation areas (NFCAs) are a management approach emphasizing persistent native fish communities and healthy watersheds while simultaneously allowing for compatible human uses. We identified potential NFCAs in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Wyoming„focusing on Colorado River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus), flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis), bluehead sucker (Catostomus discobolus), and roundtail chub (Gila robusta)„through a process that combined known and modeled species distributions, spatial prioritization analysis, and stakeholder discussions. The network of potential NFCAs is intended to serve as a funding framework for a National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) Keystone Initiative focused on Colorado River Basin native fishes. We discuss current opportunities for and impediments to implementing the potential NFCAs we identified for the NFWF Initiative over the long term. NFCAs represent a promising approach to fisheries management that complements existing approaches by focusing on persistent native fish communities.
Identification of a spatially efficient portfolio of priority conservation sites in marine and estuarine areas of FloridaAquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater EcosystemsGeselbracht, Laura; Torres, Roberto; Cumming, Graeme S.; Dorfman, Daniel; Beck, Michael; Shaw, Douglas20092017/12/141. A systematic conservation planning approach using benthic habitat and imperilled species data along with the site prioritization algorithm, MARXAN, was used to identify a spatially efficient portfolio of marine and estuarine sites around Flori
Identification of ditches and furrows using remote sensing: application to sediment modelling in the Tana watershed, KenyaInternational Journal of Remote SensingAyana, Essayas K.; Fisher, Jonathan R. B.; Hamel, Perrine; Boucher, Timothy M.20172017/12/14Ridge-tillage is an agricultural practice where crops are planted on elevated ridges, with furrows in-between. Ridge-tillage has been shown to significantly reduce erosion from croplands, but data on the presence of ridge-tillage is sparse and challenging to collect at the landscape scale. Thus, water quality models often do not account for ridge-tillage in a spatially-explicit manner, potentially overlooking the important impacts of this practice. We have developed a novel method that exploits the spectral, radiometric and linearity shape characteristics to identify both drainage ditches and ridge-tillage furrows using remote sensing of 0.5 m satellite data. We applied the method to the Sasumua watershed in Kenya, where we had false positives in only 3% of randomly selected polygons, and we detected the majority of ditches in 59% of randomly selected polygons. We then assessed the potential value of including these data in sediment modelling, showing that representing these practices could reduce sediment export in the study area by roughly 80%. Being able to readily identify the presence of ditches and furrows could enable the development of more accurate water quality models, and help identify priority areas for intervention to improve water quality (and possibly crop yields) through changing agricultural practices or policies.drainage ditches; ridge-tillage; feature extraction; soil erosion; remote sensing; agriculture
Identification of endangered Hawaiian ducks (Anas wyvilliana), introduced North American mallards (A. platyrhynchos) and their hybrids using multilocus genotypesConservation GeneticsFowler, Ada C.; Eadie, John M.; Engilis, Andrew, Jr.20092017/12/14
Identifying conservation priorities using a return on investment analysis.Game, E.20122017/12/14
Identifying Corridors among Large Protected Areas in the United StatesPLOS ONEBelote, R. Travis; Dietz, Matthew S.; McRae, Brad H.; Theobald, David M.; McClure, Meredith L.; Irwin, G. Hugh; McKinley, Peter S.; Gage, Josh A.; Aplet, Gregory H.20162017/12/14
Identifying freshwater conservation priorities in the Upper Yangtze River BasinFreshwater BiologyHeiner, Michael; Higgins, Jonathan; Li, Xinhai; Baker, Barry20112017/12/14
Identifying habitat conservation priorities and gaps for migratory shorebirds and waterfowl in CaliforniaBiodiversity and ConservationStralberg, D., D.R. Cameron, M. D. Reynolds, C. M. Hickey, K. Klausmeyer, S. M. Busby, L. E. Stenzel, W. D. Shuford, and G. W. Page20102017/12/14
Identifying priority sites and gaps for the conservation of migratory waterbirds in China's coastal wetlandsBIOLOGICAL CONSERVATIONXia, Shaoxia; Yu, Xiubo; Millington, Spike; Liu, Yu; Jia, Yifei; Wang, Longzhu; Hou, Xiyong; Jiang, Luguang20172017/12/14
Identifying Source Populations and Genetic Structure for Savannah Elephants in Human-Dominated Landscapes and Protected Areas in the Kenya-Tanzania BorderlandsPLoS ONEAhlering, Marissa A.; Eggert, Lori S.; Western, David; Estes, Anna; Munishi, Linus; Fleischer, Robert; Roberts, Melissa; Maldonado, Jesus E.20122017/12/14
Identifying the ecological causes of long-term declines of wetland-dependent birds in an urbanizing landscapeBiodiversity And ConservationWard, Michael P.; Semel, Brad; Herkert, James R.20102017/12/14
Illegal sea cucumber fisheries in the Chagos Archipelago.SPC Beche-de-mer Information BulletinSpalding, M. D.20062017/12/14sea cucumber, Chagos Archipelago
Immature Northern Goshawk captures, kills and feeds on yearling Wild TurkeyJournal of Raptor ResearchGolet GH, HT Golet, & A Colton20032017/12/14
Impact assessment at the bioenergy-water nexusBiofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining-BiofprFingerman, Kevin R.; Berndes, Goran; Orr, Stuart; Richter, Brian D.; Vugteveen, Pim20112017/12/14
Impact of conservation practices on runoff and soil loss in the sub-humid Ethiopian Highlands: The Debre Mawi watershedJOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY AND HYDROMECHANICSDagnew, Dessalegn C.; Guzman, Christian D.; Zegeye, Assefa D.; Tibebu, Tigist Y.; Getaneh, Menelik; Abate, Solomon; Zimale, Fasikaw A.; Ayana, Essayas K.; Tilahun, Seifu A.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.20152017/12/14
Impact of model development, calibration and validation decisions on hydrological simulations in West Lake Erie BasinHYDROLOGICAL PROCESSESDaggupati, Prasad; Yen, Haw; White, Michael J.; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Arnold, Jeffrey G.; Keitzer, Conor S.; Sowa, Scott P.20152017/12/14
Impact of satellite imagery spatial resolution on land use classification accuracy and modeled water qualityRemote Sensing in Ecology and ConservationJonathan R. B. Fisher, Eileen A. Acosta, P. James Dennedy-Frank, Timm Kroeger, Timothy M. Boucher20172017/12/14Remote sensing offers an increasingly wide array of imagery with a broad variety of spectral and spatial resolution, but there are relatively few comparisons of how different sources of data impact the accuracy, cost, and utility of analyses. We evaluated the impact of satellite image spatial resolution (1 m from Digital Globe; 30 m from Landsat) on land use classification via ArcGIS Feature Analyst, and on total suspended solids (TSS) load estimates from the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the Camboriœ watershed in Southeastern Brazil. We independently calibrated SWAT models, using both land use map resolutions and short-term daily streamflow (discharge) and TSS load data from local gauge stations. We then compared the predicted TSS loads with monitoring data outside the model training period. We also estimated the cost difference for land use classification and SWAT model construction and calibration at these two resolutions. Finally, we assessed the value of information (VOI) of the higher-resolution imagery in estimating the cost-effectiveness of watershed conservation in reducing TSS at the municipal water supply intake. Land use classification accuracy was 82.3% for 1 m data and 75.1% for 30 m data. We found that models using 1 m data better predicted both annual and peak TSS loads in the full study area, though the 30 m model did better in a sub-watershed. However, the 1 m data incurred considerably higher costs relative to the 30 m data ($7000 for imagery, plus additional analyst time). Importantly, the choice of spatial resolution affected the estimated return on investment (ROI) in watershed conservation for the municipal water company that finances much of this conservation, although it is unlikely that this would have affected the company's decision to invest in the program. We conclude by identifying key criteria to assist in choosing an appropriate spatial resolution for different contexts.Land cover, land use, remote sensing, spatial resolution, value of information, water fund,water quality
Impact of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile on the native ants of Santa Cruz Island, CaliforniaSociobiologyWetterer, JK; Wetterer, AL; Hebard, E20012017/12/14We examined the impact of the non-indigenous Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), on the native ants of Santa Cruz Island (SCI), the largest of the California Channel Islands. Linepithema humile, a South American native, was first found on S
Impacts of exploited species on food web interactions along the coral reef-seagrass interface: a comparison using fished and no-take zones in the Florida Keys National Marine SanctuaryEcological ApplicationsValentine, J., K. Heck Jr., D. Blackmon , M. Goecker, J. Christian, R. Kroutil, B. Peterson, M. VanderKlift, K. Kirsch, M.W. Beck20082017/12/14
Impacts of fire-suppression activities on natural communitiesConservation BiologyBacker, D.M., S.E. Jensen, and G.R. McPherson20042017/12/14
Impacts of garlic mustard invasion on a forest understory communityNortheastern NaturalistStinson, Kristina; Kaufman, Sylvan; Durbin, Luke; Lowenstein, Frank20072017/12/14To assess the community-level responses of a New England forest to invasion by the Eurasian biennial Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard), we conducted a vegetation census at twenty-four plots ranging from low to high invasive cover, and experimen
Implementation of mid-scale fire regime condition class mappingInternational Journal of Wildland FireProvencher, Louis; Campbell, Jeff; Nachlinger, Jan20082017/12/14We used mid-scale Fire Regime Condition Class (FRCC) mapping to provide Hawthorne Army Depot in the Mount Grant area of Nevada, USA, with data layers to plan fuels restoration projects to meet resource management goals. FRCC mapping computes ...
Implications of biogeography in the use of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae) as indicators for Western and Central Pacific areasAquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater EcosystemsKulbicki, M; Bozec, YM; Green, A20052017/12/141. The biogeography in the Western and Central Pacific of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae) is analysed with respect to their diversity, diet, size and behaviour. This analysis, based on data from 48 islands, is used to discuss some of the assumpt
Implications of Dam Obstruction for Global Freshwater Fish DiversityBioScienceLiermann, Catherine Reidy; Nilsson, Christer; Robertson, James; Ng, Rebecca Y.20122017/12/14
Implications of Diameter Caps on Multiple Forest Resource Responses in the Context of the Four Forests Restoration Initiative: Results from the Forest Vegetation SimulatorJournal of ForestrySànchez Meador, Andrew J.; Waring, Kristen M.; Kalies, Elizabeth L.20152017/12/14Meeting multiple resource objectives, such as increasing resilience to climate change, while simultaneously increasing watershed health, conserving biodiversity, protecting old-growth, reducing the risk of catastrophic wildfire, and promoting ecosystem health, is paramount to landscape restoration. Central to public land management efforts in the West is the widespread adoption of size-prohibited cutting of ñlargeî trees, a limitation referred to as a ñdiameter cap.î In this study, we used the most commonly proposed prescription for the Four Forest Restoration Initiative in northern Arizona to explore the implications of diameter caps for multiple resource responses through the use of model simulations. We found that implementing progressively smaller caps in southwestern ponderosa pine may result in relatively similar live tree densities, canopy cover, and large snag densities but higher basal areas, mean tree size, torching indices, and scenic beauty with lower water yield and herbaceous production. When diameter cap scenarios are compared, tradeoffs exist, and no single metric is suited for overall scenario evaluation.forest management; ponderosa pine; restoration; size limits; treatment scenarios
Importance of detrital algae, bacteria, and organic matter to littoral microcrustacean growth and reproductionLimnology And OceanographyLemke, A. Maria; Lemke, Michael J.; Benke, Arthur C.20072017/12/14Cumulative incorporation of radiolabeled algal (NaH14CO3) and bacterial (14C-acetate) carbon associated with benthic organic matter (BOM) was measured at timed intervals to determine the relative importance of algal, bacterial, and detrital compo
Importance of regional variation in conservation planning: a rangewide example of the Greater Sage-GrouseECOSPHEREDoherty, Kevin E.; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Coates, Peter S.; Juliusson, Lara M.; Fedy, Bradley C.20162017/12/14
Importance-performance assessment (IPA) of the Victoria Park Nature ReserveDutton, I.M.20032017/12/14
Improving biodiversity monitoringAustral EcologyLindenmayer, David B.; Gibbons, Philip; Bourke, Max; Burgman, Mark; Dickman, Chris R.; Ferrier, Simon; Fitzsimons, James; Freudenberger, David; Garnett, Stephen T.; Groves, Craig; Hobbs, Richard J.; Kingsford, Richard T.; Krebs, Charles; Legge, Sarah; Low20122017/12/14
Improving global environmental management with standard corporate reportingPROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICAKareiva, Peter M.; McNally, Brynn W.; McCormick, Steve; Miller, Tom; Ruckelshaus, Mary20152017/12/14
Improving Habitat Exchange Planning Through Theory, Application, and Lessons From Other FieldsEnvironmental Science & PolicyChristopher S. Galik, Todd K. BenDor, Julie DeMeester, David Wolfe20172017/12/14New tools are being deployed to address the continued decline of species at risk of becoming threatened or endangered. One approach receiving increased attention is the habitat exchange, or the use of a market-based, landscape-scale approach to protect or restore habitat in one place to offset impacts elsewhere. Although considerable resources have been devoted to the establishment of habitat exchanges over the past several years, actual implementation of transactions through habitat exchanges have been limited. As we argue here, important lessons have been slow to translate to habitat exchanges from other planning arenas. We briefly outline how the decision sciences, particularly structured decision making, and other planning processes _ such as those governing electricity infrastructure development _ can provide examples to facilitate the use of habitat exchanges as a viable and scalable conservation tool. We emphasize the challenge of translating theory to application, and note the importance of cross-fertilization of knowledge and experience across traditional disciplinary bounds.Conservation markets, Endangered species act, Habitat exchange, Structured decision making, Integrated resource planning
Improving human and environmental conditions through the Coral Triangle Initiative: progress and challengesCURRENT OPINION IN ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITYChristie, Patrick; Pietri, Diana M.; Stevenson, Todd C.; Pollnac, Richard; Knight, Maurice; White, Alan T.20162017/12/14
Improving Planting Stocks for the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Restoration through Community-Based Seed Harvesting StrategiesRestoration EcologyBrancalion, Pedro H. S.; Viani, Ricardo A. G.; Aronson, James; Rodrigues, Ricardo R.; Nave, Andre G.20122017/12/14
Improving transboundary river basin management by integrating environmental flow considerationsKrchnak, Karin M.20082017/12/14Freshwater ecosystems provide a wealth of services to humans including food and fiber, water purification, fish and wildlife habitat, tourism and recreational opportunities, shipping routes, employment, and opportunities for cultural and spiritual renewal
In memoriam - Frank B. Golley (1930-2006)Landscape EcologyTurner, Monica G.; Barrett, Gary W.; Gardner, Robert H.; Iverson, Louis R.; Risser, Paul G.; Wiens, John A.; (Jingle)Wu, Jianguo20072017/12/14
In Situ Coral Nurseries Serve as Genetic Repositories for Coral Reef Restoration after an Extreme Cold-Water EventRestoration EcologySchopmeyer, Stephanie A.; Lirman, Diego; Bartels, Erich; Byrne, James; Gilliam, David S.; Hunt, John; Johnson, Meaghan E.; Larson, Elizabeth A.; Maxwell, Kerry; Nedimyer, Ken; Walter, Cory20122017/12/14
In their own words:  Perceptions of climate change adaptation from the Great Lakes regionÍs resource management communityEnvironmental PracticePetersen, B.C., K.R. Hall, K.J. Kahl, and P.J. Doran20132017/12/14
Inadvertent selection in the propagation of native plants: A cautionary noteNative Plants JournalDunwiddie, P.W. and E. Delvin20062017/12/14
Incentives for employing conservation easements in Washington StateNatural Areas JournalKilbane, C.A., and Kareiva, P20072017/12/14Conservation easements are the most popular tool used by United States land trusts to conserve private land (LTA 2004). Part of the appeal of easements is that landowners can deduct the value of the donated easement as a charitable contribution, thereby r
Inconsistent food safety pressures complicate environmental conservation for California produce growersCalifornia AgricultureBaur, Patrick; Driscoll, Laura; Gennet, Sasha; Karp, Daniel20162017/12/14Controlling human pathogens on fresh vegetables, fruits and nuts is imperative for California growers. A range of rules and guidelines have been developed since 2006, when a widespread outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 was linked to bagged spinach grown in California. Growers face pressure from industry and government sources to adopt specific control measures on their farms, resulting in a complex, shifting set of demands, some of which conflict with environmental stewardship. We surveyed 588 California produce growers about on-farm practices related to food safety and conservation. Nearly all respondents considered both food safety and environmental protection to be important responsibilities for their farms. Responses indicate that clearing vegetation to create buffers around cropped fields, removing vegetation from ditches and ponds, and using poison bait and wildlife fences are commonly used practices intended to reduce wildlife movements onto farm fields. The survey also revealed that on-farm practices vary substantially even among farms with similar characteristics. This variability suggests inconsistencies in food safety requirements, auditorsÍ interpretations or growersÍ perception of the demands of their buyers. Although site-specific considerations are important and practices should be tailored to local conditions, our findings suggest growers, natural resources and food safety would benefit from clearer, more consistent requirements.agricultural management, California, farms, food safety; agriculture
Incorporating asymmetric connectivity into spatial decision making for conservationConservation LettersBeger, Maria; Linke, Simon; Watts, Matt; Game, Eddie; Treml, Eric; Ball, Ian; Possingham, Hugh P.20102017/12/14
Incorporating climate change adaptation into national conservation assessmentsGlobal Change BiologyGame, Edward T.; Lipsett-Moore, Geoffrey; Saxon, Earl; Peterson, Nate; Sheppard, Stuart20112017/12/14
Incorporating climate change into systematic conservation planningBiodiversity And ConservationGroves, Craig R.; Game, Edward T.; Anderson, Mark G.; Cross, Molly; Enquist, Carolyn; Ferdana, Zach; Girvetz, Evan; Gondor, Anne; Hall, Kimberly R.; Higgins, Jonathan; Marshall, Rob; Popper, Ken; Schill, Steve; Shafer, Sarah L.20122017/12/14
Incorporating clonal growth form clarifies the role of plant height in response to nitrogen additionOecologiaGough, Laura; Gross, Katherine L.; Cleland, Elsa E.; Clark, Christopher M.; Collins, Scott L.; Fargione, Joseph E.; Pennings, Steven C.; Suding, Katharine N.20122017/12/14
Incorporating critical elements of city distinctiveness into urban biodiversity conservationBiodiversity And ConservationParker, Sophie S.20152017/12/14
Incorporating ecological drivers and uncertainty into a demographic population viability analysis for the island foxEcological MonographsBakker, Victoria J.; Doak, Daniel F.; Roemer, Gary W.; Garcelon, David K.; Coonan, Timothy J.; Morrison, Scott A.; Lynch, Colleen; Ralls, Katherine; Shaw, Rebecca20092017/12/14Biometricians have made great strides in the generation of reliable estimates of demographic rates and their uncertainties from imperfect field data, but these estimates are rarely used to produce detailed predictions of the dynamics or future viability o
Incorporating expert knowledge for development spatial modeling in assessing ecosystem services provided by coral reefs: A tool for decision-makingRevista De Biologia Marina Y OceanografiaReyna-Gonzalez, Pedro C.; Bello-Pineda, Javier; Ortiz-Lozano, Leonardo; Perez-Espana, Horacio; Arceo, Patricia; Brenner, Jorge20142017/12/14
Incorporating geodiversity into conservation decisionsCONSERVATION BIOLOGYComer, Patrick J.; Pressey, Robert L.; Hunter, Malcolm L., Jr.; Schloss, Carrie A.; Buttrick, Steven C.; Heller, Nicole E.; Tirpak, John M.; Faith, Daniel P.; Cross, Molly S.; Shaffer, Mark L.20152017/12/14
Incorporating larval dispersal into MPA design for both conservation and fisheriesECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONSKrueck, Nils C.; Ahmadia, Gabby N.; Green, Alison; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Riginos, Cynthia; Treml, Eric A.; Mumby, Peter J.20172017/12/14
Incorporating Non-native Invasive Species into the SILVAH Expert SystemProceedings of the Society of American Foresters: Our Woodlands Wild and WorkingEmanuel, C.M., P. Knopp, R.L. Miller20062017/12/14
Increased forest edge density negatively affects Golden-cheeked Warbler nest survival on Fort Hood Military Reservation, TexasCondorPeak, R.G20072017/12/14
Increasing CO2 threatens human nutritionNatureMyers, Samuel S.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Kloog, Itai; Huybers, Peter; Leakey, Andrew D. B.; Bloom, Arnold J.; Carlisle, Eli; Dietterich, Lee H.; Fitzgerald, Glenn; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Holbrook, N. Michele; Nelson, Randall L.; Ottman, Michael J.; Raboy, Vi20142017/12/14
Increasing forest loss worldwide from invasive pests requires new trade regulationsFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentRoy, Bitty A.; Alexander, Helen M.; Davidson, Jennifer; Campbell, Faith T.; Burdon, Jeremy J.; Sniezko, Richard; Brasier, Clive20142017/12/14
Increasing the return on investments in island restorationIsland Invasives: Eradication and ManagementSaunders, A., J. P. Parkes, A. Aguirre-Mu_oz, and S. A. Morrison20112017/12/14
Indicator Taxa to Assess Anthropogenic Impacts in Caribbean and Bahamas Tidal CreeksCaribbean Journal Of ScienceLayman, Craig A.; Arrington, D. Albrey; Kramer, Philip A.; Valentine-Rose, Lori; Dahlgren, Craig P.20102017/12/14
Indirect effects of biological control on plant diversity vary across sites in Montana grasslandsConservation BiologyLesica, P; Hanna, D20042017/12/14Biological control with specialist, nonindigenous, herbivorous insects is an important option for controlling invasive exotic plants in wildlands and nature reserves. It is assumed that biological control agents will reduce the dominance of the
Industrialized watersheds have elevated risk and limited opportunities to mitigate risk through water tradingWATER RESOURCES AND INDUSTRYReddy, Sheila M. W.; McDonald, Robert I.; Maas, Alexander S.; Rogers, Anthony; Girvetz, Evan H.; Molnar, Jennifer; Finley, Tim; Leathers, Gena; DiMuro, Johnathan L.20152017/12/14Businesses are increasingly concerned about water scarcity and its financial impacts, as well as competing needs of other stakeholders and ecosystems. Industrialized watersheds may be at more serious risk from water scarcity than previously understood because industrial and municipal users have inelastic demand and a high value for water. Previous water risk assessments have failed to sufficiently capture these economic aspects of water risk. We illustrate how hydro-economic modeling can be used to improve water risk assessments at a basin scale and we apply the methodology to the industrialized Brazos River Basin (85% municipal and industrial withdrawals) and consider implications for The Dow Chemical Company_s Freeport Operations in Texas, US. Brazos water right holders pay only operating and maintenance costs for water during normal periods; however, when shortages occur, leasing stored water or reducing production may be the only mitigation option in the short-run. Modeling of water shortages and the theoretical cost of leasing water under nine combined scenarios of demand growth and climate change suggests that water lease prices to industry could increase by 9_13X. At best, a more developed water rights and storage lease market could result in lower lease prices (2_3X); however, given that transactions would be limited it is more likely that prices would still increase by 4_13X. These results suggest that markets are unlikely to be a robust solution for the Brazos because, in contrast to other watersheds in the Western US, there is little reliable water to trade from low value users (agricultural) to high value users (industry and municipalities). Looking at demand trends across the contiguous US as an indicator of water risk, 2% of watersheds have municipal and industrial demands that outstrip total surface and ground water supplies and in these watersheds industry has historically paid higher lease prices for water. This study provides new ways for businesses to characterize water risk and forecast water prices that uncovers hidden water risk and highlights the positive but diminished mitigating effects of water markets in a highly industrialized basin.
•Networking the networksê: coordinating Conservation Management Networks in VictoriaLinking Australia's Landscapes: Lessons and Opportunities from Large-scale Conservation NetworksCrosthwaite, J., J. Fitzsimons, J. Stanley, and J. Greacen20132017/12/14
Inferring drought and heat sensitivity across a Mediterranean forest region in southwest Western Australia: a comparison of approachesFORESTRYBrouwers, N. C.; van Dongen, R.; Matusick, G.; Coops, N. C.; Strelein, G.; Hardy, G.20152017/12/14
Influence of a Threatened-Species Focus on Conservation PlanningConservation BiologyDrummond, S. P., K. Wilson, E. Meijaard, M. Watts, R. Dennis, L. Christy, and H. P. Possingham20102017/12/14
Influence of agricultural landscape structure on a Southern High Plains, USA, amphibian assemblageLandscape EcologyGray, MJ; Smith, LM; Leyva, RI20042017/12/14Landscape structure can influence demographics of spatially structured populations, particularly less vagile organisms such as amphibians. We examined the influence of agricultural landscape structure on community composition and relative ...agriculture
Influence of elevation and site productivity on conifer distributions across Alaskan temperate rainforestsCANADIAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCHCaouette, J. P.; Steel, E. A.; Hennon, P. E.; Cunningham, P. G.; Pohl, C. A.; Schrader, B. A.20162017/12/14
Influence of Herbicide Site Preparation on Longleaf Pine Ecosystem Development and Fire ManagementSouthern Journal Of Applied ForestryAddington, Robert N.; Greene, Thomas A.; Elmore, Michele L.; Prior, Catherine E.; Harrison, Wade C.20122017/12/14
Influence of long-term greentree reservoir impoundment on stand structure, species composition, and hydrophytic indicatorsJournal of the Torrey Botanical SocietyErvin, G. N., L. C. Majure, and J. T. Bried20062017/12/14
Influence Of Moisture And Food Supply On The Movement Dynamics Of A Nonbreeding Migratory Bird (Parkesia Noveboracensis) In A Seasonal LandscapeAukSmith, Joseph A. M.; Reitsma, Leonard R.; Marra, Peter P.20112017/12/14
Influence of roadways on patterns of mortality and flight behavior of adult dragonflies near wetland areasBiological ConservationSoluk, Daniel A.; Zercher, Deanna S.; Worthington, Amy M.20112017/12/14
Influence of soil properties on coastal sandplain grassland establishment on former agricultural fieldsRESTORATION ECOLOGYNeill, Christopher; Wheeler, Megan M.; Loucks, Elizabeth; Weiler, Annalisa; Von Holle, Betsy; Pelikan, Matthew; Chase, Tom20152017/12/14The decline in species-rich grasslands across the United States has increased the importance of conservation and restoration efforts to preserve the biodiversity supported by these habitats. Abandoned agricultural fields often provide practical locations for the reestablishment of species-rich grasslands. However, these fields often retain legacies of agriculture both in their soils, which may have higher pH and nitrogen (N) contents than soils that were never farmed, and in their plant communities, which are dominated by non-native species and poor in native seed stock. We considered methods of reversing these legacies to create native-species-rich grassland on former agricultural land. We tested seeding and tilling combined with additions of sulfur (S), carbon (C), N or water to establish diverse sandplain grassland vegetation on an old field on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. We measured soil pH, extractable nitrate and ammonium, and total and native species richness and native species cover for 5 years after treatment. S additions lowered pH to values typical of never-tilled sandplain ecosystems and increased native species cover, but had no effect on species richness. C, N, and water additions had no significant effects on the soil or vegetation. Seeding and tilling were more effective at restoring native species richness than any soil amendments and indicated a greater importance of biotic factors compared with soil conditions in promoting sandplain vegetation establishment. S amendment accelerated establishment of native species cover for several years but the effect of S additions compared with seeding and tilling alone declined over time.
Influence of weather extremes on the water levels of glaciated prairie wetlandsWetlandsJohnson, WC; Boettcher, SE; Poiani, KA; Guntenspergen, G20042017/12/14Orchid Meadows is a long-term wetland research and monitoring site on the Coteau des Prairie in extreme east-central South Dakota, USA. It is a 65-ha Waterfowl Production Area with numerous temporary, seasonal, and semi-permanent wetlands. Ground
Influences of climate, fire, grazing, and logging on woody species composition along an elevation gradient in the eastern Cascades, WashingtonForest Ecology and ManagementHaugo, Ryan D.; Hall, Sonia A.; Gray, Elizabeth M.; Gonzalez, Patrick; Bakker, Jonathan D.20102017/12/14agriculture, ranching
Informed opportunism for conservation planning in the Solomon IslandsConservation LettersGame, Edward T.; Lipsett-Moore, Geoffrey; Hamilton, Richard; Peterson, Nate; Kereseka, Jimmy; Atu, William; Watts, Matthew; Possingham, Hugh P.20112017/12/14
Informing conservation planning using future sea-level rise and storm surge modeling impact scenarios in the Northern Gulf of MexicoOcean and Coastal ManagementThompson, M., J. Brenner, and B. Gilmer20142017/12/14
Informing watershed planning and policy in the Truckee River basin through stakeholder engagement, scenario development, and impact evaluationENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & POLICYPodolak, Kristen; Lowe, Erik; Wolny, Stacie; Nickel, Barry; Kelsey, Rodd20172017/12/14
Infusing considerations of trophic dependencies into species distribution modellingEcology LettersTrainor, Anne M.; Schmitz, Oswald J.20142017/12/14
Innovation for 21st Century ConservationAustralian Committee for IUCN, SydneyFiggis, P., J. Fitzsimons and J. Irving (eds)20122017/12/14
Innovative approaches to land acquisition and conservation management: the case of Fish River Station, Northern TerritoryInnovation for 21st Century ConservationFitzsimons, J. and M. Looker20122017/12/14
Insect Visitors and Pollination Ecology of Spalding's Catchfly (Silene spaldingii) in the Zumwalt Prairie of Northeastern OregonNatural Areas JournalTubbesing, Carmen; Strohm, Christopher; DeBano, Sandra J.; Gonzalez, Natalie; Kimoto, Chiho; Taylor, Robert V.20142017/12/14
Insights into the biodiversity and social benchmarking components of the Northern Australian fire management and carbon abatement programmesEcological Management and RestorationFitzsimons, J., Russell-Smith, J., James, G., Vigilante, T., Lipsett-Moore, G., Morrison, J. & Looker, M20122017/12/14
Institutional analysis of payments for watershed services in the western United StatesECOSYSTEM SERVICESHuber-Stearns, Heidi R.; Goldstein, Joshua H.; Cheng, Antony S.; Toombs, Theodore P.20152017/12/14
Instream Flows: New Tools to Quantify Water Quality Conditions for Returning Adult Chinook SalmonJOURNAL OF WATER RESOURCES PLANNING AND MANAGEMENTWillis, Ann D.; Campbell, Amy M.; Fowler, Ada C.; Babcock, Christopher A.; Howard, Jeanette K.; Deas, Michael L.; Nichols, Andrew L.20162017/12/14
Intact Faunal Assemblages in the Modern EraConservation BiologySanjayan, M.; Samberg, Leah H.; Boucher, Timothy; Newby, Jesse20122017/12/14
Integrated agricultural landscape management: Case study on inclusive innovation processes, monitoring and evaluation in the Mbeya Region, TanzaniaOutlook on AgricultureMalley, Zacharia J.; Hart, Abigail; Buck, Louise; Mwambene, Pius L.; Katambara, Zacharia; Mng'ong'o, Marco; Chambi, Consolatha20172017/12/14Integrated landscape management is a process for achieving multiple objectives related to agricultural production, ecosystem conservation, and sustainable natural resource management. These multiple livelihood functions are important features of an agricultural landscape in Mbeya, Tanzania. Due to environmental damage caused by agricultural expansion and charcoal burning, a process called integrated agricultural landscape management (IALM) was implemented to address this problem. This encompassed the identification and involvement of a range of key landscape actors and processes like awareness creation and joint problem analysis, solution framing, learning, planning and implementation of actions, and monitoring and evaluation. A multistakeholder innovation platform was formed for creating a coordination mechanism, common understanding, vision and goals, and networking. Fifty IALM ideas were identified and six selected by the stakeholders. Outcomes of using the IALM process included policy recommendations, joint learning, and innovative actions and were codeveloped, implemented, monitored, and evaluated with the local communities.intensification; inclusive innovation development; joint planning; joint learning; landscape; agriculture
Integrated cross-realm planning: A decision-makers' perspectiveBiological ConservationJorge G. lvarez-Romeroa, b, , , Vanessa M. Adams, Robert L. Pressey, Michael Douglas, Allan P. Dale, Am_lie A. Aug_, Derek Ball, John Childs, Michael Digby, Rebecca Dobbs, Niilo Gobius, David Hinchley, Ian Lancaster, Mirjam Maughan, Ian Perdrisat20152017/12/14Pursuing development and conservation goals often requires thinking and planning across terrestrial, freshwater and marine realms because many threats and social_ecological processes transcend realm boundaries. Consequently, effective conservation planning must consider the social and ecological links between realms and follow a cross-realm approach to allocate land/water uses and conservation actions to mitigate cross-realm threats and maintain cross-realm ecological processes. Cross-realm planning requires integrating multiple objectives for conservation and development, and assessing the potential co-benefits and trade-offs between them under alternative development scenarios. Despite progress in cross-realm planning theory, few fully-integrated and applied cross-realm plans exist. The gaps between research and implementation are not unique to cross-realm planning, but are accentuated by the complexity of spatial decision-making entailed. Based on a collaborative process including scientists, resource managers and policy-makers, we developed an operational framework for cross-realm planning based on up-to-date thinking in conservation science, but offering practical guidance to operationalise real-world planning. Our approach has a strong theoretical basis while addressing the visions and needs of decision-makers. We discuss the foundations and limitations of current approaches in cross-realm planning, describe key requirements to undertake this approach, and present a real-world application of our framework.Integrated cross-realm planning; Integrated land-sea conservation planning; Cross-system threat; Cross-system ecological process; Multi-objective planning; Marxan
Integrated landscape initiatives in Europe: Multi-sector collaboration in multi-functional landscapesLAND USE POLICYGarcia-Martin, Maria; Bieling, Claudia; Hart, Abigail; Plieninger, Tobias20162017/12/14
Integrating an uncertain future into conservation management and restoration: guidance for planners in land managing agencies and organizationsRestoration EcologySutter, R.D., J.K. Hiers, K.Kirkman, A. Barnett, D.R. Gordon.20152017/12/14
Integrating Avian Habitat Distribution Models into a Conservation Planning Framework for the San Joaquin River, California, USANatural Areas JournalSeavy, Nathaniel E.; Gardali, Thomas; Golet, Gregory H.; Jongsomjit, Dennis; Kelsey, Rodd; Matsumoto, Sandi; Paine, Seth; Stralberg, Diana20122017/12/14
Integrating CBM into Land-Use Based Mitigation Actions Implemented by Local CommunitiesForestsBalderas Torres, Arturo; Santos Acuna, Lucio Andres; Canto Vergara, Jose Manuel20142017/12/14
Integrating Climate and Ocean Change Vulnerability into Conservation PlanningCoastal ManagementMcLeod, Elizabeth; Green, Alison; Game, Edward; Anthony, Kenneth; Cinner, Joshua; Heron, Scott F.; Kleypas, Joanie; Lovelock, Catherine E.; Pandolfi, John M.; Pressey, Robert L.; Salm, Rodney; Schill, Steve; Woodroffe, Colin20122017/12/14
Integrating climate change into conservation planning in Washington State and the Pacific NorthwestKrosby, M., J. Hoffman, J.J. Lawler, and B.H. McRae20122017/12/14
Integrating Climate Change into Habitat Conservation Plans Under the U.S. Endangered Species ActEnvironmental ManagementBernazzani, Paola; Bradley, Bethany A.; Opperman, Jeffrey J.20122017/12/14
Integrating Collaboration, Adaptive Management, and Scenario-Planning: Experiences at Las Cienegas National Conservation AreaEcology and SocietyCaves, Jeremy K.; Bodner, Gitanjali S.; Simms, Karen; Fisher, Larry A.; Robertson, Tahnee20132017/12/14
Integrating conservation and development in the field: Implementing ecosystem service projectsFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentTallis, H., R. Goldman, M. Uhl, and B. Brosi20092017/12/14
Integrating Ecoregional Planning at Greater Spatial ScalesAnderson, Mark20102017/12/14
Integrating impact evaluation in the design and implementation of monitoring marine protected areasPHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCESAhmadia, Gabby N.; Glew, Louise; Provost, Mikaela; Gill, David; Hidayat, Nur Ismu; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Purwanto; Fox, Helen E.20152017/12/14
Integrating regional conservation priorities for multiple objectives into national policyNATURE COMMUNICATIONSBeger, Maria; McGowan, Jennifer; Treml, Eric A.; Green, Alison L.; White, Alan T.; Wolff, Nicholas H.; Klein, Carissa J.; Mumby, Peter J.; Possingham, Hugh P.20152017/12/14
Integrating societal perspectives and values for improved stewardship of a coastal ecosystem engineerEcology and SocietyScyphers, S. B., J. S. Picou, R. D. Brumbaugh, and S. P. Powers20142017/12/14
Integration of regional mitigation assessment and conservation planningEcology and SocietyThorne, J. H., P. Huber, E. H. Girvetz, J. F. Quinn, and M. C. McCoy20092017/12/14
Interacting Regional-Scale Regime Shifts for Biodiversity and Ecosystem ServicesBioScienceLeadley, Paul; Proenca, Vania; Fernandez-Manjarres, Juan; Pereira, Henrique Miguel; Alkemade, Rob; Biggs, Reinette; Bruley, Enora; Cheung, William; Cooper, David; Figueiredo, Joana; Gilman, Eric; Guenette, Sylvie; Hurtt, George; Mbow, Cheikh; Oberdorff, T20142017/12/14
Interactions between ecology, demography, capture stress, and profiles of corticosterone and glucose in a free-living population of Australian freshwater crocodilesGeneral and Comparative EndocrinologyJessop, TS; Tucker, AD; Limpus, CJ; Whittier, JM20032017/12/14In this study we examined three aspects pertaining to adrenocortical responsiveness in free-ranging Australian freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni). First, we examined the ability of freshwater crocodiles to produce corticosterone in response to a
Interactions between slimy sculpin and trout: Slimy sculpin growth and diet in relation to native and nonnative troutTransactions Of The American Fisheries SocietyZimmerman, Julie K. H.; Vondracek, Bruce20072017/12/14To investigate whether introductions of nonnative trout affect growth and diet of nongame fish in small streams, we designed a field experiment to examine interactions between slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus and native brook trout Salvelinus fontin
Interfacing models of wildlife habitat and human development to predict the future distribution of puma habitatEcosphereBurdett, Christopher L.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Theobald, David M.; Wilson, Kenneth R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Boyce, Walter M.20102017/12/14
Interference Of Bull Thistle (Cirsium-Vulgare) With Growth Of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus-Ponderosa) Seedlings In A Forest PlantationCanadian Journal of Forest ResearchRandall, Jm; Rejmanek, M19932017/12/14
Intertidal oysters in northern New EnglandNortheastern NaturalistCapone, Mark; Grizzle, Ray; Mathieson, Arthur C.; Odell, Jay20082017/12/14Little is known about the distribution and ecology of intertidal oysters in northeastern North America. North of Chesapeake Bay, intertidal oysters have either been previously reported as non-existent or only occurring as single oysters or sparse
Into Oblivion? The disappearing native mammals of northern AustraliaFitzsimons, J., S. Legge, B. Traill, B. and J. Woinarski20102017/12/14
Intraspecific models and spatiotemporal context of size-mass relationships in adult dragonfliesJournal of the North American Benthological SocietyBried, JT and GN Ervin20072017/12/14Length-mass equations are valued for their efficiency and reliability because many animals, including aquatic macroinvertebrates, show predictable correlations between mass and linear body dimensions. Our paper explores overlooked aspects of leng
IntroductionCoastal ManagementWhite, Alan T.; Green, Alison L.20142017/12/14
IntroductionMackey, B.; Figgis, P.; Fitzsimons, J.; Irving, J.; Clarke, P.20152017/12/14
Introduction history and invasion patterns of Ammophila arenaria on the north coast of CaliforniaConservation BiologyBuell, AC; Pickart, AJ; Stuart, JD19952017/12/14European beachgrass (Ammophila arenaria [L.] Link), introduced to stabilize sand, is fully naturalized in central and northern California and has supplanted populations of native dune plants in many areas, including the North Spit of Humboldt Bay. We inte
Introduction of invasive non-indigenous plants into Florida:  History, screening and regulatory approachesGordon, D.R. and K.P. Thomas19972017/12/14
Introduction pathways for invasive non-indigenous plant speciesGordon, D.R. and K.P. Thomas19942017/12/14
Introduction: Featured Collection on Instream Flows-Recent Advances and the Road Ahead1Journal of the American Water Resources AssociationRichter, Brian; Williams, Kathleen; Aarrestad, Peter20092017/12/14
Introduction: the expansion of Australia's marine protected area networksBIG, BOLD AND BLUE: LESSONS FROM AUSTRALIA'S MARINE PROTECTED AREASFitzsimons, James; Wescott, Geoff20162017/12/14
Introduction: the expansion of AustraliaÍs marine protected area networksFitzsimons, J. and G. Wescott20162017/12/14oceanMelbourne
Intuitive simulation, querying, and visualization for river basin policy and managementIbm Journal Of Research And DevelopmentEckman, B.; West, P. C.; Barford, C.; Raber, G.20092017/12/14
Inuit and Marine MammalsJensen, Anne M.; Sheehan, Glenn W.; MacLean, Stephen A.20092017/12/14
Inundation of freshwater peatlands by sea level rise: Uncertainty and potential carbon cycle feedbacksJournal Of Geophysical Research-BiogeosciencesHenman, Jenny; Poulter, Benjamin20082017/12/14[2] Peatlands represent an important component of the global carbon cycle due to their influence on carbon storage across different biomes, comprising the largest terrestrial biological carbon pool [Armentano and Menges, 1986;
Invasive exotic species in the Sonoran region (book review)Ecological RestorationTurner, D.20032017/12/14
Invasive Grasses Increase Nitrogen Availability in California Grassland SoilsInvasive Plant Science and ManagementParker, Sophie S.; Schimel, Joshua P.20102017/12/14
Inventory and comparative evaluation of seabed mapping, classification and modeling activities in the Northwest Atlantic, USA to support regional ocean planningJOURNAL OF SEA RESEARCHShumchenia, Emily J.; Guarinello, Marisa L.; Carey, Drew A.; Lipsky, Andrew; Greene, Jennifer; Mayer, Larry; Nixon, Matthew E.; Weber, John20152017/12/14
Inventory,  relative abundance and importance of fishes in the Caura River BasinBulletin of Biological AssessmentMachado-Allison, A., B. Chernoff, F. Provenzano, P. Willink, A. Marcano, P. Petry, B. Sidlauskas and T. Jones20032017/12/14
Investigating the rapid spread of invasive knotweed in a riparian setting (Washington)Ecological RestorationHolman, M., P. Dunwiddie, and B. Carey20072017/12/14
Investing in a Water-Secure FutureJOURNAL AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATIONRichter, Brian20172017/12/14
Investing in natural infrastructure: the economic value of Indonesia's marine & coastal ecosystemsThe Nature Conservancy-Environment Management GroupEmerton, L20092017/12/14
Investments in fuel removals to avoid forest fires result in substantial benefitsJournal of ForestryMason, CL; Lippke, BR; Zobrist, KW; Bloxton, TD; Ceder, KR; Comnick, JM; McCarter, JB; Rogers, HK20062017/12/14Forest fuel reduction treatments are needed, as shown by the increased number and cost of devastating crown fires in overly dense forests. Although large trees can be removed for valuable products, the market value for the smaller logs may be less than th
Involving communities in community assessmentPublic Health NursingClark, MJ; Cary, S; Diemert, G; Ceballos, R; Sifuentes, M; Atteberry, I; Vue, F; Trieu, S20032017/12/14Focus groups provide an effective means of incorporating the perspectives of Š—“hiddenŠ— populations in assessments of community health needs and assets. A series of focus groups was conducted with specifically targeted segments of a community t
Involving resource users in the regulation of access to resources for the protection of ecosystem services provided by protected areas in IndonesiaBiodiversity And Human Livelihoods In Protected Areas: Case Studies From The Malay ArchipelagoHalim, Abdul; Soekirman, Tri; Ramono, Widodo20082017/12/14
Involving Stakeholders in the Development of a Global Water Certification StandardJournal American Water Works AssociationKrchnak, Karin M.20112017/12/14
Iowa UNESCO-HELP: From capacity building to on-the- ground actionJournal of Hydrological EnvironmentMuste, M., J. Filipiak, and C. Spitzack20112017/12/14
Is bioenergy for the birds? An evaluation of alternative future bioenergy landscapesProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesFargione, Joe20102017/12/14
Is diversionary feeding an effective tool for reducing human-bear conflicts? Case studies from North America and EuropeURSUSGarshelis, David L.; Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Bryant, Ann; Gunther, Kerry A.; Jerina, Klemen20172017/12/14
Is It Possible To Restore Mercenaria Mercenaria To Great South Bay, Ny After 30 Years Of Decline?Journal of Shellfish ResearchLobue, Carl; Clapp, Chris; Doall, Mike; Carrano, Tom; Goldner, Emily20092017/12/14
Is nest predation on two endangered bird species higher in habitats preferred by snakes?EcoscienceSperry, Jinelle H.; Cimprich, David A.; Peak, Rebecca G.; Weatherhead, Patrick J.20092017/12/14
Is reduced benthic flux related to the Diporeia decline? Analysis of spring blooms and whiting events in Lake OntarioJournal Of Great Lakes ResearchWatkins, J. M.; Rudstam, L. G.; Crabtree, D. L.; Walsh, M. G.20132017/12/14
Is wildlife research useful for wildlife conservation in the tropics? A review of Borneo with global implicationsBiodiversity and ConservationMeijaard, E and D Sheil20072017/12/14
Islands within an island: Repeated adaptive divergence in a single populationEvolutionLangin, Kathryn M.; Sillett, T. Scott; Funk, W. Chris; Morrison, Scott A.; Desrosiers, Michelle A.; Ghalambor, Cameron K.20152017/12/14
Isolated Butte And Mesa Summits Of The Colorado PlateauVanpelt, Ns; Johnson, Dw19932017/12/14... Isolated butte and mesa summits of the Colorado Plateau. ...
Isolation and characterization of 29 microsatellite markers for the bumphead parrotfish, Bolbometopon muricatum, and cross amplification in 12 related speciesMARINE BIODIVERSITYPriest, Mark A.; Almany, Glenn R.; Braun, Camrin D.; Hamilton, Richard J.; Lozano-Cortes, Diego F.; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Berumen, Michael L.20152017/12/14
It takes more than water: Restoring the Colorado River DeltaECOLOGICAL ENGINEERINGPitt, Jennifer; Kendy, Eloise; Schlatter, Karen; Hinojosa-Huerta, Osvel; Flessa, Karl; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Ramirez-Hernandez, Jorge; Nagler, Pamela; Glenn, Edward P.20172017/12/14
It'll take more than researchBulletin of the British Ecological SocietySheil, D. and Meijaard, E20072017/12/14
IUCN greatly underestimates threat levels of endemic birds in the Western GhatsBiological ConservationVijay Ramesha, Trisha Gopalakrishna, Sahas Barve, Don J. Melnick,20172017/12/14The validity of the threat status assigned to a species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) Red List relies heavily on the accuracy of the geographic range size estimate for that species. Range maps used to assess threat status often contain large areas of unsuitable habitat, thereby overestimating range and underestimating threat. In this study, we assessed 18 endemic birds of the Western Ghats to test the accuracy of the geographic range sizes used by the IUCN for their threat assessment. Using independently reviewed data from the world's largest citizen science database (eBird) within a species distribution modeling framework, our results show that: (a) geographic ranges have been vastly overestimated by IUCN for 17 of the 18 endemic bird species; (b) range maps used by IUCN contain large areas of unsuitable habitat, and (c) ranges estimated in this study suggest provisional uplisting of IUCN threat status for at least 10 of the 18 species based on area metrics used by the IUCN for threat assessment. Since global range size is an important parameter for assigning IUCN threat status, citizen science datasets, high resolution and freely available geo-referenced ecological data, and the latest species distribution modeling techniques should be used to estimate and track changes in range extent whenever possible. The methods used here to significantly revise range estimates have important conservation management implications not only for endemic birds in the Western Ghats, but for vertebrate and invertebrate taxa worldwide.Western Ghats; Citizen science; Species distribution modeling; Geographic range; IUCN; Threat status
IUCN/WCPA Protected Areas Program: Making Space for People and Biodiversity in the AnthropoceneEARTH STEWARDSHIP: LINKING ECOLOGY AND ETHICS IN THEORY AND PRACTICEEnkerlin-Hoeflich, Ernesto C.; Sandwith, Trevor; MacKinnon, Kathy; Allen, Diana; Andrade, Angela; Badman, Tim; Bueno, Paula; Campbell, Kathryn; Ervin, Jamison; Laffoley, Dan; Hay-Edie, Terence; Hockings, Marc; Johansson, Stig; Keenleyside, Karen; Langhammer, Penny; Mueller, Eduard; Vierros, Marjo; Welling, Leigh; Woodley, Stephen; Dudley, Nigel20152017/12/14
Ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) persists in continental North AmericaScienceFitzpatrick, JW; Lammertink, M; Luneau, MD; Gallagher, TW; Harrison, BR; Sparling, GM; Rosenberg, KV; Rohrbaugh, RW; Swarthout, ECH; Wrege, PH; Swarthout, SB; Dantzker, MS; Charif, RA; Barksdale, TR; Remsen, JV; Simon, SD; Zollner, D20052017/12/14The ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis), long suspected to be extinct, has been rediscovered in the Big Woods region of eastern Arkansas. Visual encounters during 2004 and 2005, and analysis of a video clip from April 2004, confirm
Javan (White-vented) Myna Acridotheres javanicus and Palebellied Myna A. cinereus in North SulawesiKukilaTasirin, J.S. &¾J.A. Fitzsimons20142017/12/14
Joint analysis of stressors and ecosystems services to enhance restoration effectivenessProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesAllan, J.D., P.B. McIntyre, S.D.P. Smith, B.S. Halpern, G.L. Boyer, A. Buchsbaum, G.A. Burton Jr., L.M. Campbell, W.L. Chadderton, J.J.H. Ciborowski, P.J. Doran, T. Eder, D.M. Infante, L.B. Johnson, C.A. Joseph, A.L. Marino, A. Prusevich, J. Read, J.B. Ro20132017/12/14
Key areas for conserving United Statesê biodiversity likely threatened by future land use changeEcosphereMartinuzzi, S., V.C. Radeloff, J. Higgins, D. Helmers, A.J. Plantinga, and D.J. Lewis20132017/12/14
Key directions for valuing ecosystem services and protected areas in AustraliaMackey, B.; Figgis, P.; Fitzsimons, J.; Irving, J.; Clarke, P.20152017/12/14
Key taxa in food web responses to stressors: the Deepwater Horizon oil spillFRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTMcCann, Michael J.; Able, Kenneth W.; Christian, Robert R.; Fodrie, F. Joel; Jensen, Olaf P.; Johnson, Jessica J.; Lopez-Duarte, Paola C.; Martin, Charles W.; Olin, Jill A.; Polito, Michael J.; Roberts, Brian J.; Ziegler, Shelby L.20172017/12/14
Khawa Karpo: Tibetan Traditional Knowledge and Biodiversity ConservationSalick, Jan, and Robert K. Moseley20122017/12/14
Kirtland'S Warblers In Anthropogenically Disturbed Early-Successional Habitats On Eleuthera, The BahamasCondorWunderle, Joseph M., Jr.; Currie, Dave; Helmer, Eileen H.; Ewert, David N.; White, Jennifer D.; Ruzycki, Thomas S.; Parresol, Bernard; Kwit, Charles20102017/12/14
Knowing the territory: landscape ecosystem classification and mapping.Michigan BotanistAlbert, D.A., M. Lapin, and D.R. Pearsall.20152017/12/14Burton V. Barnes was a pioneer of ecological land classification in North America. Since he first introduced integrated, multi-scale, multifactor landscape ecosystem theory and methodology at the University of Michigan in the early 1980s (e.g., Barnes et al. 1982), ecological classification and mapping has become widely accepted as a Òbest practiceÓ in ecosystem and biodiversity conservation and sustainable resource management. Numerous other systems have been developed and are in use (e.g., state natural community classifications), but the methodology that Burt honed and taught likely remains the one that is most true to nature in describing and documenting the hierarchically nested, volumetric ecosystems of specific locales and regions. In the Barnes method, each classification is discerned from the ground up, based on the combination of climate, landform, geology, soils, and hydrology.
La   planificaci„n   sistemˆtica   como   instrumento   para   la conservaci„n de la biodiversidad: Experiencias recientes y desafÍos en Costa RicaRecursos Naturales y AmbienteHerrera, B., and B. Finegan20092017/12/14
La Planificacion Sistemˆtica en reas Protegidas y Corredores Biol„gicos de Costa Rica: Experiencias y DesafiosRecursos Naturales y AmbienteHerrera, B. and Finegan, B.20092017/12/14
Laboratory and Field Evaluations of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Baits Against Argentine Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGYRust, Michael K.; Soeprono, Andrew; Wright, Sarajean; Greenberg, Les; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Boser, Christina L.; Cory, Coleen; Hanna, Cause20152017/12/14
Lack of an urban edge effect on reproduction in a fragmentation-sensitive sparrowEcological ApplicationsMorrison, SA; Bolger, DT20022017/12/14Many studies have documented degradation of nesting habitat quality for songbirds breeding in fragmented forests. Few studies, however, have focused on the effects of urban fragmentation on arid region avifauna, even though a unique suite of ecological ch
Land clearing and the biofuel carbon debtScienceFargione, Joseph; Hill, Jason; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Hawthorne, Peter20082017/12/14Increasing energy use, climate change, and carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions from fossil fuels make switching to low-carbon fuels a high priority. Biofuels are a potential low-carbon energy source, but whether biofuels offer carbon savings depends
Land conversion at the protected area's edgeConservation LettersKramer, D. & P.J. Doran20102017/12/14Protected areas are a common strategy to conserve biodiversity, ecological function, and ecosystem services. Through land market dynamics, however, protected area establishment can induce effects inimical to conservation goals. We examined the factors explaining land conversion within 2 km buffers of protected areas in Michigan, United States. We employed multilevel logistic models, with and without autocovariates, utilizing a multimodel inference paradigm. The most parsimonious models indicated that parcels with more developed, forested, and protected land in their vicinity, with well-drained soils, at lower elevations, nearer roads and urban areas, in areas of greater population, and originally in agriculture are more likely to be developed. There is weak support for attributes of protected areas such as size, access, ownership, and protection mechanism affecting nearby land conversion. Our results stress the importance of a well-designed system of protected areas and broad evaluations of the impacts of existing and future threats.
Land cover and conservation: from protected areas to landscapesWiens, J.A., Anderson, M.G., Boucher, T.20082017/12/14Protected areas are the foundation of conservation efforts at local to global scales. Although the development of formal reserve-selection procedures and conservation planning at multiple scales has made the identification of priority areas for protection increasingly data-based, the resulting areas are often treated as if they were internally homogeneous islands in an equally featureless but unsuitable landscape. Land-cover data, however, show that such conservation areas are not only internally heterogeneous, but that they are embedded in an equally heterogeneous landscape mosaic. The conservation value of a protected area is affected by this internal structure and by the spatial structure and dynamics of the landscape context. Because protected areas by themselves cannot ensure the persistence of biodiversity, it is necessary to include the broader surroundings of these areas in the conservation equation. These are the places where people live and work, so people and their activities are important features of landscape context. Land-cover data are essential to describing the internal and external texture of protected areas, but information on land use and land-use change is equally important if the conservation perspective is to be expanded from the traditional emphasis on protecting ñpretty placesî to include landscapes, people, and their uses of lands and waters.Chapter 10
Land cover and forest formation distributions for St. Kitts, Nevis, St. Eustatius, Grenada and Barbados from decision tree classification of cloud-cleared satellite imageryCaribbean Journal Of ScienceHelmer, Eileen H.; Kennaway, Todd A.; Pedreros, Diego H.; Clark, Matthew L.; Marcano-Vega, Humfredo; Tieszen, Larry L.; Ruzycki, Thomas R.; Schill, S. R.; Carrington, C. M. Sean20082017/12/14
Land Manager and Researcher Perspectives on Invasive Plant Research Needs in the Midwestern United StatesInvasive Plant Science and ManagementRenz, Mark; Gibson, Kevin D.; Hillmer, Jennifer; Howe, Katherine M.; Waller, Donald M.; Cardina, John20092017/12/14
Land market feedbacks can undermine biodiversity conservationProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesArmsworth, PR; Daily, GC; Kareiva, P; Sanchirico, JN20062017/12/14The full or partial purchase of land has become a cornerstone of efforts to conserve biodiversity in countries with strong private property rights. Methods used to target areas for acquisition typically ignore land market dynamics. We show how co
Land use, ethnobotany and conservation in Costa Rican montane oak forestsEcology and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Oak ForestsKappelle, M. & M.E. Juˆrez20062017/12/14A large number of studies on human impact on tropical mountains underline the vast destructive and often irreversible effects that settlements and inappropriate land use practices may have on local forest resources (eg, Baker and Little 1976; Budowski 198
Land-use impacts on water resources and protected areas: applications of state-and-transition simulation modeling of future scenariosAIMS Environmental ScienceWilson, T.S., B.M. Sleeter, J. Sherba, D. Cameron20152017/12/14
Landbird stopover in the Great Lakes region:  Integrating habitat use and climate in conservationStudies in Avian BiologyEwert, D.N., K.R. Hall, R.J. Smith, and P.J. Rodewald20142017/12/14
Landscape analysis of risk factors for white pine blister rust in the Mixed Forest Province of Minnesota, U.S.ACanadian Journal of Forest ResearchWhite, M.A. Brown, T.N., and G.E. Host20022017/12/14
Landscape conservation forecasting» for Great Basin National ParkPark ScienceProvencher, L., T. Anderson, G. Low, B. Hamilton, T. Williams, and B. Roberts20132017/12/14
Landscape context and long-term tree influences shape the dynamics of forest-meadow ecotones in mountain ecosystemsEcosphereHaugo, Ryan D.; Halpern, Charles B.; Bakker, Jonathan D.20112017/12/14
Landscape disturbance models consistently explain variation in ecological integrity across large landscapesECOSPHEREDecker, Karin L.; Pocewicz, Amy; Harju, Seth; Holloran, Matt; Fink, Michelle M.; Toombs, Theodore P.; Johnston, Danielle Bilyeu20172017/12/14
Landscape ecology as a foundation for sustainable conservationLandscape EcologyWiens, John A.20092017/12/14
Landscape ecology, conservation biology and principles of ecosystem managementBourgeron, P; Jensen, M; Engelking, L; Everett, R; Humphries, H19952017/12/14
Landscape patterns of understory composition and richness across a moisture and nitrogen mineralization gradient in Ohio (USA) Quercus forestsPlant EcologyHutchinson, TF; Boerner, REJ; Iverson, LR; Sutherland, S; Sutherland, EK19992017/12/14This study quantified relationships of understory vascular plant species composition and richness along environmental gradients over a broad spatial scale in second-growth oak forests in eastern North America. Species frequencies were recorded in
Landscape-level analysis of mountain goat population connectivity in Washington and southern British ColumbiaConservation GeneticsParks, L.C., D.O. Wallin, S.A. Cushman, and B.H. McRae20152017/12/14
Landscape-level influences of terrestrial snake occupancy within the southeastern United StatesEcological ApplicationsSteen, David A.; McClure, Christopher J. W.; Brock, Jean C.; Rudolph, D. Craig; Pierce, Josh B.; Lee, James R.; Humphries, W. Jeffrey; Gregory, Beau B.; Sutton, William B.; Smith, Lora L.; Baxley, Danna L.; Stevenson, Dirk J.; Guyer, Craig20122017/12/14
Landscape-scale indicators of biodiversity's vulnerability to climate changeEcosphereKlausmeyer, Kirk R.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; MacKenzie, Jason B.; Cameron, D. Richard20112017/12/14
Landscape-scale response to local habitat restoration in the regal fritillary butterfly (Speyeria idalia) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)JOURNAL OF INSECT CONSERVATIONShuey, John; Jacquart, Ellen; Orr, Stuart; Becker, Fiona; Nyberg, Alyssa; Littiken, Robert; Anchor, Ted; Luchik, Derek20162017/12/14
Large-scale Flow Experiments for Managing River SystemsBioScienceKonrad, Christopher P.; Olden, Julian D.; Lytle, David A.; Melis, Theodore S.; Schmidt, John C.; Bray, Erin N.; Freeman, Mary C.; Gido, Keith B.; Hemphill, Nina P.; Kennard, Mark J.; McMullen, Laura E.; Mims, Meryl C.; Pyron, Mark; Robinson, Christopher T20112017/12/14
Large-scale movements and high-use areas of western Pacific leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriaceaEcosphereBenson, Scott R.; Eguchi, Tomoharu; Foley, Dave G.; Forney, Karin A.; Bailey, Helen; Hitipeuw, Creusa; Samber, Betuel P.; Tapilatu, Ricardo F.; Rei, Vagi; Ramohia, Peter; Pita, John; Dutton, Peter H.20112017/12/14
Larval dispersal and movement patterns of coral reef fishes, and implications for marine reserve network designBIOLOGICAL REVIEWSGreen, Alison L.; Maypa, Aileen P.; Almany, Glenn R.; Rhodes, Kevin L.; Weeks, Rebecca; Abesamis, Rene A.; Gleason, Mary G.; Mumby, Peter J.; White, Alan T.20152017/12/14
Larval Sucker Distribution And Condition Before And After Large-Scale Restoration At The Williamson River Delta, Upper Klamath Lake, OregonWestern North American NaturalistErdman, Charles S.; Hendrixon, Heather A.; Rudd, Nathan T.20112017/12/14
Las redes de conectividad  como  base  para   la  planificaci„n   de  la  conservaci„n   de  la  biodiversidad: propuesta para Costa RicaRecursos Naturales y AmbienteArias, E., O. Chac„n, B. Herrera, G. Induni, H. Acevedo, M. Coto, and J. R. Barborak20092017/12/14
Latitudinal patterns of range size and species richness of New World woody plantsGlobal Ecology and BiogeographyWeiser, M. D., B. J. Enquist, B. Boyle, T. J. Killeen, P. M. JËrgensen, G. Fonseca, M. D. Jennings, A. J. Kerkhoff, T. E. J. Lacher, A. Monteagudo, M. P. Nì_ez Vargas, O. L. Phillips, N. G. Swenson, and R. V. MartÍnez20072017/12/14Aim Relationships between range size and species richness are contentious, yet they are key to testing the various hypotheses that attempt to explain latitudinal diversity gradients. Our goal is to utilize the largest data set yet compiled for New World w
Lecanora inaurata, a new member of the L-subfusca group from central North AmericaLICHENOLOGISTMorse, Caleb A.; Ladd, Douglas20162017/12/14
LegalGEO: Conservation tool to guide the siting of legal reserves under the Brazilian Forest CodeAPPLIED GEOGRAPHYOakleaf, James R.; Matsumoto, Marcelo; Kennedy, Christina M.; Baumgarten, Leandro; Miteva, Daniela; Sochi, Kei; Kiesecker, Joseph20172017/12/14
Length based SPR assessment of eleven Indo-Pacific coral reef fish populations in PalauFISHERIES RESEARCHPrince, Jeremy; Victor, Steven; Kloulchad, Valentino; Hordyk, Adrian20152017/12/14The theoretical basis of a new approach to data poor fisheries assessment, length-based assessment of spawning potential ratio, has been recently published. This paper describes its first application over two years to assess 12 of the 15 most numerous species of Indo-Pacific coral reef fish in Palau. This study demonstrates the techniques applicability to small-scale data-poor fisheries and illustrates the type of data required, and the assessment's outputs. A methodology is developed for extending the principles of Beverton_Holt Life History Invariants to use the literature on related species within the Indo-Pacific reef fish assemblage to ïborrowÍ the information needed to parameterize assessments for Palau's poorly studied stocks. While the assessments will continue to be improved through the collection of more size and maturity data, and through further synthesis of the literature, a consistent and coherent picture emerges of a heavily fished assemblage with most assessed species having SPR < 20% and manyData poor assessment; Spawning potential ratio; Length based SPR; Indo-Pacific reef fish
Lepidoptera of Fort Indiantown Gap National Guard Training Center, Annville, PennsylvaniaNortheastern NaturalistFerster, Betty; Leppo, Betsy Ray; Swartz, Mark T.; Vulinec, Kevina; Habegger, Fred; Mehring, Andrew20082017/12/14Eighty-one species of butterflies and two-hundred and thirty-seven species of moths were identified from Fort Indiantown Gap, a National Guard training facility in south-central Pennsylvania. The Lepidoptera found here include the last remaining
Lepidoptera of the New Jersey pine barrensEntomological NewsCromartie, WJ19972017/12/14
Lessons from 35 years of private preserve management in the USA: The preserve system of the nature conservancyMurray, W19952017/12/14
Lessons from large-scale conservation networks in AustraliaParksFitzsimons, J., I. Pulsford, and G. Wescott20132017/12/14
Lessons from the expansion of AustraliaÍs marine protected area networks: a synthesisFitzsimons, J. and G. Wescott20162017/12/14Melbourne
Lessons from the prairie: research at The Nature Conservancy's Tallgrass Prairie Pre_serveAllen, M.S., R.G. Hamilton, U. Melcher, and M.W. Pal_mer20092017/12/14Stillwater, OK
Lessons learned from testing the Australian weed risk assessment system: the devil is in the detailsPlant Protection QuarterlyOnderdonk, D.A., D.R. Gordon, A.M. Fox, and R.K. Stocker20102017/12/14
LettersConservation BiologyClark, J. Alan, Hoekstra, Jonathan M., Boersma, P. Dee, and Kareiva, Peter20032017/12/14
Leveraging environmental flows to reform water management policy: Lessons learned from the 2014 Colorado River Delta pulse flowECOLOGICAL ENGINEERINGKendy, Eloise; Flessa, Karl W.; Schlatter, Karen J.; de la Parra, Carlos A.; Hinojosa Huerta, Osvel M.; Carrillo-Guerrero, Yamilett K.; Guillen, Enrique20172017/12/14Abstract Minute 319, a binational agreement between the United States and MŽxico, authorized environmental flows into the Colorado River Delta, including a high-profile pulse flow delivered in March through May 2014. Reforming water management policy to secure future delivery of environmental flows to the delta hinges on demonstrating the feasibility of delivering environmental water and documenting positive ecological responses of the deltaÕs severely degraded riparian habitat. The design of the flowÕs hydrograph, the novel utilization of irrigation infrastructure, the preparation and subsequent maintenance of selected restoration sites, and interdisciplinary monitoring at multiple scales combined to show that ecological restoration is possible, even with extremely small water volumes compared to historical flows. The overwhelmingly positive social responses to the flow are likely as pivotal to future flows as are the biophysical responses. The pulse flowÕs unique binational character demanded exceptional collaboration and communication involving local, state, and federal government agencies; water managers; water users; scientists; and non-governmental organizations. The success of such a politically, operationally, and scientifically complex endeavor in the severely over-allocated Colorado River Basin bodes well for the future of environmental flows in its delta and in other water-stressed settings, worldwide.Environmental flow; Minute 319; Colorado River Delta; Riparian restoration; Water management; Advocacy Coalition Framework
LICHEN COMMUNITY RESPONSE TO PRESCRIBED BURNING AND THINNING IN SOUTHERN PINE FORESTS OF THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN, USAFIRE ECOLOGYRay, David G.; Barton, Jason W.; Lendemer, James C.20152017/12/14The effects of prescribed burning and thinning on lichen communities is a poorly understood aspect of biodiversity conservation, despite the widespread use of these practices to achieve conservation-oriented land management goals. To address this knowledge gap we documented apparent changes in the diversity and abundance of lichens following 0 to 2 growing-season burns preceded by 0 to 1 commercial thinnings within nine southern pine dominated stands on the Delmarva Peninsula of Maryland, USA. Corticolous lichens growing on the stems and within the canopies of pines and co-occurring hardwoods were identified to species and fractional coverage was estimated; growth forms and reproductive modes were also determined. A total of 93 lichen taxa were recorded on the 19 tree species (4 pines, 15 hardwoods) represented in this study. Burning emerged as a strong driver of reductions in lichen diversity (P = 0.002), whereas thinning in the absence of burning did not (P = 0.279). In general, we found that lichens growing on tree bases and lower bole sections were more strongly impacted by burning, both in terms of diversity and cover, than those residing in the canopy. The apparent refugia represented by the canopy was qualified by the limited overlap in lichen species composition observed among the various sampling heights. This work calls attention to an understudied component of biodiversity that appears to be sensitive to fire management; however, we suggest that these results need to be interpreted in the context of altered disturbance regimes and the trajectory of community assembly resulting from long-term fire exclusion.
Lichenes Exsiccati Magnicamporum Fascicle 1, with comments on selected taxaOpuscula PhilolichenumDOUGLAS LADD & CALEB MORSE20152017/12/14
Lichens and related fungi of Highstead Arboretum, Fairfield County, ConnecticutOpuscula PhilolichenumDOUGLAS LADD, RICHARD C. HARRIS, WILLIAM R. BUCK20092017/12/14
Lichens and Related Fungi of Pine Bluff Arsenal, ArkansasOpuscula PhilolichenumLadd, Douglas20092017/12/14
Lichens, lichenicolous fungi, and allied fungi of Pipestone National Monument, Minnesota, U.S.A., revisitedOpuscula PhilolichenumM.K. ADVAITA, CALEB A. MORSE, DOUGLAS LADD20162017/12/14A total of 154 lichens, four lichenicolous fungi, and one allied fungus were collected by the authors from 2004 to 2015 from Pipestone National Monument (PNM), in Pipestone County, on the Prairie Coteau of southwestern Minnesota. Twelve additional species collected by previous researchers, but not found by the authors, bring the total number of taxa known for PNM to 171. This represents a substantial increase over previous reports for PNM, likely due to increased intensity of field work, and also to the marked expansion of corticolous and anthropogenic substrates since the site was first surveyed in 1899. Reexamination of 116 vouchers deposited in MIN and the PNM herbarium led to the exclusion of 48 species previously reported from the site. Crustose lichens are the most common growth form, comprising 65% of the lichen diversity. Sioux Quartzite provided substrate for 43% of the lichen taxa collected. Saxicolous lichen communities were characterized by sampling four transects on cliff faces and low outcrops. An annotated checklist of the lichens of the site is provided, as well as a list of excluded taxa. We report 24 species (including 22 lichens and two lichenicolous fungi) new for Minnesota: Acarospora boulderensis, A. contigua, A. erythrophora, A. strigata, Agonimia opuntiella, Arthonia clemens, A. muscigena, Aspicilia americana, Bacidina delicata, Buellia tyrolensis, Caloplaca flavocitrina, C. lobulata, C. soralifera, Candelariella antennaria, Dermatocarpon arenosaxi, Diplotomma subdispersa, Endocarpon pallidulum, Enterographa osagensis, Pseudosagedia chlorotica, Psoroglaena dictyospora, Punctelia missouriensis, Verrucaria calkinsiana, V. furfuracea, and V. sphaerospora. In addition, we report Acarospora erythrophora new for Kansas and Oklahoma, Enteroggrapha osagensis new for Nebraska and South Dakota, and Pseudosagedia chlorotica new for Oklahoma.Great Plains, floristic change, lichen community structure, Northern Glaciated Plains Ecoregion
Lidar remote sensing variables predict breeding habitat of a Neotropical migrant birdEcologyGoetz, Scott J.; Steinberg, Daniel; Betts, Matthew G.; Holmes, Richard T.; Doran, Patrick J.; Dubayah, Ralph; Hofton, Michelle20102017/12/14
LiDAR Utility for Natural Resource ManagersRemote SensingHudak, Andrew Thomas; Evans, Jeffrey Scott; Smith, Alistair Matthew Stuart20092017/12/14
Life after logging: reconciling wildlife conservation and production forestry in Indonesian BorneoMeijaard, E., D. Sheil, R. Nasi, D. Augeri, B. Rosenbaum, D. Iskandar, T. Setyawati, M.J. Lammertink, I. Rachmatika, A. Wong, T. Soehartono, S. Stanley. and T. OêBrien20052017/12/14Tropical rainforests are the most species-rich terrestrial ecosystems on earth, but these forests are rapidly disappearing as land is cleared for timber, agriculture and other uses. Strictly protected areas are never likely to be large enough to conserveBogor, Indonesia. agriculture
Life cycles of Allocapnia recta and Leuctra spp. (Plecoptera : Capniidae and Leuctridae) across a flow gradient in a Central Kentucky karst headwater streamSoutheastern NaturalistGrubbs, Scott A.; Thomas, Christopher M.; Hutchins, Benjamin T.; Taylor, Jason M.20062017/12/14
Linkage of conservation activity to trends in the US economyConservation BiologyPergams, ORW; Czech, B; Haney, JC; Nyberg, D20042017/12/14As an economy grows, natural capital such as timber, soil, and water is reallocated to the human economy. This conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation creates a conundrum for conservation biologists because traditional for
Linking Australiaês Landscapes: Lessons and Opportunities for Large-scale Conservation NetworksFitzsimons, J., I. Pulsford, and G. Wescott (eds)20132017/12/14
Linking Conservation Priorities to Wetland and Stream Mitigation Decisions: A Watershed Planning Approach for the Stones River Watershed, TennesseeNational Wetlands NewsletterPalmer, Sally20132017/12/14
Linking fisheries management and conservation in bioengineering species: the case of South American mussels (Mytilidae)Reviews in Fish Biology and FisheriesA Carranza, O Defeo, M Beck, JC Castilla20092017/12/14
Linking freshwater fishery management to global food security and biodiversity conservationPROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICAMcIntyre, Peter B.; Liermann, Catherine A. Reidy; Revenga, Carmen20162017/12/14
Linking Grassland and Early Successional Bird Territory Density to Predator Activity in Urban ParksNATURAL AREAS JOURNALThieme, Jennifer L.; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Brown, Justin; Anchor, Chris; Gehrt, Stanley D.20152017/12/14
Linking sewage pollution and water quality to spatial patterns of Porites lobata growth anomalies in Puako, HawaiiMARINE POLLUTION BULLETINYoshioka, Reyn M.; Kim, Catherine J. S.; Tracy, Allison M.; Most, Rebecca; Harvell, C. Drew20162017/12/14
Linking Shade Coffee Certification to Biodiversity Conservation: Butterflies and Birds in Chiapas, MexicoEcological ApplicationsMas, A. and T. Dietsch20042017/12/14Shade coffee certification programs have emerged over the past six years to verify that coffee marketed as Š—“shade grownŠ— is actually grown on farms that provide higher quality habitat for biodiversity. In spite of good intentions and an increasing maragriculture
Linking terrestrial and marine conservation planning and threats analysisConservation BiologyTallis, Heather; Ferdana, Zach; Gray, Elizabeth20082017/12/14The existence of the Gulf of Mexico dead zone makes it clear that marine ecosystems can be damaged by terrestrial inputs. Marine and terrestrial conservation planning need to be aligned in an explicit fashion to fully represent threats to marine
Linking water quality and well-being for improved assessment and valuation of ecosystem servicesProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesKeeler, Bonnie L.; Polasky, Stephen; Brauman, Kate A.; Johnson, Kris A.; Finlay, Jacques C.; O'Neill, Ann; Kovacs, Kent; Dalzell, Brent20122017/12/14
Lista  preliminar  de  los  Lycaenidae  (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) en BoliviaKempffianaGareca, Y., S. Reichle, and R. Robbins20092017/12/14
Litter and dead wood dynamics in ponderosa pine forests along a 160-year chronosequenceEcological ApplicationsHall, S. A.; Burke, I. C.; Hobbs, N. T.20062017/12/14Disturbances such as fire play a key role in controlling ecosystem structure. In fire-prone forests, organic detritus comprises a large pool of carbon and can control the frequency and intensity of fire. The ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Ra
Livelihood  transitions and the changing nature of farmer-herder conflict in Sahelian West AfricaJournal of Development StudiesTurner, M., A. Ayantunde, K. Patterson, and E. Patterson20112017/12/14agriculture
Livestock grazing supports native plants and songbirds in a California annual grasslandPLOS ONEGennet, Sasha; Spotswood, Erica; Hammond, Michele; Bartolome, James W.20172017/12/14Over eight years we measured the effects of plant community composition, vegetation structure, and livestock grazing on occurrence of three grassland bird species—Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), and Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)—at sites in central California during breeding season. In California’s Mediterranean-type climatic region, coastal and inland grassland vegetation is dominated by exotic annual grasses with occasional patches of native bunchgrass and forbs. Livestock grazing, primarily with beef cattle, is the most widely used management tool. Compared with ungrazed plots, grazed plots had higher bare ground, native plant cover, and vertically heterogeneous vegetation. Grazed plots also had less plant litter and shorter vegetation. Higher native plant cover, which is predominantly composed of bunchgrasses in our study area, was associated with livestock grazing and north-facing aspects. Using an information theoretic approach, we found that all three bird species had positive associations with native plant abundance and neutral (Western Meadowlark, Grasshopper Sparrow) or positive (Horned Lark) association with livestock grazing. All species favored flatter areas. Horned Larks and Western Meadowlark occurred more often where there were patches of bare ground. Western Meadowlarks and Grasshopper Sparrows were most common on north-facing slopes, suggesting that these species may be at risk from projected climate change. These findings demonstrate that livestock grazing is compatible with or supports grassland bird conservation in Mediterranean-type grasslands, including areas with high levels of exotic annual grass invasion, in part because grazing supports the persistence of native plants and heterogeneity in vegetation structure. However, conservation of low-lying grasslands with high native species presence, and active management to increase the abundance of native plant species are also likely to be important for sustaining grassland birds long-term.grazing; grasslands; birds; livestock; grasses; grasshoppers; plants; invasive species; agriculture
Living trees provide stable large wood in streamsEarth Surface Processes And LandformsOpperman, Jeff J.; Merenlender, Adina M.20072017/12/14Large wood exerts strong influences on stream channel morphology and aquatic ecosystems. Previously, in-stream large wood has generally been equated with dead wood. However, in streams in Northern California we found that living woodŠ—–trees that
Local and landscape effects on butterfly density in northern Idaho grasslands and forestsJournal of Insect ConservationPocewicz, Amy; Morgan, Penelope; Eigenbrode, Sanford D.20092017/12/14
Location and seasonal differences in adult dragonfly size and mass in northern Mississippi, USA (Odonata: Libellulidae)International Journal Of OdonatologyBried, Jason T.20092017/12/14Size and mass are often uniformly related within individuals and populations, but the relationship may vary in time or space. I asked whether isolated adult dragonfly populations within the same environmental context (climate, physiography, ecore
Logging and marine coastal systemsMcGraw-Hill 2007 Yearbook of Science and TechnologyShaber Nelson, K, E Gray, and H. Tallis20072017/12/14
Logging degrades nursery habitat for an iconic coral reef fishBIOLOGICAL CONSERVATIONHamilton, Richard J.; Almany, Glenn R.; Brown, Christopher J.; Pita, John; Peterson, Nathan A.; Choat, Howard20172017/12/14The loss of nursery habitats is widely believed to contribute disproportionally to declines in abundance and productivity of fish populations. However, it has been difficult to establish links between the processes threatening nurseries and changes in population demography. Here we show that juvenile bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum), an iconic coral reef species that is globally threatened, depend on a highly specific micro-habitat that is vulnerable to sedimentation from logging operations. We conducted surveys on fringing reefs in Solomon Islands. Surveys covered reefs around an island that has been selectively logged, and an island where there has been no logging. B. muricatum juveniles were restricted to shallow lagoonal reefs that fringed mangrove forested shorelines and had a high proportion of live branching corals, with the smallest settlers found in Acropora aspera and Acropora micropthalma colonies that were occupied by damselfish. Statistical path models indicated a 24 times decline in juvenile abundance near logging operations due to the mediating effect of habitat loss, and a possible direct effect of sedimentation on abundance. Our study shows that sedimentation can pose a significant threat to near-shore coral reef fish and highlights the role of nursery habitats in sustaining recruitment to reef fish populations.Coral reef fisheries; Recruitment; Habitat loss; Bolbometopon muricatum; Solomon Islands
Logging for the ark: improving the conservation value of production forests in South East AsiaCenter for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, IndonesiaGustafsson, L., Nasi, R., Dennis, R., Nguyen Hoang Nghia, Sheil, D., Meijaard, E., Dykstra, D.P., Priyadi, H., and Pham Quang Thu20072017/12/14The recommendations made in this report aim to improve the conditions for biodiversity conservation in the selectively logged production forests of South East Asia, a region which is one of the most important hot spots for global flora and fauna and which
Long duration, room temperature preservation of filtered eDNA samplesCONSERVATION GENETICS RESOURCESWegleitner, Benjamin J.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Tucker, Andrew; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Mahon, Andrew R.20152017/12/14
Long-term change in coral cover and the effectiveness of marine protected areas in the Philippines: a meta-analysisHydrobiologiaMagdaong, Evangeline T.; Fujii, Masahiko; Yamano, Hiroya; Licuanan, Wilfredo Y.; Maypa, Aileen; Campos, Wilfredo L.; Alcala, Angel C.; White, Alan T.; Apistar, Dean; Martinez, Rafael20142017/12/14
Long-term direct and indirect effects of the 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill on pigeon guillemots in Prince William Sound, AlaskaMarine Ecology Progress SeriesGolet, GH; Seiser, PE; McGuire, AD; Roby, DD; Fischer, JB; Kuletz, KJ; Irons, DB; Dean, TA; Jewett, SC; Newman, SH20022017/12/14
Long-term effects of a ship-grounding on coral reef fish assemblages at Rose Atoll, American SamoaBulletin of Marine ScienceSchroeder, Robert E.; Green, Alison L.; DeMartini, Edward E.; Kenyon, Jean C.20082017/12/14The nature and degree of impact of ship groundings on coral reefs and subsequent recovery is not well understood. Disturbed benthic and associated fish assemblages may take years-decades to return to pre-impact levels or may attain alternate stable states
Long-term effects of deer browsing: Composition, structure and productivity in a northeastern Minnesota old-growth forestForest Ecology and ManagementWhite, Mark A.20122017/12/14
Long-term effects of fire frequency and season on herbaceous vegetation in savannas of the Kruger National Park, South AfricaJournal of Plant EcologySmith, Melinda D.; van Wilgen, Brian W.; Burns, Catherine E.; Govender, Navashni; Potgieter, Andre L. F.; Andelman, Sandy; Biggs, Harry C.; Botha, Judith; Trollope, Winston S. W.20132017/12/14
Long-term Management of an Invasive Plant: Lessons from Seven Years of Phragmites australis ControlNortheastern NaturalistLombard, Karen B.; Tomassi, Dena; Ebersole, John20122017/12/14
Long-term precommercial thinning effects on Larix occidentalis (western larch) tree and stand characteristicsCANADIAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCHSchaedel, Michael S.; Larson, Andrew J.; Affleck, David L. R.; Belote, R. Travis; Goodburn, John M.; Wright, David K.; Sutherland, Elaine Kennedy20172017/12/14
Long-term seafloor monitoring at an open ocean aquaculture site in the western Gulf of Maine, USA: Development of an adaptive protocolMarine Pollution BulletinGrizzle, R. E.; Ward, L. G.; Fredriksson, D. W.; Irish, J. D.; Langan, R.; Heinig, C. S.; Greene, J. K.; Abeels, H. A.; Peter, C. R.; Eberhardt, A. L.20142017/12/14
Long-Term Studies Contribute Disproportionately to Ecology and PolicyBIOSCIENCEHughes, Brent B.; Beas-Luna, Rodrigo; Barner, Allison K.; Brewitt, Kimberly; Brumbaugh, Daniel R.; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B.; Close, Sarah L.; Coblentz, Kyle E.; De Nesnera, Kristin L.; Drobnitch, Sarah T.; Figurski, Jared D.; Focht, Becky; Friedman, Maya; Freiwald, Jan; Heady, Kristen K.; Heady, Walter N.; Hettinger, Annaliese; Johnson, Angela; Karr, Kendra A.; Mahoney, Brenna; Moritsch, Monica M.; Osterback, Ann-Marie K.; Reimer, Jessica; Robinson, Jonathan; Rohrer, Tully; Rose, Jeremy M.; Sabal, Megan; Segui, Leah M.; Shen, Chenchen; Sullivan, Jenna; Zuercher, Rachel; Raimondi, Peter T.; Menge, Bruce A.; Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Novak, Mark; Carr, Mark H.20172017/12/14
Long-term visual and acoustic cetacean surveys in Komodo National Park, Indonesia 1999-2001: Management implications for large migratory marine life. In: Proceedings and Publications of the World Congress on Aquatic Protected Areas 2002Australian Society for Fish BiologyKahn B. & Pet, J.S.20032017/12/14
Longitudinal river ecohydrology: flow variation down the lengths of alluvial riversEcohydrologyLarned, Scott T.; Schmidt, Jochen; Datry, Thibault; Konrad, Christopher P.; Dumas, Jennifer K.; Diettrich, Jan C.20112017/12/14
Longleaf pine and oak responses to hardwood reduction techniques in fire-suppressed sandhills in northwest FloridaForest Ecology and ManagementProvencher, L., B. J. Herring, D.R. Gordon, H.L. Rodgers, G.W. Tanner, J.L. Hardesty, L.A. Brennan, and A.R. Litt.20012017/12/14
Looking Beyond the Fenceline: Assessing Protection Gaps for the World's RiversCONSERVATION LETTERSAbell, Robin; Lehner, Bernhard; Thieme, Michele; Linke, Simon20172017/12/14
Loss of avian phylogenetic diversity in neotropical agricultural systemsScienceFrishkoff, Luke O.; Karp, Daniel S.; M'Gonigle, Leithen K.; Mendenhall, Chase D.; Zook, Jim; Kremen, Claire; Hadly, Elizabeth A.; Daily, Gretchen C.20142017/12/14agriculture
Loss of biodiversity and hydrologic function in seasonal wetlands persists over 10 years of livestock grazing removalRESTORATION ECOLOGYMarty, Jaymee T.20152017/12/14
Loss of forest cover in Kalimantan, Indonesia, since the 1997-1998 El NinoConservation BiologyFuller, DO; Jessup, TC; Salim, A20042017/12/14
Loss, status, and trends for coastal marine habitats of EuropeAnnual Review of Marine Biology and OceanographyAiroldi, L, and MW Beck20072017/12/14
Lost in developmentês shadow: the downstream human consequences of damsWater AlternativesRichter, B. D., S. Postel, C. Revenga, T. Scudder, B. Lehner, A. Churchill, and M. Chow20102017/12/14
Low-cost bathymetric mapping for tropical marine conservation - A focus on reef fish spawning aggregation sitesMarine GeodesyHeyman, William D.; Ecochard, Jean-Louis B.; Biasi, Frank B.20072017/12/14
Low-Cost Restoration Techniques for Rapidly Increasing Wood Cover in Coastal Coho Salmon StreamsNorth American Journal Of Fisheries ManagementCarah, Jennifer K.; Blencowe, Christopher C.; Wright, David W.; Bolton, Lisa A.20142017/12/14
Macroinvertebrate response to cattail management at Cheyenne Bottoms, Kansas, USAWetlandsKostecke, RM; Smith, LM; Hands, HM20052017/12/14Cheyenne Bottoms, Kansas, USA has been designated by the Ramsar convention as a Wetland of International Importance. However, since that 1988 designation, cattail (Typha spp.) has become the dominant plant within the basin, and migratory bird use
Mainstreaming investments in watershed services to enhance water security: Barriers and opportunitiesENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & POLICYVogl, Adrian L.; Goldstein, Joshua H.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Vira, Bhaskar; Bremer, Leah; McDonald, Robert I.; Shemie, Daniel; Tellman, Beth; Cassin, Jan20172017/12/14Watersheds are under increasing pressure worldwide, as expanding human activities coupled with global climate change threaten the water security of people downstream. In response, some communities have initiated investments in watershed services (IWS), a general term for policy-finance mechanisms that mitigate diverse watershed threats and promote ecosystem-based adaptation. Here, we explore the potential for increasing the uptake and impact of IWS, evaluating what limits its application and how institutional, financial, and informational barriers can be overcome. Our analysis complements the growing literature on individual programs by identifying levers at regional and global scales. We conclude that mainstreaming IWS as a cost-effective strategy alongside engineered approaches will require advances that (i) lower institutional barriers to implementation and participation in IWS; (ii) introduce structural market changes and standards of practice that account for the value of watershedsÕ natural capital; (iii) develop practical tools and metrics of IWS costs and benefits; and (iv) share success stories of replicable institutional and financial models applied in varied contexts.Investments in watershed services; Water infrastructure; Natural infrastructure; Ecosystem-based adaptation; Enabling conditions; Return-on-investment
Major Biogeographic and Phylogenetic PatternsAlbert, James S.; Petry, Paulo; Reis, Roberto E.20112017/12/14
Make no little plans: developing biodiversity conservation strategies for the Great LakesEnvironmental PracticePearsall, D.R., M.L. Khoury, J. Paskus, D. Kraus, P.J. Doran, S.P. Sowa, R. Franks Taylor, and L.K. Elbing20132017/12/14
Making A World Of Difference In Fire And Climate ChangeFire EcologyHuffman, Mary R.20142017/12/14
Making monitoring work: Lessons from The Nature ConservancyMontambault, J., and C. Groves20122017/12/14
Making the leap from science to implementation: Strategic agricultural conservation in Michigan's Saginaw Bay watershedJournal of Great Lakes ResearchFales, Mary; Dell, Randal; Herbert, Matthew E.; Sowa, Scott P.; Asher, Jeremiah; O'Neil, Glenn; Doran, Patrick J.; Wickerham, Benjamin20162017/12/14There is growing evidence that addressing nonpoint source pollution within intensely agricultural regions of the Great Lakes will require innovative solutions to achieve meaningful ecological outcomes. Recognizing this, a broad coalition of partners is collaborating across Michigan's Saginaw Bay watershed to develop and test innovative approaches to achieve the vision of Strategic Agricultural Conservation. The strategy focuses on using science, technology, and new ways of incentivizing practices and delivering services to producers to address challenges and barriers to Strategic Agricultural Conservation. It uses science to model relations between conservation actions, water quality and fish community health, allowing the coalition to establish realistic ecological outcomes and both short and long-term implementation goals at a variety of scales. It uses a decision tool and pay-for-performance methods to strategically target conservation practices and increase their efficiency. It uses nontraditional partners to help increase the ability to engage landowners and streamlined the application process to help increase landowner participation. Finally, it uses secure, privacy respecting, methods to track practices and progress towards short and long-term goals. Herein we present three case studies that demonstrate the practical application of this strategy including developing and testing new innovative conservation programs across the Saginaw Bay watershed. The success of this work will ultimately be determined by a variety of factors that affect conservation at landscape scales. However, what is clear is that without the science and complementary decision tool, this collaborative adaptive management approach would be impossible to implement across such a large geography.agricultural conservation; Great Lakes; Saginaw Bay watershed; regional conservation partnership program; fish community; agriculture
Male attacks on infants and infant death during male takeovers in wild white-headed langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus)Integrative ZoologyYin, Lijie; Jin, Tong; Watanabe, Kunio; Qin, Dagong; Wang, Dezhi; Pan, Wenshi20132017/12/14
Male's return rate, rather than territory fidelity and breeding dispersal, explains geographic variation in song sharing in two populations of an oscine passerine (Oreothlypis celata)Behavioral Ecology And SociobiologyYoon, Jongmin; Sillett, T. Scott; Morrison, Scott A.; Ghalambor, Cameron K.20132017/12/14
Mammals of Borneo - small size on a large islandJournal of BiogeographyMeiri, Shai; Meijaard, Erik; Wich, Serge A.; Groves, Colin P.; Helgen, Kristofer M.20082017/12/14
Management  under uncertainty:  guide-lines  for incorporating connectivity into the protection of coral reefsCoral ReefsMcCook, L. J., G. R. Almany, M. L. Berumen, J. C. Day, A. L. Green, G. P. Jones, J. M. Leis, S. Planes, G. R. Russ, P. F. Sale, and S. R. Thorrold20092017/12/14
Management of shrubland birds in central Texas: issues and challengesManaging Wildlife in the SouthwestKostecke, R. M20062017/12/14
Management strategies for invasive plants in Pacific Northwest prairies,¾ savannas, and oak woodlandsNorthwest ScienceDennehy, C., E. R. Alverson, H. E. Anderson, D. R. Clements, R. Gilbert, and T. N. Kaye20112017/12/14
Management under uncertainty: guide-lines for incorporating connectivity into the protection of coral reefsCoral ReefsMcCook, L. J.; Almany, G. R.; Berumen, M. L.; Day, J. C.; Green, A. L.; Jones, G. P.; Leis, J. M.; Planes, S.; Russ, G. R.; Sale, P. F.; Thorrold, S. R.20092017/12/14
Managing coastal pelagic fisheries: A case study of the small-scale purse seine fishery in KenyaOCEAN & COASTAL MANAGEMENTOkemwa, Gladys M.; Maina, George W.; Munga, Cosmas N.; Mueni, Elizabeth; Barabara, Mwaka S.; Ndegwa, Stephen; Thoya, Pascal; Ntheketha, Nicholas20172017/12/14
Managing Coasts with Natural Solutions20162017/12/14This guidance note provides review and recommendations for how the protective services of mangroves and coral reefs can be measured and valued in a manner consistent with national economic accounts and included in other decision-making processes to support planning for development, disaster risk, and coastal zone management. coral reefs, mangroves, marine/coastal, technical report, The Nature Conservancy, WAVES, WBG
Managing Fisheries Resources in Danajon Bank, Bohol, Philippines: An Ecosystem-Based ApproachCoastal ManagementArmada, Nygiel; White, Alan T.; Christie, Patrick20092017/12/14The Danajon Bank double barrier reef, located off northern Bohol Island of central Philippines, is the focus of this case study on ecosystem-based management (EBM). Fisheries management is relatively new in the area, particularly the aspect of managing .
Managing for biodiversity in vernal pool grasslands using fire and grazingMarty, J.20072017/12/14Studies from the Herbarium 14
Managing for ocean biodiversity to sustain marine ecosystem servicesFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentPalumbi, S. R., Sandifer, P. A., Allan, J. D., Beck, M. W., Fautin, D. G., Fogarty, M. J., ... & Wall, D. H.20082017/12/14
Managing the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive plants in the Laurentian Great Lakes: a regional risk assessment approachManagement of Biological InvasionsGantz, C.A., D.R. Gordon, C.L. Jerde, R.P. Keller, W.L. Chadderton, P. Champion, and D.M. Lodge20152017/12/14
Managing waterIssues In Science And TechnologyRichter, Brian20132017/12/14
Mangroves, tropical cyclones and coastal hazard risk reduction.McIvor, A., T. Spencer, M. Spalding, C. Lacambra, I. M_ller20152017/12/14Risks from coastal hazards to people and property are expected to increase with near-future sea level rise, changes in storminess, and increasing coastal populations. Evidence from empirical and modeling studies suggests that mangrove forest vegetation can reduce storm surge peak waters levels where mangroves are present over sufficiently large areas. Mangroves are best used alongside other risk reduction measures (embankments, early warning systems) to ensure the lowest possible level of residual risk. Forest density; Inundation extent; Mangrove loss; Mangrove restoration; Natural coastal protection; Numerical modeling; Storm surge; Tropical cyclone
Map the evidenceNATUREMcKinnon, Madeleine C.; Cheng, Samantha H.; Garside, Ruth; Masuda, Yuta J.; Miller, Daniel C.20152017/12/14
Mapping environments at risk under different global climate change scenariosEcology LettersEarl Saxon, Barry Baker, William Hargrove, Forrest Hoffman, Chris Zganjar20052017/12/14All global circulation models based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios project profound changes, but there is no consensus on how to map their environmental consequences. Our multivariate representation of environmental space combines stable topographic and edaphic attributes with dynamic climatic attributes. We divide that environmental space into 500 unique domains and map their current locations and their projected locations in 2100 under contrasting emissions scenarios. The environmental domains found across half the study area today disappear under the higher emissions scenario, but persist somewhere in it under the lower emissions scenario. Locations affected least and those affected most under each scenario are mapped. This provides an explicit framework for designing conservation networks to include both areas at least risk (potential refugia) and areas at greatest risk, where novel communities may form and where sentinel ecosystems can be monitored for signs of stress.
Mapping Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems in CaliforniaPLoS ONEHoward, Jeanette; Merrifield, Matt20102017/12/14
Mapping of stakeholder activities and habitats to inform conservation planning for a national marine sanctuaryENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY OF FISHESBlack, Brooke D.; Adams, Aaron J.; Bergh, Chris20152017/12/14
Mapping Oil and Gas Development Potential in the US Intermountain West and Estimating Impacts to SpeciesPLoS ONECopeland, Holly E.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Naugle, David E.; Pocewicz, Amy; Kiesecker, Joseph M.20092017/12/14
Mapping selective logging impacts in Borneo with GPS and airborne lidarFOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENTEllis, Peter; Griscom, Bronson; Walker, Wayne; Goncalves, Fabio; Cormier, Tina20162017/12/14Reduced-impact logging (RIL) is a promising management strategy for biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration, but incentive mechanisms are hindered by inadequate monitoring methods. We mapped 937 ha of logging infrastructure in a selectively harvested tropical forest to inform a scalable approach to measuring the impacts of discrete management practices (hauling, skidding, and felling). We used a lidar-derived disturbance model to map all skid trails and haul roads within 26 months of the selective harvest of six blocks of dipterocarp forest in five industrial concessions in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Lidar maps of logging impacts (220 ha) agreed well with ground-based maps (total of 217 ha, RMS error of 6 ha or 3%), but skid trail positions agreed only 59% of the time. Due to rapid forest regeneration, total lidar-derived haul road area was 31% smaller than road area measured in the field; agreement was higher for lidar collections within a year of the harvest. Maps of carbon density generated from Fourier transforms of lidar height profiles estimated skidding and felling biomass losses to within 1_5% of ground-based measurements. Lidar-derived skidding and hauling impact zones covered only 69% of the permitted harvest area; the remaining areas showed no signs of logging disturbance, and available biophysical data did not explain their location. These results emphasize the need for more extensive mapping of logging infrastructure to capture spatial variability in skid trail density and hitherto undetected no-impact zones. While a ground-based GPS is recommended as the most affordable method for wide-scale infrastructure mapping, aerial lidar is an effective tool for remotely quantifying the extent of logging impacts in tropical forests.
Mapping snags and understory shrubs for a LiDAR-based assessment of wildlife habitat suitabilityRemote Sensing Of EnvironmentMartinuzzi, Sebastian; Vierling, Lee A.; Gould, William A.; Falkowski, Michael J.; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Vierling, Kerri T.20092017/12/14
Mapping the conservation landscapeConservation BiologyRedford, KH; Coppolillo, P; Sanderson, EW; Da Fonseca, GAB; Dinerstein, E; Groves, C; Mace, G; Maginnis, S; Mittermeier, RA; Noss, R; Olson, D; Robinson, JG; Vedder, A; Wright, M20032017/12/14Before widespread, informed collaboration can take place in conservation there must be a process of understanding the different approaches employed by different conservation organizations to conserve biodiversity. To begin this process and to he
Mapping the global value and distribution of coral reef tourismMarine PolicyMark Spalding, Lauretta Burke, Spencer A. Wood, Joscelyne Ashpole, James Hutchison, Philine zu Ermgassene20172017/12/14Global coral reef related tourism is one of the most significant examples of nature-based tourism from a single ecosystem. Coral reefs attract foreign and domestic visitors and generate revenues, including foreign exchange earnings, in over 100 countries and territories. Understanding the full value of coral reefs to tourism, and the spatial distribution of these values, provides an important incentive for sustainable reef management. In the current work, global data from multiple sources, including social media and crowd-sourced datasets, were used to estimate and map two distinct components of reef value. The first component is local Òreef-adjacentÓ value, an overarching term used to capture a range of indirect benefits from coral reefs, including provision of sandy beaches, sheltered water, food, and attractive views. The second component is Òon-reefÓ value, directly associated with in-water activities such diving and snorkelling. Tourism values were estimated as a proportion of the total visits and spending by coastal tourists within 30 km of reefs (excluding urban areas). Reef-adjacent values were set as a fixed proportion of 10% of this expenditure. On-reef values were based on the relative abundance of dive-shops and underwater photos in different countries and territories. Maps of value assigned to specific coral reef locations show considerable spatial variability across distances of just a few kilometres. Some 30% of the world's reefs are of value in the tourism sector, with a total value estimated at nearly US$36 billion, or over 9% of all coastal tourism value in the world's coral reef countries.
Mapping the potential mycorrhizal associations of the conterminous United States of AmericaFungal EcologyRandy Swaty, Haley M. Michael, Ron Deckert, Catherine A. Gehring20162017/12/14Mycorrhizal associations are recognized as key symbioses in a changing world, yet our understanding of their geographic distribution and temporal dynamics remains limited. We combined data on mycorrhizal associations and historical dominant vegetation to map the pre-European Settlement mycorrhizal associations of the conterminous United States of America (USA). As a demonstration of the map's utility, we estimated changes in mycorrhizal associations due to urbanization, agriculture and the establishment of non-native species in two regions. We found that the conterminous USA was dominated by vegetation associated with arbuscular mycorrhizas, but that _40% of vegetation types included multiple mycorrhizal associations. Shifting land use to agriculture and the introduction of non-native species has disproportionately affected ectomycorrhizas, as did urbanization. These preliminary results set a baseline for mycorrhizal biogeography of the USA and illustrate how synthesis of available data can help us understand the impact of anthropogenic changes on an important mutualism.
Mapping Trade-Offs in Ecosystem Services from Reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial ValleyBIOSCIENCEBarnett, Analie; Fargione, Joseph; Smith, Mark P.20162017/12/14
Mapping Tree Canopy Cover in Support of Proactive Prairie Grouse Conservation in Western North AmericaRANGELAND ECOLOGY & MANAGEMENTFalkowski, Michael J.; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Naugle, David E.; Hagen, Christian A.; Carleton, Scott A.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Khalyani, Azad Henareh; Poznanovic, Aaron J.; Lawrence, Andrew J.20172017/12/14
Mapping tropical dry forest height, foliage height profiles and disturbance type and age with a time series of cloud-cleared Landsat and ALI image mosaics to characterize avian habitatRemote Sensing Of EnvironmentHelmer, E. H.; Ruzycki, Thomas S.; Wunderle, Joseph M., Jr.; Vogesser, Shannon; Ruefenacht, Bonnie; Kwit, Charles; Brandeis, Thomas J.; Ewert, David N.20102017/12/14
Mapping understory vegetation using phenological characteristics derived from remotely sensed dataRemote Sensing Of EnvironmentTuanmu, Mao-Ning; Vina, Andres; Bearer, Scott; Xu, Weihua; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Jianguo20102017/12/14
Marine birds of Yakutat Bay, Alaska: evaluating summer distribution, abundance, and threats at seaMarine OrnithologySchoen, S.K., M.L. Kissling, N.R. Hatch, C.S. Shanley, S.W. Stephensen, J.K. Jansen, N.T. Catterson, and S.A. Oehlers20132017/12/14
Marine Ecoregions of the World: a bioregionalization of coast and shelf areasBioScienceSpalding M.D., H.E. Fox, G.R. Allen, N. Davidson, Z.A. Ferdana, M. Finlayson, B.S. Halpern, M.A. Jorge, A. Lombana, S.A. Lourie, K.D. Martin, E. McManus, J.L. Molnar, C.A. Recchia, J. Robertson20072017/12/14
Marine Habitat ProtectionMcGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology. McGraw Hill, NY.Solie, S20042017/12/14
Marine habitats map of Isla del Cano,  Costa Rica, comparing Quickbird and Hymap images classification resultsRevista De Biologia TropicalFonseca, A. C.; Guzman, Hector M.; Cortes, Jorge; Soto, Carlomagno20102017/12/14
Marine Protected Area Management Effectiveness: Progress and Lessons in the PhilippinesCoastal ManagementMaypa, Aileen P.; White, Alan T.; Canares, Elline; Martinez, Raffy; Eisma-Osorio, Rose Liza; Alino, Porfirio; Apistar, Dean20122017/12/14
Marine protected area networking training handbookJohnston, P., G. Labrado, R-L Eisma-Osorio, P. Christie, and A. White20102017/12/14
Marine protected area networks in the Philippines: Trends and challenges for establishment and governanceOcean and Coastal ManagementHorigue, Vera; Alino, Porfirio M.; White, Alan T.; Pressey, Robert L.20122017/12/14
Marine Protected Areas in the Coral Triangle: Progress, Issues, and OptionsCoastal ManagementWhite, Alan T.; Alino, Porfirio M.; Cros, Annick; Fatan, Nurulhuda Ahmad; Green, Alison L.; Teoh, Shwu Jiau; Laroya, Lynette; Peterson, Nate; Tan, Stanley; Tighe, Stacey; Venegas-Li, Ruben; Walton, Anne; Wen, Wen20142017/12/14
Marine protected areas: past, present and future _ a global perspectiveSpalding, M. and L.Z. Hale20162017/12/14Melbourne
Marine protected areas: Static boundaries in a changing worldEncyclopedia of Biodiversity, second editionMcleod, E20132017/12/14
Marine Reserve Targets to Sustain and Rebuild Unregulated FisheriesPLOS BiologyNils C. Krueck , Gabby N. Ahmadia, Hugh P. Possingham, Cynthia Riginos, Eric A. Treml, Peter J. Mumby20172017/12/14Overfishing threatens the sustainability of coastal marine biodiversity, especially in tropical developing countries. To counter this problem, about 200 governments worldwide have committed to protecting 10%Ð20% of national coastal marine areas. However, associated impacts on fisheries productivity are unclear and could weaken the food security of hundreds of millions of people who depend on diverse and largely unregulated fishing activities. Here, we present a systematic theoretic analysis of the ability of reserves to rebuild fisheries under such complex conditions, and we identify maximum reserve coverages for biodiversity conservation that do not impair long-term fisheries productivity. Our analysis assumes that fishers have no viable alternative to fishing, such that total fishing effort remains constant (at best). We find that realistic reserve networks, which protect 10%Ð30% of fished habitats in 1Ð20 km wide reserves, should benefit the long-term productivity of almost any complex fishery. We discover a Òrule of thumbÓ to safeguard against the long-term catch depletion of particular species: individual reserves should export 30% or more of locally produced larvae to adjacent fishing grounds. Specifically on coral reefs, where fishers tend to overexploit species whose dispersal distances as larvae exceed the home ranges of adults, decisions on the size of reserves needed to meet the 30% larval export rule are unlikely to compromise the protection of resident adults. Even achieving the modest Aichi Target 11 of 10% Òeffective protectionÓ can then help rebuild depleted catch. However, strictly protecting 20%Ð30% of fished habitats is unlikely to diminish catch even if overfishing is not yet a problem while providing greater potential for biodiversity conservation and fishery rebuilding if overfishing is substantial. These findings are important because they suggest that doubling or tripling the only globally enforced marine reserve target will benefit biodiversity conservation and higher fisheries productivity where both are most urgently needed.
Marine reserves: the best option for our oceans?Frontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentNorse, EA; Grimes, CB; Ralston, S; Hilborn, R; Castilla, JC; Palumbi, SR; Fraser, D; Kareiva, P20032017/12/14496 www. frontiersinecology. orgΩ The Ecological Society of America tists) recommended the establishment of a national system of marine reserves. Protected areas have become the last redoubts for many terrestrial species. In the sea they probably have th
Marine spatial planning in practiceEstuarine, Coastal and Shelf ScienceJS Collie, MW Beck, B Craig, TE Essington, D Fluharty, J Rice, JN Sanchirico20132017/12/14
Marine species distribution shifts on the US Northeast Continental Shelf under continued ocean warmingPROGRESS IN OCEANOGRAPHYKleisner, Kristin M.; Fogarty, Michael J.; McGee, Sally; Hare, Jonathan A.; Moret, Skye; Perretti, Charles T.; Saba, Vincent S.20172017/12/14The U.S. Northeast Continental Shelf marine ecosystem has warmed much faster than the global ocean and it is expected that this enhanced warming will continue through this century. Complex bathymetry and ocean circulation in this region have contributed to biases in global climate model simulations of the Shelf waters. Increasing the resolution of these models results in reductions in the bias of future climate change projections and indicates greater warming than suggested by coarse resolution climate projections. Here, we used a high-resolution global climate model and historical observations of species distributions from a trawl survey to examine changes in the future distribution of suitable thermal habitat for various demersal and pelagic species on the Shelf. Along the southern portion of the shelf (Mid-Atlantic Bight and Georges Bank), a projected 4.1 ¡C (surface) to 5.0 ¡C (bottom) warming of ocean temperature from current conditions results in a northward shift of the thermal habitat for the majority of species. While some southern species like butterfish and black sea bass are projected to have moderate losses in suitable thermal habitat, there are potentially significant increases for many species including summer flounder, striped bass, and Atlantic croaker. In the north, in the Gulf of Maine, a projected 3.7 ¡C (surface) to 3.9 ¡C (bottom) warming from current conditions results in substantial reductions in suitable thermal habitat such that species currently inhabiting this region may not remain in these waters under continued warming. We project a loss in suitable thermal habitat for key northern species including Acadian redfish, American plaice, Atlantic cod, haddock, and thorney skate, but potential gains for some species including spiny dogfish and American lobster. We illustrate how changes in suitable thermal habitat of important commercially fished species may impact local fishing communities and potentially impact major fishing ports along the U.S. Northeast Shelf. Given the complications of multiple drivers including species interactions and fishing pressure, it is difficult to predict exactly how species will shift. However, observations of species distribution shifts in the historical record under ocean warming suggest that temperature will play a primary role in influencing how species fare. Our results provide critical information on the potential for suitable thermal habitat on the U.S. Northeast Shelf for demersal species in the region, and may contribute to the development of ecosystem-based fisheries management strategies in response to climate change.Climate change; Thermal habitat; Global climate model; Northwest Atlantic; Temperature shifts
Marine zoning in St. Kitts and Nevis: A design for sustainable management in the CaribbeanOcean and Coastal ManagementAgostini, Vera N.; Margles, Shawn W.; Knowles, John K.; Schill, Steven R.; Bovino, Robbie J.; Blyther, Ruth J.20152017/12/14
MarineMap: A web-based platform for collaborative marine protected area planningOcean and Coastal ManagementMerrifield, Matthew S.; McClintock, Will; Burt, Chad; Fox, Evan; Serpa, Paulo; Steinback, Charles; Gleason, Mary20132017/12/14
Market access, population density, and socioeconomic development explain diversity and functional group biomass of coral reef fish assemblagesGlobal Environmental Change-Human And Policy DimensionsBrewer, Tom D.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Fisher, Rebecca; Green, Alison; Wilson, Shaun K.20122017/12/14
Markov chain estimation of avian seasonal fecundityEcological ApplicationsEtterson, Matthew A.; Bennett, Richard S.; Kershner, Eric L.; Walk, Jeffery W.20092017/12/14Avian seasonal fecundity is of interest from evolutionary, ecological, and conservation perspectives. However, direct estimation of seasonal fecundity is difficult, especially with multi-brooded birds, and models representing the renesting and quitting pr
Marxan with Zones: Software for optimal conservation based land- and sea-use zoningEnvironmental Modelling & SoftwareWatts, M. E., I. R. Ball, R. S. Stewart, C. J. Klein, K. Wilson, C. Steinback, R. Lourival, L. Kircher, and H. P. Possingham20092017/12/14
Massachusetts Natural Heritage ProgramRhodoraFisher, Mn; Buttrick, Sc19802017/12/14Through this involvement\ and experience have evolved the Con servancy's Natural Heritage Programs (Jenkins, 1975, 1976, & 1977). These programs are a new approach to continuous biological collection and management, one which focuses upon the distribu ..
Mating systems of Dicerandra frutescens ssp. frutescens and D. christmanii: assessing limits on seed production in two narrow endemics of Florida scrubBiodiversity and ConservationEvans, M.E.K., E.S. Menges, and D.R. Gordon20042017/12/14
Maximising return on conservation investment in the conterminous USAEcology LettersWithey, John C.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Polasky, Stephen; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Nelson, Erik J.; Kareiva, Peter; Wilsey, Chad B.; Schloss, Carrie A.; Nogeire, Theresa M.; Ruesch, Aaron; Ramos, Jorge, Jr.; Reid, Walter20122017/12/14
Maximizing conserved biodiversity: why ecosystem indicators and thresholds matterEcological EconomicsEiswerth, ME; Haney, JC20012017/12/14Accounting for biodiversity is important in several different types of constrained choice problems, including public and private decisions for habitat and species conservation, the establishment of recreational parks and natural areas, mitigation banking,
Maximizing return on investment in conservationBiological ConservationMurdoch, William; Polasky, Stephen; Wilson, Kerrie A.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Kareiva, Peter; Shaw, Rebecca20072017/12/14Global conservation needs far exceed the available resources, so scarce resources must be used cost-effectively. Although many conservation priory-setting frameworks used by NGO's or public agencies explicitly claim to emphasize efficiency or wise investm
Measurement and modeling of indoor air pollution in rural households with multiple stove interventions in Yunnan, ChinaAtmospheric EnvironmentChowdhury, Zohir; Campanella, Luke; Gray, Christen; Al Masud, Abdullah; Marter-Kenyon, Jessica; Pennise, David; Charron, Dana; Zuzhang, Xia20132017/12/14
Measurement scales and ecosystem managementGordon, D.R., L. Provencher, and J.L. Hardesty19972017/12/14
Measuring a Professional Conservation Education Training Program for Zoos and Wildlife Parks in ChinaZoo BiologyAskue, Laurel; Heimlich, Joe; Yu, Jin Ping; Wang, Xiaohong; Lakly, Shelly20092017/12/14Designed and implemented in 2006, the Academy for Conservation Training (ACT) is a conservation education academy modeled after the Association for Zoos and Aquariums'(AZA) professional conservation education course. ACT incorporates ...
Measuring Changes in Consumer Resource Availability to Riverine Pulsing in Breton Sound, Louisiana, USAPLoS ONEPiazza, Bryan P.; La Peyre, Megan K.20122017/12/14
Measuring conservation success with missing Marine Protected Area boundaries: A case study in the Coral TriangleECOLOGICAL INDICATORSVenegas-Li, Ruben; Cros, Annick; White, Alan; Mora, Camilo20162017/12/14
Measuring Impacts of Restoration on Small Mammals in a Mixed-grass Colorado PrairieEcological RestorationStone, E.R20072017/12/14Small mammals in restored and native grassland plots were monitored at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge in Colorado from 1997 to 2005 in order to measure the effects of restoration on small mammal communities. Variation in small .
Measuring the benefits and costs of community education and outreach in marine protected areasMarine PolicyLeisher, Craig; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Hess, Sebastiaan; Widodo, Hesti; Soekirman, Tri; Tjoe, Salomina; Wawiyai, Stevanus; Larsen, S. Neil; Rumetna, Lukas; Halim, A.; Sanjayan, M.20122017/12/14
Measuring the Effectiveness of Conservation: A Novel Framework to Quantify the Benefits of Sage-Grouse Conservation Policy and Easements in WyomingPLoS ONECopeland, Holly E.; Pocewicz, Amy; Naugle, David E.; Griffiths, Tim; Keinath, Doug; Evans, Jeffrey; Platt, James20132017/12/14
Measuring the Impacts of Community-based Grasslands Management in Mongolia's GobiPLoS ONELeisher, Craig; Hess, Sebastiaan; Boucher, Timothy M.; van Beukering, Pieter; Sanjayan, M.20122017/12/14
Measuring the success of the Management Capacity Building Program for marine protected areas in the Gulf of CaliforniaKnowledge Management for Development JournalWong-Perez, K.J. and C.L. Thaler20122017/12/14
Mechanical land clearing to promote establishment of coastal sandplain grassland and shrubland communitiesRestoration EcologyLezberg, AL; Buresch, K; Neill, C; Chase, T20062017/12/14The decline in grasslands and other species-rich early successional habitats on the coastal sandplains of the northeastern United States has spurred management to increase the area of these declining plant communities. We mechanically removed ove
Meeting ecological and societal needs for freshwaterEcological ApplicationsBaron, JS; Poff, NL; Angermeier, PL; Dahm, CN; Gleick, PH; Hairston, NG; Jackson, RB; Johnston, CA; Richter, BD; Steinman, AD20022017/12/14Human society has used freshwater from rivers, lakes, groundwater, and wetlands for many different urban, agricultural, and industrial activities, but in doing so has overlooked its value in supporting ecosystems. Freshwater is vital to human life and socagriculture
Merging paleobiology with conservation biology to guide the future of terrestrial ecosystemsSCIENCEBarnosky, Anthony D.; Hadly, Elizabeth A.; Gonzalez, Patrick; Head, Jason; Polly, P. David; Lawing, A. Michelle; Eronen, Jussi T.; Ackerly, David D.; Alex, Ken; Biber, Eric; Blois, Jessica; Brashares, Justin; Ceballos, Gerardo; Davis, Edward; Dietl, Gregory P.; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Doremus, Holly; Fortelius, Mikael; Greene, Harry W.; Hellmann, Jessica; Hickler, Thomas; Jackson, Stephen T.; Kemp, Melissa; Koch, Paul L.; Kremen, Claire; Lindsey, Emily L.; Looy, Cindy; Marshall, Charles R.; Mendenhall, Chase; Mulch, Andreas; Mychajliw, Alexis M.; Nowak, Carsten; Ramakrishnan, Uma; Schnitzler, Jan; Das Shrestha, Kashish; Solari, Katherine; Stegner, Lynn; Stegner, M. Allison; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Wake, Marvalee H.; Zhang, Zhibin20172017/12/14
Merging science and management in a rapidly changing world: Biodiversity and management of the Madrean Archipelago III and 7th Conference on Research and Resource Management in the Southwestern Deserts; 2012 May 1-5; Tucson, AZGottfried, G.J., P.F. Ffolliott, B.S. Gebow, L.G. Eskew, and L.C. Collins, compilers20132017/12/14
Methods for calculating Protection Equality for conservation planningPLOS ONEChauvenet, Alienor L. M.; Kuempel, Caitlin D.; McGowan, Jennifer; Beger, Maria; Possingham, Hugh P.20172017/12/14
Michigan forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework projectHandler, Stephen Duveneck, Matthew J. Iverson, Louis Peters, Emily Scheller, Robert M. Wythers, Kirk R. Brandt, Leslie Butler, Patricia Janowiak, Maria Shannon, P. Danielle Swanston, Chris Eagle, Amy Clark Cohen, Joshua G. Corner, Rich Reich, Peter B. Baker, Tim Chhin, Sophan Clark, Eric Fehringer, David Fosgitt, Jon Gries, James Hall, Christine Hall, Kimberly R. Heyd, Robert Hoving, Christopher L. IbàÐez, Ines Kuhr, Don Matthews, Stephen Muladore, Jennifer Nadelhoffer, Knute Neumann, David Peters, Matthew Prasad, Anantha Sands, Matt Swaty, Randy Wonch, Leiloni Daley, Jad Davenport, Mae Emery, Marla R. Johnson, Gary Johnson, Lucinda Neitzel, David Rissman, Adena Rittenhouse, Chadwick Ziel, Robert20142017/12/14Forests in northern Michigan will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate during the next 100 years. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in Michigan's eastern Upper Peninsula and northern Lower Peninsula to a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate trends, projected climate changes, and impacts to forest ecosystems was considered in order to draw conclusions on climate change vulnerability. Upland spruce-fir forests were determined to be the most vulnerable, whereas oak associations and barrens were determined to be less vulnerable to projected changes in climate. Projected changes in climate and the associated ecosystem impacts and vulnerabilities will have important implications for economically valuable timber species, forest-dependent wildlife and plants, recreation, and long-range planning.Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-129
Microhabitat affinities of Missouri Ozarks lichensBryologistPeck, J.E., J. Grabner, D. Ladd and D.R. Larson20042017/12/14The lichen communities of nine mixed-hardwood sites in the southeastern Missouri Ozarks were characterized from sampling of the ground layer, tree-bases, midboles, and canopy branches. Of the 181 lichen taxa documented, the majority were crustose (55%) or
Mid-Texas, USA coastal marsh vegetation pattern and dynamics as influenced by environmental stress and snow goose herbivoryWetlandsMiller, DL; Smeins, FE; Webb, JW; Yager, L20052017/12/14Vegetation pattern and dynamics were characterized across a mid-Texas, USA coastal marsh ecotone subjected to snow goose herbivory, drought, and salt-water pulses. For eight years following snow goose feeding, species cover was evaluated in heavy
Midwestern US Farmers Perceive Crop Advisers as Conduits of Information on Agricultural Conservation PracticesEnvironmental ManagementEanes, Francis R.; Singh, Ajay S.; Bulla, Brian R.; Ranjan, Pranay; Prokopy, Linda S.; Fales, Mary; Wickerham, Benjamin; Doran, Patrick J.20172017/12/14Nonpoint source pollution from agricultural land uses continues to pose one of the most significant threats to water quality in the US, with measurable impacts across local, regional, and national scales. The impact and the influence of targeted conservation efforts are directly related to the degree to which farmers are familiar with and trust the entities providing the information and/or outreach. Recent research suggests that farmers consistently rank independent and retail-affiliated crop advisers as among the most trusted and influential sources for agronomic information, but little is understood about whether farmers are willing to receive advice from crop advisers on the use of practices that conserve soil and water, and, if so, whether crop advisers will be perceived as influential. We present survey data from farmers (n_=_1461) in MichiganÕs Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) watershed to explore these questions. Results suggest that farmers view crop advisers as trustworthy sources of information about conservation, and influential on management practices that have large conservation implications. We discuss these results, along with perceived barriers and opportunities to crop advisers partnering with traditional conservation agencies to enhance the impact of voluntary conservation programs.conservation practice adoption; farmers; crop advisers; nonpoint source pollution; Great Lakes; agriculture
Minnesota forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework projectGen. Tech. RepHandler, Stephen; Duveneck, Matthew J.; Iverson, Louis; Peters, Emily; Scheller, Robert M.; Wythers, Kirk R.; Brandt, Leslie; Butler, Patricia; Janowiak, Maria; Shannon, P. Danielle; Swanston, Chris; Barrett, Kelly; Kolka, Randy; McQuiston, Casey; Palik, Brian; Reich, Peter B.; Turner, Clarence; White, Mark; Adams, Cheryl; D'Amato, Anthony; Hagell, Suzanne; Johnson, Patricia; Johnson, Rosemary; Larson, Mike; Matthews, Stephen; Montgomery, Rebecca; Olson, Steve; Peters, Matthew; Prasad, Anantha; Rajala, Jack; Daley, Jad; Davenport, Mae; Emery, Marla R.; Fehringer, David; Hoving, Christopher L.; Johnson, Gary; Johnson, Lucinda; Neitzel, David; Rissman, Adena; Rittenhouse, Chadwick; Ziel, Robert20142017/12/14
Mislabeling marine protected areas and why it matters-a case study of AustraliaConservation LettersFitzsimons, James A.20112017/12/14
Missing the Boat on Freshwater Fish Conservation in CaliforniaCONSERVATION LETTERSGrantham, Theodore E.; Fesenmyer, Kurt A.; Peek, Ryan; Holmes, Eric; Quinones, Rebecca M.; Bell, Andy; Santos, Nick; Howard, Jeanette K.; Viers, Joshua H.; Moyle, Peter B.20172017/12/14
Missing the boat: Critical threats to coral reefs are neglected at global scaleMarine PolicyStephanie L. Wear20162017/12/14Coral reefs have experienced a global decline due to overfishing, pollution, and warming oceans that are becoming increasingly acidic. To help halt and reverse this decline, interventions should be aimed at those threats reef experts and managers identify as most severe. The survey included responses from 170 managers, representing organizations from 50 countries and territories, and found that respondents generally agreed on the two major threats: overfishing and coastal development. However, resource allocation did not match this consensus on major threats. In particular, while overfishing receives much attention, coastal development and its attendant pollution are largely neglected and underfunded. These results call for a re-examination of how resources are allocated in coral reef conservation, with more attention given to aligning how money is spent with what are perceived to be the primary threats.Coastal development; Decision-making; Overfishing; Resource allocation; Ocean warming; Watershed pollution
Mississippi River Ecosystem Restoration: The Past Forty-Plus YearsFISHERY RESOURCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND CONSERVATION IN THE MISSISSIPPI AND YANGTZE (CHANGJIANG) RIVER BASINSBenjamin, Gretchen L.; Rodgers, Angeline J.; Killgore, K. Jack20162017/12/14
Mitigating the ecological effects of riverbank filtrationJournal American Water Works AssociationKendy, E. & Bredeheoft, J.D20072017/12/14One option for mitigating the effect of a large RBF well is to spread the pumping out across the aquifer. Figure 1 compares the areas affected by a 5,000-m3/d well and a 15,000-m^ sup 3^/d well. As indicated in the figure, if a well is located 50
Mitigation for one & all: An integrated framework for mitigation of development impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem servicesENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT REVIEWTanis, Heather; Kennedy, Christina M.; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Goldstein, Joshua; Kiesecker, Joseph M.20152017/12/14Emerging development policies and lending standards call for consideration of ecosystem services when mitigating impacts from development, yet little guidance exists to inform this process. Here we propose a comprehensive framework for advancing both biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation. We have clarified a means for choosing representative ecosystem service targets alongside biodiversity targets, identified servicesheds as a useful spatial unit for assessing ecosystem service avoidance, impact, and offset options, and discuss methods for consistent calculation of biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation ratios. We emphasize the need to move away from area- and habitat-based assessment methods for both biodiversity and ecosystem services towards functional assessments at landscape or seascape scales. Such comprehensive assessments more accurately reflect cumulative impacts and variation in environmental quality, social needs and value preferences. The integrated framework builds on the experience of biodiversity mitigation while addressing the unique opportunities and challenges presented by ecosystem service mitigation. These advances contribute to growing potential for economic development planning and execution that will minimize impacts on nature and maximize human wellbeing.
Mitigation for the people: an ecosystem services frameworkTallis, H., Kennedy, C.M., Ruckelshaus, M., Goldstein, J. & Kiesecker, J.M.20162017/12/14Many of the laws that establish environmental impact mitigation were designed to protect people from the impacts of environmental degradation, yet economic development impacts on ecosystem services_ the benefits nature provides to people _ are seldom well incorporated in mitigation. We lack a unified conceptual framework and analytical precedent to guide the integration of ecosystem services into more commonly practiced biodiversity mitigation contexts. Here, we present a four-step framework that addresses key deficiencies in current biodiversity mitigation practice and recommend how ecosystem services can be included in the context of existing regulatory approaches. Within this framework, we address the conceptual and analytical advances needed to establish ecosystem service targets, delineate a spatial extent that captures ecosystem service supply and delivery (servicesheds), establish avoidance thresholds for services, quantitatively estimate impacts on services, consistently construct mitigation replacement ratios, and identify and design potential ecosystem service offsets. In each of these areas, we identify opportunities to embed ecosystem services alongside biodiversity in a single integrated framework.
Mitochondrial Genomes Suggest Rapid Evolution of Dwarf California Channel Islands Foxes (Urocyon littoralis)PLoS ONEHofman, Courtney A.; Rick, Torben C.; Hawkins, Melissa T. R.; Funk, W. Chris; Ralls, Katherine; Boser, Christina L.; Collins, Paul W.; Coonan, Tim; King, Julie L.; Morrison, Scott A.; Newsome, Seth D.; Sillett, T. Scott; Fleischer, Robert C.; Maldonado, J20152017/12/14
Modeled Sea Level Rise Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems at Six Major Estuaries on Florida's Gulf Coast: Implications for Adaptation PlanningPLOS ONEGeselbracht, Laura L.; Freeman, Kathleen; Birch, Anne P.; Brenner, Jorge; Gordon, Doria R.20152017/12/14
Modeling benefits from nature: using ecosystem services to inform coastal and marine spatial planningInternational Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & ManagementGuerry, A. D., Ruckelshaus, M. H., Arkema, K. K., Bernhardt, J. R., Guannel, G., Kim, C. K., ... & Spencer, J.20122017/12/14
Modeling Conservation LinkagesSingleton, P.H. and B.H. McRae20122017/12/14
Modeling ecohydrological impacts of land management and water use in the Silver Creek basin, IdahoJournal Of Geophysical Research-BiogeosciencesLoinaz, Maria C.; Gross, Dayna; Unnasch, Robert; Butts, Michael; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter20142017/12/14
Modeling economic and carbon consequences of a shift to wood-based energy in a rural 'cluster'; a network analysis in southeast AlaskaEcological EconomicsSaah, D., T. Patterson, T. Buchholz, D. Ganz, D. Albert and K. Rush20142017/12/14
Modeling Hawaiian ecosystem degradation due to invasive plants under current and future climatesPLoS ONEVorsino, Adam E.; Fortini, Lucas B.; Amidon, Fred A.; Miller, Stephen E.; Jacobi, James D.; Price, Jonathan P.; Gon III, Sam 'Ohukani'ohi'a; Koob, Gregory A.20142017/12/14Occupation of native ecosystems by invasive plant species alters their structure and/or function. In Hawaii, a subset of introduced plants is regarded as extremely harmful due to competitive ability, ecosystem modification, and biogeochemical habitat degradation. By controlling this subset of highly invasive ecosystem modifiers, conservation managers could significantly reduce native ecosystem degradation. To assess the invasibility of vulnerable native ecosystems, we selected a proxy subset of these invasive plants and developed robust ensemble species distribution models to define their respective potential distributions. The combinations of all species models using both binary and continuous habitat suitability projections resulted in estimates of species richness and diversity that were subsequently used to define an invasibility metric. The invasibility metric was defined from species distribution models with 0.8; True Skill Statistic >0.75) as evaluated per species. Invasibility was further projected onto a 2100 Hawaii regional climate change scenario to assess the change in potential habitat degradation. The distribution defined by the invasibility metric delineates areas of known and potential invasibility under current climate conditions and, when projected into the future, estimates potential reductions in native ecosystem extent due to climate-driven invasive incursion. We have provided the code used to develop these metrics to facilitate their wider use (Code S1). This work will help determine the vulnerability of native-dominated ecosystems to the combined threats of climate change and invasive species, and thus help prioritize ecosystem and species management actions.
Modeling marine ecosystem servicesGuerry, A.D., M.H. Ruckelshaus, M.L. Plummer, and D. Holland.20132017/12/14
Modeling multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation, commodity production, and tradeoffs at landscape scalesFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentNelson, Erik; Mendoza, Guillermo; Regetz, James; Polasky, Stephen; Tallis, Heather; Cameron, D. Richard; Chan, Kai M. A.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Goldstein, Joshua; Kareiva, Peter M.; Lonsdorf, Eric; Naidoo, Robin; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Shaw, M. Rebecca20092017/12/14
Modeling on the Grand Scale: LANDFIRE Lessons Learned. PNW-GTR-869Blankenship, K., J. Smith, R. Swaty, A. Shlisky, J. Patton, S.Hagen20122017/12/14Portland, OR
Modeling residential development in California from 2000 to 2050: Integrating wildfire risk, wildland and agricultural encroachmentLand Use PolicyMann, Michael L.; Berck, Peter; Moritz, Max A.; Batllori, Enric; Baldwin, James G.; Gately, Conor K.; Cameron, D. Richard20142017/12/14agriculture
Modeling Species Distribution and Change Using Random ForestEvans, Jeffrey S.; Murphy, Melanie A.; Holden, Zachary A.; Cushman, Samuel A.20112017/12/14
Modeling the Distribution of Migratory Bird Stopovers to Inform Landscape-Scale Siting of Wind DevelopmentPLoS ONEPocewicz, Amy; Estes-Zumpf, Wendy A.; Andersen, Mark D.; Copeland, Holly E.; Keinath, Douglas A.; Griscom, Hannah R.20132017/12/14
Modeling the effects of conservation practices on stream healthScience Of The Total EnvironmentEinheuser, Matthew D.; Nejadhashemi, A. Pouyan; Sowa, Scott P.; Wang, Lizhu; Hamaamin, Yaseen A.; Woznicki, Sean A.20122017/12/14agriculture
Modeling the long-term effects of fire suppression on central hardwood forests in Missouri Ozarks, using LANDISForest Ecology and ManagementShang, ZongBo; He, Hong S.; Lytle, David E.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Crow, Thomas R.20072017/12/14Fire suppression has been found to dramatically change fire regimes, lead to accumulation of fuels, and alter forest composition and species abundance in the Central Hardwood Forests in the Missouri Ozarks, United States. After a half century of fire supp
Models of Regional Habitat Quality and Connectivity for Pumas (Puma concolor) in the Southwestern United StatesPLoS ONEDickson, Brett G.; Roemer, Gary W.; McRae, Brad H.; Rundall, Jill M.20132017/12/14
Modern Use and Environmental Impact of the Kava Plant in Remote OceaniaDangerous Harvest: Drug Plants and the Transformation of Indigenous Landscapes. Merlin, M. and B. Raynor20042017/12/14
Modified Pollard Transects Do Not Predict Estimated Daily Population Size For The Secretive Butterfly, Neonympha Mitchellii Mitchellii FrenchJournal of the Lepidopterists' SocietyShuey, John; Szymanski, Jennifer20122017/12/14
Moisture as a determinant of habitat quality for a nonbreeding Neotropical migratory songbirdEcologySmith, Joseph A. M.; Reitsma, Leonard R.; Marra, Peter P.20102017/12/14
Monitoring composition of foothills grassland using frequency of indicator speciesNatural Areas JournalLesica, P; Hanna, D20022017/12/14
Monitoring does not always countTrends in Ecology and EvolutionMcDonald-Madden, Eve; Baxter, Peter W. J.; Fuller, Richard A.; Martin, Tara G.; Game, Edward T.; Montambault, Jensen; Possingham, Hugh P.20102017/12/14
Monitoring in the Western Pacific region shows evidence of seagrass decline in line with global trendsMarine Pollution BulletinShort, Frederick T.; Coles, Robert; Fortes, Miguel D.; Victor, Steven; Salik, Maxwell; Isnain, Irwan; Andrew, Jay; Seno, Aganto20142017/12/14
Monitoring natural resources on rangeland conservation easements; who's minding the easement?RangelandsRissman, A. R., R. J. Reiner,¾and¾A. M. Merenlender20072017/12/14agriculture, ranching
Monitoring survival, growth, and reproduction of Aletes humilisSchulz, TT; Carpenter, AT19962017/12/14Larimer aletes (Aletes humilis Coulter & Rose), a globally rare plant, has been monitored for 7 years beginning in 1989 at Phantom Canyon Preserve, Colorado. It is a cushion plant that usually grows in cracks in granite along north-facing cliffs
Monitoring The Effectiveness Of A Boardwalk At Protecting A Low Heath Bald In The Southern AppalachiansNatural Areas JournalSutter, Rd; Benjamin, Se; Murdock, N; Teague, B19932017/12/14
Monitoring the Impact of Grazing on Rangeland Conservation Easements Using MODIS Vegetation IndicesRANGELAND ECOLOGY & MANAGEMENTTsalyuk, Miriam; Kelly, Maggi; Koy, Kevin; Getz, Wayne M.; Butterfield, H. Scott20152017/12/14Monitoring the effects of grazing on rangelands is crucial for ensuring sustainable rangeland ecosystem function and maintaining its conservation values. Residual dry matter (RDM), the dry grass biomass left on the ground at the end of the grazing season, is a commonly used proxy for rangeland condition in Mediterranean climates. Moderate levels of RDM are correlated with soil stability, forage production, wildlife habitat, and diversity of native plants. Therefore RDM is widely monitored on rangeland conservation properties. Current ground-based methods for RDM monitoring are expensive, are labor intensive, and provide information in the fall, after the effects of grazing have already occurred. In this paper we present a cost-effective, rapid, and robust methodology to monitor and predict RDM using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data. We performed a time series analysis of three MODIS-based vegetation indices (VIs) measured over the period 2000_2012: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Leaf Area Index (LAI), and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR). We examined the correlation between the four VIs and fall RDM measured at The Nature ConservancyÍs Simon Newman Ranch in central California. We found strong and significant correlations between maximum VI values in late spring and RDM in the fall. Among the VIs, LAI values had the most significant correlation with fall RDM. MODIS-based multivariate models predicted up to 63% of fall RDM. Importantly, maximum and sum VIs values were significantly higher in management units with RDM levels in compliance with RDM conservation easement terms compared with units out of compliance. On the basis of these results, we propose a management model that uses time series analysis of MODIS VIs to predict forage quantities, manage stocking rates, and monitor rangeland easement compliance. This model can be used to improve monitoring of rangeland conservation by providing information on range conditions throughout the year.
Monitoring Western Gray Squirrels for Landscape Management in Western WashingtonNorthwest ScienceFimbel, Cheryl; Freed, Sanders20082017/12/14
Montane Cloud Forests In Micronesia - Status And Future ManagementRaynor, B19952017/12/14
Montane oak forest distribution along temperature, humidity and soil gradients in Costa RicaEcology and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Oak ForestsKappelle, M. & J.G. van Uffelen20062017/12/14
More than the Fish. Environmental Flows for Good Policy and Governance, Poverty Alleviation and Climate AdaptationMatthews, J. H.; Forslund, A.; McClain, M. E.; Tharmee, R. E.20142017/12/14
Moro Big Pine: Conservation and Collaboration in the Pine Flatwoods of ArkansasJournal of ForestryBragg, Don C.; O'Neill, Ricky; Holimon, William; Fox, Joe; Thornton, Gary; Mangham, Roger20142017/12/14
Morphology of the prometamorphic larva of the spadefoot toad, Scaphiopus intermontanus (Anura : Pelobatidae), with an emphasis on the lateral line system and mouthpartsJournal Of MorphologyHall, JA; Larsen, JH; Fitzner, RE20022017/12/14
Morphometric variation in North American Pogonomyrmex and Solenopsis ants: caste evolution through ecological release or dietary change?Ethology Ecology & EvolutionFerster, B; Pie, MR; Traniello, JFA20062017/12/14Polymorphism in the ant Pogonomyrmex badius was studied using morphometric analysis. Head shape in P. badius was compared to 14 closely related monomorphic Pogonomyrmex believed to differ in worker morphology due to character displacement. Head shape in P
Moth Communities Correspond with Plant Communities in Midwestern (Indiana, USA) Sand Prairies and Oak Barrens and Their Degradation EndpointsAmerican Midland NaturalistShuey, John A.; Metzler, Eric H.; Tungesvick, Kevin20122017/12/14
Mountain Ecosystem Response To Global ChangeErdkundeLoeffler, Joerg; Anschlag, Kerstin; Baker, Barry; Finch, Oliver-D.; Diekkrueger, Bernd; Wundram, Dirk; Schroeder, Boris; Pape, Roland; Lundberg, Anders20112017/12/14
Movement of walleye in an impounded reach of the Au Sable River, Michigan, USAEnvironmental Biology of FishesDePhilip, MM; Diana, JS; Smith, D20052017/12/14Synopsis We estimated long-range spawning and foraging movements of walleye and observed their use of river and reservoir habitats between two large hydroelectric dams on the Au Sable River, Michigan. We used radiotelemetry to monitor seasonal and daily
Movement patterns of three arboreal primates in a Neotropical moist forest explained by LiDAR-estimated canopy structureLANDSCAPE ECOLOGYMcLean, Kevin A.; Trainor, Anne M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Crofoot, Margaret C.; Hopkins, Mariah E.; Campbell, Christina J.; Martin, Roberta E.; Knapp, David E.; Jansen, Patrick A.20162017/12/14
Movements and site fidelity of the giant manta ray, Manta birostris, in the Komodo Marine Park, IndonesiaMarine BiologyDewar, Heidi; Mous, Peter; Domeier, Michael; Muljadi, Andreas; Pet, Jos; Whitty, Jev20082017/12/14Despite their large size and frequent occurrence in near-shore tropical habitats, little published information is available on the movements and behaviors of the giant manta ray, Manta birostris, and what factors influence visitation patterns. To
Movements of double-crested cormorants fledged on the Columbia River EstuaryNorthwest NaturalistClark, Alan C., T.M. Kollasch, D.A. Williamson20062017/12/14Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) have been the subject of increased research throughout North America in recent years, primarily as a result of conflicts with sport and commercial fisheries (Nettleship and Duffy 1995; Hatch and Weseloh 19
Moving Forward Towards Networks and Broader Spatial ManagementMeliane, I., A. White, S. Smith, C. M. Crain, and M. Beck20102017/12/14
Multi-scale predictive habitat suitability modeling based on hierarchically delineated patches: an example for yellow-billed cuckoos nesting in riparian forests, California, USALandscape EcologyGirvetz, E. H., and S. E. Greco20092017/12/14The discipline of landscape ecology recognizes the importance of measuring habitat suitability variables at spatial scales relevant to specific organisms. This paper uses a novel multi-scale hierarchical patch delineation method, PatchMorph, to m
Multi-scale responses of eastern Massasauga rattlesnakes (Sistrurus catenatus) to prescribed fire.American Midland NaturalistCross, M. D., K. V. Root, C. J. Mehne, J. McGowan-Stinski, and D. R. Pearsall20152017/12/14
Multi-temporal LiDAR and Landsat quantification of fire-induced changes to forest structureREMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENTMcCarley, T. Ryan; Kolden, Crystal A.; Vaillant, Nicole M.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M. S.; Wing, Brian M.; Kellogg, Bryce S.; Kreitler, Jason20172017/12/14
Multiple models guide strategies for agricultural nutrient reductionsFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentScavia, Donald; Kalcic, Margaret; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Read, Jennifer; Aloysius, Noel; Bertani, Isabella; Boles, Chelsie; Confesor, Remegio; DePinto, Joseph; Gildow, Marie; Martin, Jay; Redder, Todd; Robertson, Dale; Sowa, Scott; Wang, Yu-Chen; Yen, Haw20172017/12/14In response to degraded water quality, federal policy makers in the US and Canada called for a 40% reduction in phosphorus (P) loads to Lake Erie, and state and provincial policy makers in the Great Lakes region set a load-reduction target for the year 2025. Here, we configured five separate SWAT (US Department of Agriculture's Soil and Water Assessment Tool) models to assess load reduction strategies for the agriculturally dominated Maumee River watershed, the largest P source contributing to toxic algal blooms in Lake Erie. Although several potential pathways may achieve the target loads, our results show that any successful pathway will require large-scale implementation of multiple practices. For example, one successful pathway involved targeting 50% of row cropland that has the highest P loss in the watershed with a combination of three practices: subsurface application of P fertilizers, planting cereal rye as a winter cover crop, and installing buffer strips. Achieving these levels of implementation will require local, state/provincial, and federal agencies to collaborate with the private sector to set shared implementation goals and to demand innovation and honest assessments of water quality-related programs, policies, and partnerships.agriculture
Multiple Space-Use Strategies And Their Divergent Consequences In A Nonbreeding Migratory Bird (Parkesia Noveboracensis)AukSmith, Joseph A. M.; Reitsma, Leonard R.; Marra, Peter P.20112017/12/14
Multiple-use managementAlavalapati, J.R.R. & Montambault, J.R.20152017/12/14Detroit
Nassella pulchra and spatial patterns in soil resources in na- tive California grasslandGrasslandsParker, S.S. and J.P. Schimel20102017/12/14
National indicators for observing ecosystem service changeGLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE-HUMAN AND POLICY DIMENSIONSKarp, Daniel S.; Tallis, Heather; Sachse, Rene; Halpern, Ben; Thonicke, Kirsten; Cramer, Wolfgang; Mooney, Harold; Polasky, Stephen; Tietjen, Britta; Waha, Katharina; Walt, Ariane; Wolny, Stacie20152017/12/14EarthÍs life-support systems are in rapid decline, yet we have few metrics or indicators with which to track these changes. The worldÍs governments are calling for biodiversity and ecosystem-service monitoring to guide and evaluate international conservation policy as well as to incorporate natural capital into their national accounts. The Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) has been tasked with setting up this monitoring system. Here we explore the immediate feasibility of creating a global ecosystem-service monitoring platform under the GEO BON framework through combining data from national statistics, global vegetation models, and production function models. We found that nine ecosystem services could be annually reported at a national scale in the short term: carbon sequestration, water supply for hydropower, and non-fisheries marine products, crop, livestock, game meat, fisheries, mariculture, and timber production. Reported changes in service delivery over time reflected ecological shocks (e.g., droughts and disease outbreaks), highlighting the immediate utility of this monitoring system. Our work also identified three opportunities for creating a more comprehensive monitoring system. First, investing in input data for ecological process models (e.g., global land-use maps) would allow many more regulating services to be monitored. Currently, only 1 of 9 services that can be reported is a regulating service. Second, household surveys and censuses could help evaluate how nature affects people and provides non-monetary benefits. Finally, to forecast the sustainability of service delivery, research efforts could focus on calculating the total remaining biophysical stocks of provisioning services. Regardless, we demonstrated that a preliminary ecosystem-service monitoring platform is immediately feasible. With sufficient international investment, the platform could evolve further into a much-needed system to track changes in our planet's life-support systems.
National Indicators Show Biodiversity Progress ResponseScienceButchart, Stuart H. M.; Baillie, Jonathan E. M.; Chenery, Anna M.; Collen, Ben; Gregory, Richard D.; Revenga, Carmen; Walpole, Matt20102017/12/14
Native alternatives for non-native turfgrasses in central Florida: Germination and responses to cultural treatmentsRestoration EcologyJenkins, AM; Gordon, DR; Renda, MT20042017/12/14
Native Bees Associated With Isolated Aspen Stands in Pacific Northwest Bunchgrass PrairieNatural Areas JournalGonzalez, Natalie; DeBano, Sandra J.; Kimoto, Chiho; Taylor, Robert V.; Tubbesing, Carmen; Strohm, Christopher20132017/12/14
Native North American pine attenuates the competitive effects of a European invader on native grassesBiological InvasionsMetlen, Kerry L.; Callaway, Ragan M.20152017/12/14
Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practicePROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICAGuerry, Anne D.; Polasky, Stephen; Lubchenco, Jane; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Daily, Gretchen C.; Griffin, Robert; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Bateman, Ian J.; Duraiappah, Anantha; Elmqvist, Thomas; Feldman, Marcus W.; Folke, Carl; Hoekstra, Jon; Kareiva, Peter M.; Keeler, Bonnie L.; Li, Shuzhuo; McKenzie, Emily; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Reyers, Belinda; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Rockstrom, Johan; Tallis, Heather; Vira, Bhaskar20152017/12/14
Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practice.Proceedings of the National Academy of SciencesGuerry, A.D., S. Polasky, J. Lubchenco, R. Chaplin-Kramer, G.C. Daily, R. Griffin, M. Ruckelshaus, I.J. Bateman, A. Duraiappah, T. Elmqvist, M.W. Feldman, C. Folke, J. Hosekstra, P. M. Kareiva, B. L. Keeler, S. Li, E. McKenzie, Z. Ouyang, B. Reyers, T. H.20152017/12/14
Natural heritage programs: Public-private partnerships for biodiversity conservationWildlife Society BulletinGroves, CR; Klein, ML; Breden, TF19952017/12/14Since its formation in 1951, The Nature Conservancy's (TNC) primary mission has been to conserve biological diversity. Throughout much of its history, TNC has attempted to accomplish this mission through establishing nature reserves. As the Conservancy .
Natural history and evolution of the worldês desertsGlobal Deserts OutlookEzcurra, E., E. Mellink, E. Wehncke, C. Gonzˆlez, S. Morrison, A. Warren, D. Dent, and P. Driessen20062017/12/14
Natural Shorelines Promote the Stability of Fish Communities in an Urbanized Coastal SystemPLOS ONEScyphers, Steven B.; Gouhier, Tarik C.; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Beck, Michael W.; Mareska, John; Powers, Sean P.20152017/12/14
Natural spawning of three species of grouper in floating cages at a pilot broodstock facility at Komodo, Flores, IndonesiaSPC Live Reef Fish Information BulletinSudaryanto, Meyer T. & Mous P.J.20042017/12/14Broodstock of mouse grouper, Cromileptes altivelis, tiger grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, and estuary grouper, E. coioides, are commonly housed in shore-based tanks. Often, hormone injections are used to induce spawning. Broodstock of a pilot
Natural variability of vegetation, soils, and physiography in the bristlecone pine forests of the rocky mountains. Great basin naturalist (vol 57, pg 21, 1997)Great Basin NaturalistRanne, BM; Baker, WL; Andrews, T; Ryan, MG19972017/12/14
Nature Contact and Human Health: A Research AgendaEnvironmental Health PerspectivesHoward Frumkin, Gregory N. Bratman, Sara Jo Breslow, Bobby Cochran, Peter H. Kahn Jr., Joshua J. Lawler, Phillip S. Levin, Pooja S. Tandon, Usha Varanasi, Kathleen L. Wolf, and Spencer A. Wood20172017/12/14BACKGROUND: At a time of increasing disconnectedness from nature, scientific interest in the potential health benefits of nature contact has grown. Research in recent decades has yielded substantial evidence, but large gaps remain in our understanding. OBJECTIVES: We propose a research agenda on nature contact and health, identifying principal domains of research and key questions that, if answered, would provide the basis for evidence-based public health interventions. DISCUSSION: We identify research questions in seven domains: a) mechanistic biomedical studies; b) exposure science; c) epidemiology of health benefits; d) diversity and equity considerations; e) technological nature; f) economic and policy studies; and g) implementation science. CONCLUSIONS: Nature contact may offer a range of human health benefits. Although much evidence is already available, much remains unknown. A robust research effort, guided by a focus on key unanswered questions, has the potential to yield high-impact, consequential public health insights.
Nature reserves: Do they capture the full range of America's biological diversity?Ecological ApplicationsScott, JM; Davis, FW; McGhie, RG; Wright, RG; Groves, C; Estes, J20012017/12/14Less than 6% of the coterminous United States is in nature reserves. Assessment of the occurrence of nature reserves across ranges of elevation and soil productivity classes indicates that nature reserves are most frequently found at higher elevations and
Nature-based solutions: lessons from around the worldProceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Maritime EngineeringNigel Pontee, Siddharth Narayan, Michael W. Beck, Adam H. Hosking20162017/12/14This paper considers an emerging group of coastal management approaches that offer the potential to reduce coastal flood and erosion risks while also providing nature conservation, aesthetic and amenity benefits. These solutions mimic the characteristics of natural features, but are enhanced or created by man to provide specific services such as wave energy dissipation and erosion reduction. Such approaches can include beaches, dunes, saltmarshes, mangroves, sea grasses, coral and oyster reefs. The paper describes a number of innovative projects and the lessons learned in their development and implementation. These lessons include the planning, design and construction of projects, their development following implementation, the engagement of local communities and the cost-effectiveness of solutions.
Nature: poorest may see it as their economic rivalNatureMarvier, Michelle; Grant, Joy; Kareiva, Peter20062017/12/14The moral imperative of saving species and protecting nature, as put forward by Douglas J. McCauley (" Selling out on nature" Nature 443, 27Š—–28; 2006), must be weighed against the moral imperative of saving people. Typically, it is the poorest members o
Nature's bounties: reliance on pollinators for healthLANCETDaily, Gretchen C.; Karp, Daniel S.20152017/12/14
Navigating a Murky Adaptive Comanagement Governance Network: Agua Fria Watershed, Arizona, USAEcology and SocietyChilds, Cameron; York, Abigail M.; White, Dave; Schoon, Michael L.; Bodner, Gitanjali S.20132017/12/14
Near-term priorities for the science, policy and practice of Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP)Marine PolicyHalpern, Benjamin S.; Diamond, Jordan; Gaines, Steve; Gelcich, Stefan; Gleason, Mary; Jennings, Simon; Lester, Sarah; Mace, Amber; McCook, Laurence; McLeod, Karen; Napoli, Nicholas; Rawson, Kit; Rice, Jake; Rosenberg, Andrew; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Saier, Bet20122017/12/14
Negative effects of changing temperature on amphibian immunity under field conditionsFunctional EcologyRaffel, T. R.; Rohr, J. R.; Kiesecker, J. M.; Hudson, P. J.20062017/12/14Summary 1. Recent evidence of the important role of emerging diseases in amphibian population declines makes it increasingly important to understand how environmental changes affect amphibian immune systems. 2. Temperature-dependent immunity may be ...
Negative effects of gardening damselfish Stegastes planifrons on coral health depend on predator abundanceMARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIESVermeij, M. J. A.; Debey, H.; Grimsditch, G.; Brown, J.; Obura, D.; DeLeon, R.; Sandin, S. A.20152017/12/14
Nekton community  response to a large-scale Mississippi  River  discharge:  Examining  spatial  and  temporal  response to  river managementEstuarine, Coastal and Shelf SciencePiazza, B.P. and M.K. La Peyre20102017/12/14
Neotropical migratory breeding bird communities in riparian forests of different widths along the Altamaha River, GeorgiaWilson BulletinHodges, MF; Krementz, DG19962017/12/14We surveyed riparian forest corridors of different widths along the lower Altamaha River in Georgia in 1993 and 1994 to investigate the relationship between forest corridor width and Neotropical breeding bird community diversity and abundance. Species ric
Neotropical montane oak forests: overview and outlookEcology and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Oak ForestsKappelle, M20062017/12/14The preceding chapters of this book discuss scientific research results on natural and managed oak forests growing in the highlands of the American Tropics. Chapter authors highlight evolutionary, ecological and socioeconomic aspects of specific oak fores
Nesting of four poorly-known bird species on the Caribbean slope of Costa RicaWilson BulletinYoung, BE; Zook, JR19992017/12/14We describe the nests of four species of birds from the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica. A Great Potoo (Nyctibius grandis, nest previously unknown from Mesoamerica) nest was nothing more than a crevice in a high branch of a large tree, similar to those repo
Nesting of the Rufous-tailed Hawk Buteo ventralis on a rocky wall in southern ChileRevista Brasileira De OrnitologiaNorambuena, Heraldo V.; Zamorano, Solange; Munoz-Pedreros, Andres20132017/12/14
Nesting Success Of Grassland Birds In Small Patches In An Agricultural LandscapeAukWalk, Jeffery W.; Kershner, Eric L.; Benson, Thomas J.; Warner, Richard E.20102017/12/14agriculture
Neurobiological Lessons Learned from Comparative Studies: Evolutionary Forces Shaping Brain and Behavior PrefaceBrain Behavior and EvolutionHofmann, Hans A.; Shumway, Caroly A.20082017/12/14
New additions to the butterfly fauna of BelizeJournal of the Lepidopterists' SocietyShuey, J. A., Giles, V., Meerman, J. C., Labus, P., Schutte, C. W., & Kovarik, P.20052017/12/14
New Conservation: Setting the Record Straight and Finding Common GroundConservation BiologyKareiva, Peter20142017/12/14
New distribution notes on the mosses of MassachusettsRhodoraAnderson, JE; Cooper-Ellis, S; Tan, BC19972017/12/14Eighteen moss species new to Massachusetts and 194 additional county records are reported. The new state records are briefly discussed. All county records are listed in an appendix. The moss flora of Massachusetts now stands at 356 species and 16 varietie
New metrics for managing and sustaining the ocean's bountyMarine PolicyTallis, Heather; Lester, Sarah E.; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Plummer, Mark; McLeod, Karen; Guerry, Anne; Andelman, Sandy; Caldwell, Margaret R.; Conte, Marc; Copps, Stephen; Fox, David; Fujita, Rod; Gaines, Steven D.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Gold, Barry; Kareiva, Peter20122017/12/14
New opportunities for conservation of a threatened biogenic habitat: a worldwide assessment of knowledge on bivalve reef representation in marine and coastal Ramsar Sites.Marine & Freshwater ResearchKasoar, T., P.S.E.z. Ermgassen, A. Carranza, B. Hancock, M. Spalding20152017/12/14The present study draws attention to the current state of knowledge of bivalve reef, an important but historically overlooked habitat type. Recent interest has led to the explicit recognition of this habitat type under the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (the Ramsar Convention), an international treaty that has widespread governmental and scientific involvement. To assess the state of knowledge, the Information Sheet on Ramsar Wetlands (RIS) for marine and coastal Sites was searched for evidence that bivalve-reef habitat is present in the site. We then examined the quality of this information using alternative data sources. These were public databases of geolocated species records at three spatial scales, local and regional experts, and a general web search. It was found that of the 893 marine and coastal Ramsar Sites considered, the RIS for 16 Sites provided strong evidence of bivalve-reef habitat and 99 had confirmed presence of reef-forming bivalves, a strikingly high number, given that it is not yet compulsory to include bivalve reef in RISs. However, the alternative information sources identified bivalve reefs or reef-forming bivalves in 142 further Sites. No one information source provided comprehensive information, highlighting the overall poor state of knowledge of this habitat type.coastal habitats, marine habitats, mussel beds, oyster reefs, shellfish
New partnerships for managing large desert landscapes: experiences from the Martu Living Deserts ProjectRANGELAND JOURNALJupp, Tony; Fitzsimons, James; Carr, Ben; See, Peter20152017/12/14Native fauna in Australia's arid zone has declined significantly since European settlement; however, Martu country in the Western Desert of Western Australia retains a diversity of iconic and threatened species that were once more widespread. An innovative partnership between The Nature Conservancy, BHP Billiton and the Martu people (represented by Kanyirninpa Jukurrpa _ KJ) is achieving positive social, cultural, economic and environmental outcomes, which builds on funding from the Australian Government for land management on Martu country. The partners support Martu people in fulfilling their desire to conserve the cultural and natural values of their 13.7 million ha native title determination area. Through KJ as the local delivery partner, Martu people are returning to work on country to clean and protect waterholes; improve fire management; control feral herbivores and predators; manage cultural heritage; and actively manage priority threatened species (such as the Greater Bilby and the Black-flanked Rock-wallaby). The project provides significant employment opportunities for Martu men and women in ranger teams working throughout their country. It is also generating measurable social, cultural and economic benefits for Martu people and environmental benefits for part of the most intact arid ecosystem anywhere on Earth.
New Records Of Onthophagus Cavernicollis Howden And Cartwright (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) From Ozark Caves, With A Review Of Scarabaeoids Reported From North American CavesColeopterists BulletinSlay, Michael E.; Skelley, Paul E.; Taylor, Steven J.20122017/12/14
New species of Clelia (Colubridae) from the inter-Andean dry valleys of BoliviaJournal Of HerpetologyReichle, S; Embert, D20052017/12/14A new species of Clelia Fitzinger, 1826, is described on the basis of 37 specimens. It differs from all other Clelia by having two loreals and a higher number (21 vs. 19) of dorsal scale rows in the neck region. The species is probably endemic to
New species of Metynnis Cope, 1878 (Characiformes: Characidae) from the Rio Paraguay Basin, Mato Grosso State, BrazilNeotropical IchthyologyOta, R. P., C. S. Pavanelli, and P. Petry20092017/12/14
New State Record And Western Range Extension For Pseudosinella Dubia Christiansen (Collembola: Entomobryidae) From Oklahoma, UsaEntomological NewsSlay, Michael E.; Graening, G. O.; Fenolio, Dante B.20092017/12/14
New taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the Ozark EcoregionOpuscula PhilolichenumRICHARD C. HARRIS & DOUGLAS LADD20072017/12/14
New tools for marine conservation and management to reduce coastal losses to natural and human communitiesBiologia marina mediterraneaMW Beck20082017/12/14
New tools for marine conservation: the leasing and ownership of submerged landsConservation BiologyBeck, MW; Marsh, TD; Reisewitz, SE; Bortman, ML20042017/12/14It has been assumed that strategies for estuarine and marine conservation must be substantially different than those for terrestrial conservation because the seas are all publicly owned. This is an unfortunate misconception. We explored the leas
Next-generation restoration for sage-grouse: a framework for visualizing local conifer cuts within a landscape contextECOSPHEREReinhardt, Jason R.; Naugle, David E.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Allred, Brady; Evans, Jeffrey; Falkowski, Michael20172017/12/14
Niche Divergence Among Sex and Age Classes in Black-and-White Snub-nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti)International Journal Of PrimatologyWan, Yi; Quan, Rui-Chang; Ren, Guo-Peng; Wang, Lin; Long, Yong-Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Hu; Zhu, Jian-Guo20132017/12/14
Niche shifts and energetic condition of songbirds in response to phenology of food-resource availability in a high-elevation sagebrush ecosystemAUKCutting, Kyle A.; Anderson, Michelle L.; Beever, Erik A.; Schroff, Sean R.; Klaphake, Eric; Korb, Nathan; McWilliams, Scott20162017/12/14
Nitrate Reduction in a Hydrologically Restored Bottomland Hardwood Forest in the Mississippi River Watershed, Northern LouisianaSoil Science Society of America Journal (SSSAJ)Nia Hursta, John R. White, and Joseph Baustian20162017/12/14Nitrogen loading from the Mississippi River leads to formation of water column hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico every summer. Bottomland hardwood (BLH) forests located within the Mississippi River watershed could play a crucial role in reducing NO3_ loading to the Gulf of Mexico. However, much riverÐfloodplain connectivity has been muted due to building of levees and land conversion for agriculture. Restoring floodplainÐriver connectivity can potentially reduce river NO3_. Mollicy Farms, a 6475-ha BLH site in northern Louisiana, is the largest floodplain reconnection and BLH reforestation project in the Mississippi River Basin. Soil properties, including microbial measures (microbial biomass N, potentially mineralizable N, and _-glucosidase activity) and NO3_ reduction rates were compared with a control site. Nitrate reduction rates in the restored site were 28% lower than in the control site (11.8 ± 3.4 vs. 16.4 ± 8.1 mg N m_2 d_1), with the potential removal of _48.1 Mg of NO3ÐN from the Ouachita River annually. Other soil microbial measures, however, were >50% lower in the restored site compared with the control site, demonstrating that NO3_ reduction has responded more quickly to hydrologic reconnection. Therefore, NO3_ reduction in restored floodplain wetlands may have a relatively more rapid trajectory of recovery, allowing hydrologic reconnection to be an effective tool for enhancing NO3_ reduction in the Lower Mississippi alluvial valley and reducing N flux to the coastal ocean.
Nitrate reduction in a reconstructed floodplain oxbow fed by tile drainageECOLOGICAL ENGINEERINGSchilling, Keith E.; Kult, Keegan; Wilke, Karen; Streeter, Matthew; Vogelgesang, Jason20172017/12/14
Nitrate-nitrogen patterns in engineered catchments in the upper Mississippi River basinEcological EngineeringSchilling, Keith E.; Jones, Christopher S.; Seeman, Anthony; Bader, Eileen; Filipiak, Jennifer20122017/12/14
Nitrogen and carbon storage in alpine plantsIntegrative And Comparative BiologyMonson, RK; Rosenstiel, TN; Forbis, TA; Lipson, DA; Jaeger, CH20062017/12/14Alpine plants offer unique opportunities to study the processes and economics of nutrient storage. The short alpine growing season forces rapid completion of plant growth cycles, which in turn causes competition between vegetative and reproductiv
Nitrogen and Climate ChangeScienceHungate, B.A., Duke, J.S., Shaw, R.S., Luo Y., Field, C.20032017/12/14Summary Models project that land ecosystems may be able take up a considerable proportion of the carbon dioxide released by human activities, thereby counteracting the anthropogenic emissions. In their Perspective, Hungate et al. argue that these carbon
Nitrogen retention by Sphagnum mosses: responses to atmospheric nitrogen deposition and droughtCanadian Journal of Botany-Revue Canadienne De BotaniqueAldous, AR20022017/12/14Sphagnum mosses are assumed to be effective at acquiring low amounts of nitrogen (N) in precipitation to support annual growth. However, N concentrations in precipitation have increased from anthropogenic sources over the last 150 years. I hypothesized th
Nitrogen translocation in Sphagnum mosses: effects of atmospheric nitrogen depositionNew PhytologistAldous, AR20022017/12/14Nitrogen translocation in Sphagnum mosses was compared in bogs with contrasting atmospheric N deposition (AdirondackŠ—–relatively high N deposition; MaineŠ—–relatively low) and by following the movement of a 15 NH 4 15 NO 3 tracer applied to plots of Spha
No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area NetworksPLOS ONESchill, Steven R.; Raber, George T.; Roberts, Jason J.; Treml, Eric A.; Brenner, Jorge; Halpin, Patrick N.20152017/12/14
Non-natives: 141 scientists objectNatureSimberloff, Daniel; Alexander, Jake; Allendorf, Fred; Aronson, James; Antunes, Pedro M.; Bacher, Sven; Bardgett, Richard; Bertolino, Sandro; Bishop, Melanie; Blackburn, Tim M.; Blakeslee, April; Blumenthal, Dana; Bortolus, Alejandro; Buckley, Ralf; Buckle20112017/12/14
Nongovernmental organizationsEndangered Species Act at ThirtyKareiva, P., T. Tear, S. Solie, M. Brown, L. Sotomayor, and C. Yuan-Farrell20062017/12/14
Nonmaternal Infant Handling in Wild White-Headed Langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus)International Journal of PrimatologyTong Jin, Dezhi Wang, Wenshi Pan, Meng Yao20152017/12/14Infants of many primate species have extensive interactions with group members other than their mothers, which can affect an infantÍs fitness. Patterns of nonmaternal infant handling vary according to the motherÍs response as well as the number, sex, age, and dominance ranks of social partners. The primary goal of this study was to identify the basic pattern and explore the function of nonmaternal infant handling behavior in wild white-headed langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) at the Nongguan Hills in Guangxi, Southwest China. We report nonmaternal interactions in the first 3 mo after birth for 15 infants born during six birth seasons in a 67-mo field study. The nonmaternal infant handling we observed was generally in the form of caregiving, and mothers permitted most handling attempts. Infants were handled by nonmothers from the first day after birth. Infants spent 20_30% of the daytime associated with nonmothers during the first month of life, and time in contact with nonmothers decreased with infant age. Rates of nonmaternal infant handling varied significantly with the sex and age of handlers. Juvenile and subadult females handled infants significantly more than expected from their proportional representations in the group, whereas adult females did so less frequently than expected. Older male infants and juvenile males rarely handled infants, and adult males never did so. Infant handling behavior showed no correlation with the dominance rank of handlers relative to the mothers. Our data, although limited in some analyses, are in line with the predictions of the learning-to-mother hypothesis, but do not support the female competition or alliance formation hypotheses.Allomaternal care Allomothering Infant care Leaf monkeys Learning-to-mother Primates
Nonnative forest insects and pathogens in the United States: Impacts and policy optionsECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONSLovett, Gary M.; Weiss, Marissa; Liebhold, Andrew M.; Holmes, Thomas P.; Leung, Brian; Lambert, Kathy Fallon; Orwig, David A.; Campbell, Faith T.; Rosenthal, Jonathan; McCullough, Deborah G.; Wildova, Radka; Ayres, Matthew P.; Canham, Charles D.; Foster, David R.; LaDeau, Shannon L.; Weldy, Troy20162017/12/14
Nonnative Plants of CaliforniaBossard, Carla C.; Randall, John M.20072017/12/14
Notes from the field: Lessons learned from using ecosystem service approaches to inform real-world decisionsECOLOGICAL ECONOMICSRuckelshaus, Mary; McKenzie, Emily; Tallis, Heather; Guerry, Anne; Daily, Gretchen; Kareiva, Peter; Polasky, Stephen; Ricketts, Taylor; Bhagabati, Nirmal; Wood, Spencer A.; Bernhardt, Joanna20152017/12/14While there have been rapid advances in assessments of biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES), a critical remaining challenge is how to move from scientific knowledge to real-world decision making. We offer 6 lessons from our experiences applying new approaches and tools for quantifying BES in 20 pilot demonstrations: (1) Applying a BES approach is most effective in leading to policy change as part of an iterative science-policy process; (2) simple ecological production function models have been useful in a diverse set of decision contexts, across a broad range of biophysical, social, and governance systems. Key limitations of simple models arise at very small scales, and in predicting specific future BES values; (3) training local experts in the approaches and tools is important for building local capacity, ownership, trust, and long-term success; (4) decision makers and stakeholders prefer to use a variety of BES value metrics, not only monetary values; (5) an important science gap exists in linking changes in BES to changes in livelihoods, health, cultural values, and other metrics of human wellbeing; and (6) communicating uncertainty in useful and transparent ways remains challenging.
Notes on the biology of Pygmy Palm Swift Micropanyptila furcataCotingaCollins, C. T., Kelsey, R., & Ryan, T. P.20102017/12/14
Notes on the distribution and breeding of the Manus Friarbird Philemon albitorques and other birds of small islands of the Admiralties Group, Papua New GuineaAustralian Field OrnithologyFitzsimons, J.A20142017/12/14
Notes on the roost sites of the Sulawesi Masked Owl Tyto rosenbergiiForktailFitzsimons, James A.20102017/12/14
Novel fine-scale aerial mapping approach quantifies grassland weed cover dynamics and response to managementPLOS ONEMalmstrom, Carolyn M.; Butterfield, H. Scott; Planck, Laura; Long, Christopher W.; Eviner, Valerie T.20172017/12/14Invasive weeds threaten the biodiversity and forage productivity of grasslands worldwide. However, management of these weeds is constrained by the practical difficulty of detecting small-scale infestations across large landscapes and by limits in understanding of landscape-scale invasion dynamics, including mechanisms that enable patches to expand, contract, or remain stable. While high-end hyperspectral remote sensing systems can effectively map vegetation cover, these systems are currently too costly and limited in availability for most land managers. We demonstrate application of a more accessible and cost-effective remote sensing approach, based on simple aerial imagery, for quantifying weed cover dynamics over time. In California annual grasslands, the target communities of interest include invasive weedy grasses (Aegilops triuncialis and Elymus caput-medusae) and desirable forage grass species (primarily Avena spp. and Bromus spp.). Detecting invasion of annual grasses into an annual-dominated community is particularly challenging, but we were able to consistently characterize these two communities based on their phenological differences in peak growth and senescence using maximum likelihood supervised classification of imagery acquired twice per year (in mid- and end-of season). This approach permitted us to map weed-dominated cover at a 1-m scale (correctly detecting 93% of weed patches across the landscape) and to evaluate weed cover change over time. We found that weed cover was more pervasive and persistent in management units that had no significant grazing for several years than in those that were grazed, whereas forage cover was more abundant and stable in the grazed units. This application demonstrates the power of this method for assessing fine-scale vegetation transitions across heterogeneous landscapes. It thus provides means for small-scale early detection of invasive species and for testing fundamental questions about landscape dynamics.weeds; grasses; invasive species; grasslands; grazing; imaging techniques; seasons; remote sensing
Nutrient and phytoplankton responses to a flood event in a series of interconnected coastal lakes: Myall Lakes AustraliaHydrobiologiaWilson, Joanne20082017/12/14Myall Lakes is a large brackish coastal lake on the east coast of Australia that was considered pristine until the occurrence of blue-green algal blooms in 1999. The temporal and spatial extent of chemical and biological changes to the water colu
Nutrient and Rainfall Additions Shift Phylogenetically Estimated Traits of Soil Microbial CommunitiesFrontiers in MicrobiologyGravuer, Kelly; Eskelinen, Anu20172017/12/14Microbial traits related to ecological responses and functions could provide a common currency facilitating synthesis and prediction; however, such traits are difficult to measure directly for all taxa in environmental samples. Past efforts to estimate trait values based on phylogenetic relationships have not always distinguished between traits with high and low phylogenetic conservatism, limiting reliability, especially in poorly known environments, such as soil. Using updated reference trees and phylogenetic relationships, we estimated two phylogenetically conserved traits hypothesized to be ecologically important from DNA sequences of the 16S rRNA gene from soil bacterial and archaeal communities. We sampled these communities from an environmental change experiment in California grassland applying factorial addition of late-season precipitation and soil nutrients to multiple soil types for 3 years prior to sampling. Estimated traits were rRNA gene copy number, which contributes to how rapidly a microbe can respond to an increase in resources and may be related to its maximum growth rate, and genome size, which suggests the breadth of environmental and substrate conditions in which a microbe can thrive. Nutrient addition increased community-weighted mean estimated rRNA gene copy number and marginally increased estimated genome size, whereas precipitation addition decreased these community means for both estimated traits. The effects of both treatments on both traits were associated with soil properties, such as ammonium, available phosphorus, and pH. Estimated trait responses within several phyla were opposite to the community mean response, indicating that microbial responses, although largely consistent among soil types, were not uniform across the tree of life. Our results show that phylogenetic estimation of microbial traits can provide insight into how microbial ecological strategies interact with environmental changes. The method could easily be applied to any of the thousands of existing 16S rRNA sequence data sets and offers potential to improve our understanding of how microbial communities mediate ecosystem function responses to global changes.traits; rRNA gene copy number; genome size; California; grassland; serpentine; fertilization; climate change; agriculture
Nutrient Release from a Recently Flooded Delta Wetland: Comparison of Field Measurements to Laboratory ResultsWetlandsWong, Siana W.; Barry, Matthew J.; Aldous, Allison R.; Rudd, Nathan T.; Hendrixson, Heather A.; Doehring, Carolyn M.20112017/12/14
Object-based classification of semi-arid wetlandsJournal Of Applied Remote SensingHalabisky, Meghan; Moskal, L. Monika; Hall, Sonia A.20112017/12/14
Obligate Brood Parasites Show More Functionally Effective Innate Immune Responses: An Eco-immunological HypothesisEvolutionary BiologyHahn, D. Caldwell; Summers, Scott G.; Genovese, Kenneth J.; He, Haiqi; Kogut, Michael H.20132017/12/14
Observations Of Wintering Gyrfalcons (Falco-Rusticolus) Hunting Sage Grouse (Centrocercus-Urophasianus) In Wyoming And Montana UsaJournal of Raptor ResearchGarber, Cs; Mutch, Bd; Platt, S19932017/12/14
Obstacles to Bottom-Up Implementation of Marine Ecosystem ManagementConservation BiologyEvans, Kirsten E.; Klinger, Terrie20082017/12/14
Occupancy and habitat use of the endangered Akikiki and Akekee on Kauai Island, HawaiiCONDORBehnke, Lucas A. H.; Pejchar, Liba; Crampton, Lisa H.20162017/12/14
Occupation, changing migration dynamics, and deforestation in the Brazilian AmazonEconomics Of Deforestation In The Amazon: Dispelling The MythsCampari, Joao S.20052017/12/14
Occurrence and distribution of established and new introduced bird species in north Sulawesi, IndonesiaForktailFitzsimons, James A.; Thomas, Janelle L.; Argeloo, Marc20112017/12/14
Occurrence of the River Shiner, Notropis blennius, in Lake Meredith, TexasSouthwestern NaturalistPatrikeev, M; Bonner, TH; Trujillo, GM20052017/12/14The river shiner, Notropis blennius, was collected from Lake Meredith, Texas and outside of its reported native range. This specimen likely represents a bait-bucket release. Within its native range, the river shiner readily acclimates to lentic c
Ocean acidificationãManagementMcLeod, E., and K.R.N. Anthony20122017/12/14
Ocean conservation in a high CO2 world: the need to evaluate new approachesNature Climate ChangeRau, G.H., E. Mcleod, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg20122017/12/14
Ocean urea fertilization for carbon credits poses high ecological risksMarine Pollution BulletinGlibert, Patricia M.; Azanza, Rhodora; Burford, Michele; Furuya, Ken; Abal, Eva; Al-Azri, Adnan; Al-Yamani, Faiza; Andersen, Per; Anderson, Donald M.; Beardall, John; Berg, G. Mine; Brand, Larry; Bronk, Deborah; Brookes, Justin; Burkholder, Joann M.; Cemb20082017/12/14The proposed plan for enrichment of the Sulu Sea, Philippines, a region of rich marine biodiversity, with thousands of tonnes of urea in order to stimulate algal blooms and sequester carbon is flawed for multiple reasons. Urea is preferentially used as a
Of Grouse and Golden Eggs: Can Ecosystems Be Managed Within a Species-Based Regulatory Framework?Rangeland Ecology & ManagementBoyd, Chad S.; Johnson, Dustin D.; Kerby, Jay D.; Svejcar, Tony J.; Davies, Kirk W.20142017/12/14
Offsets: factor failure into protected areasNATUREKiesecker, Joseph M.; McKenney, Bruce; Kareiva, Peter20152017/12/14
Ominous trends in nature recreationProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesKareiva, P20082017/12/14Conservation science is replete with analyses of threats to biodiversity. The IUCN even has a formal taxonomy of threats to imperiled species that can be used to tally up global inventories of threats across taxa or geographies (1). Habitat loss and habit
On The Relative Importance Of Floral Color, Shape, And Nectar Rewards In Attracting Pollinators To MimulusGreat Basin NaturalistSutherland, Sd; Vickery, Rk19932017/12/14Pollinator preferences were observed for the six species of section Erythranthe of the genus Mimulus using greenhouse-grown plants placed in a meadow in the Red Butte Canyon Natural Area, Salt Lake County, Utah. The principal pollinators were hummingbirds
One Hundred Questions of Importance to the Conservation of Global Biological DiversityConservation BiologySutherland, W. J.; Adams, W. M.; Aronson, R. B.; Aveling, R.; Blackburn, T. M.; Broad, S.; Ceballos, G.; Cote, I. M.; Cowling, R. M.; Da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Dinerstein, E.; Ferraro, P. J.; Fleishman, E.; Gascon, C.; Hunter, M., Jr.; Hutton, J.; Kareiva, P.20092017/12/14
One method does not fit all: A reply to Segan et al.Biological ConservationWilhere, George F.; Goering, Mark20102017/12/14
One size does not fit all: Natural infrastructure investments within the Latin American Water Funds PartnershipECOSYSTEM SERVICESBremer, Leah L.; Auerbach, Dan A.; Goldstein, Joshua H.; Vogl, Adrian L.; Shemie, Daniel; Kroeger, Timm; Nelson, Joanna L.; Benitez, Silvia P.; Calvache, Alejandro; Guimaraes, Joao; Herron, Colin; Higgins, Jonathan; Klemz, Claudio; Leon, Jorge; Sebastian Lozano, Juan; Moreno, Pedro H.; Nunez, Francisco; Veiga, Fernando; Tiepolo, Gilberto20162017/12/14
One step ahead of the plow: Using cropland conversion risk to guide Sprague's Pipit conservation in the northern Great PlainsBIOLOGICAL CONSERVATIONLipsey, Marisa K.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Naugle, David E.; Fields, Sean; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Davis, Stephen K.; Koper, Nicola20152017/12/14
One step ahead of the plow: Using cropland conversion risk to guide Sprague's pipit conservation in the northern Great Plains (vol 191, pg 739, 2015)BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATIONLipsey, Marisa K.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Naugle, David E.; Fields, Sean; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Davis, Stephen K.; Koper, Nicola20162017/12/14
OPAL: An open-source software tool for integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services into impact assessment and mitigation decisionsENVIRONMENTAL MODELLING & SOFTWAREMandle, Lisa; Douglass, James; Lozano, Juan Sebastian; Sharp, Richard P.; Vogl, Adrian L.; Denu, Douglas; Walschburger, Thomas; Tanis, Heather20162017/12/14Governments and financial institutions increasingly require that environmental impact assessment and mitigation account for consequences to both biodiversity and ecosystem services. Here we present a new software tool, OPAL (Offset Portfolio Analyzer and Locator), which maps and quantifies the impacts of development on habitat and ecosystem services, and facilitates the selection of mitigation activities to offset losses. We demonstrate its application with an oil and gas extraction facility in Colombia. OPAL is the first tool to provide direct consideration of the distribution of ecosystem service benefits among people in a mitigation context. Previous biodiversity-focused efforts led to redistribution or loss of ecosystem services with environmental justice implications. Joint consideration of biodiversity and ecosystem services enables targeting of offsets to benefit both nature and society. OPAL reduces the time and technical expertise required for these analyses and has the flexibility to be used across a range of geographic and policy contexts.Environmental impact assessment; Biodiversity offsets; Compensatory mitigation; Decision support tool; Land use planning; Environmental justice
Open Space Loss and Land Inequality in United States' Cities, 1990-2000PLoS ONEMcDonald, Robert I.; Forman, Richard T. T.; Kareiva, Peter20102017/12/14
Operational Forest Stream Crossings Effects on Water Quality in the Virginia PiedmontSouthern Journal Of Applied ForestryAust, Wallace M.; Carroll, Mathew B.; Bolding, M. Chad; Dolloff, C. Andrew20112017/12/14
Operationalizing resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental changeGlobal Change BiologyAnthony, Kenneth R. N.; Marshall, Paul A.; Abdulla, Ameer; Beeden, Roger; Bergh, Chris; Black, Ryan; Eakin, C. Mark; Game, Edward T.; Gooch, Margaret; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Green, Alison; Heron, Scott F.; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Knowland, Cheryl; Mangubhai20152017/12/14Cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to coral reef managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect coral reef vulnerability is critical for successful reef conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce coral reef vulnerability (risk of net decline) up to a point. Specifically, we propose an operational framework for identifying effective management levers to enhance resilience and support management decisions that reduce reef vulnerability. Building on a system understanding of biological and ecological processes that drive resilience of coral reefs in different environmental and socio-economic settings, we present an Adaptive Resilience-Based management (ARBM) framework and suggest a set of guidelines for how and where resilience can be enhanced via management interventions. We argue that press-type stressors (pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, ocean warming and acidification) are key threats to coral reef resilience by affecting processes underpinning resistance and recovery, while pulse-type (acute) stressors (e.g. storms, bleaching events, crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks) increase the demand for resilience. We apply the framework to a set of example problems for Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reefs. A combined strategy of active risk reduction and resilience support is needed, informed by key management objectives, knowledge of reef ecosystem processes and consideration of environmental and social drivers. As climate change and ocean acidification erode the resilience and increase the vulnerability of coral reefs globally, successful adaptive management of coral reefs will become increasingly difficult. Given limited resources, on-the-ground solutions are likely to focus increasingly on actions that support resilience at finer spatial scales, and that are tightly linked to ecosystem goods and services.
Operationalizing the social-ecological systems framework to assess sustainabilityPROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICALeslie, Heather M.; Basurto, Xavier; Nenadovic, Mateja; Sievanen, Leila; Cavanaugh, Kyle C.; Jose Cota-Nieto, Juan; Erisman, Brad E.; Finkbeiner, Elena; Hinojosa-Arango, Gustavo; Moreno-Baez, Marcia; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Reddy, Sheila M. W.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Alexandra; Siegel, Katherine; Juan Ulibarria-Valenzuela, Jose; Hudson Weaver, Amy; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio20152017/12/14Meeting human needs while sustaining ecosystems and the benefits they provide is a global challenge. Coastal marine systems present a particularly important case, given that >50% of the world's population lives within 100 km of the coast and fisheries are the primary source of protein for >1 billion people worldwide. Our integrative analysis here yields an understanding of the sustainability of coupled social-ecological systems that is quite distinct from that provided by either the biophysical or the social sciences alone and that illustrates the feasibility and value of operationalizing the social-ecological systems framework for comparative analyses of coupled systems, particularly in data-poor and developing nation settings.
Opheodrys aestivus (rough green snake). PredationHerpetological ReviewNelson, S., R. M. Kostecke, and D. A. Cimprich20062017/12/14
Opportunities and Challenges to Implementing Bird Conservation on Private LandsWildlife Society BulletinCiuzio, Elizabeth; Hohman, William L.; Martin, Brian; Smith, Mark D.; Stephens, Scott; Strong, Allan M.; VerCauteren, Tammy20132017/12/14
Opportunities and constraints for implementing integrated land-sea management on islandsENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATIONJupiter, Stacy D.; Wenger, Amelia; Klein, Carissa J.; Albert, Simon; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Nelson, Joanna; Teneva, Lida; Tulloch, Vivitskaia J.; White, Alan T.; Watson, James E. M.20172017/12/14
Opportunities and constraints for intensive agriculture in the Hawaiian archipelago prior to European contactJournal of Archaeological ScienceLadefoged, Thegn N. ; Kirch, Patrick V.; Gon III, Samuel M.; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Hartshorn, Anthony S.; Vitousek, Peter M.20092017/12/14Human_land interaction; Agriculture; Pondfields; Rain-fed agriculture; Hawai'i; GIS
Opposing effects of different soil organic matter fractions on crop yieldsECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONSWood, Stephen A.; Sokol, Noah; Bell, Colin W.; Bradford, Mark A.; Naeem, Shahid; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Palm, Cheryl A.20162017/12/14
Opposing environmental gradients govern vegetation zonation in an intermountain playaWetlandsSanderson, John S.; Kotliar, Natasha B.; Steingraeber, David A.20082017/12/14Vegetation zonation was investigated at an intermountain playa wetland (Mishak Lakes) in the San Luis Valley (SLV) of southern Colorado. Plant composition and abiotic conditions were quantified in six vegetation zones. Reciprocal transplants were performed to test the importance of abiotic factors in governing zonation. Abiotic conditions differed among several vegetation zones. Prolonged inundation led to anaerobic soils in the Eleocharis palustris and the submerged aquatics zones, on the low end of the siteÍs 1.25 m elevation gradient. On the high end of the gradient, soil salinity and sodicity (a measure of exchangeable sodium) were high in the Distichlis spicata zone (electrical conductivity, EC = 5.3 dS/m, sodium absorption ratio, SAR = 44.0) and extreme in the Sarcobatus vermiculatus zone (EC = 21 dS/m, SAR = 274). Transplanted species produced maximum biomass in the zone where they originated, not in any other higher or lower vegetation zone. The greatest overall transplant effect occurred for E. palustris, which experienced a _77% decline in productivity when transplanted to other zones. This study provides evidence that physical factors are a major determinant of vegetation zone composition and distribution across the entire elevation gradient at Mishak Lakes. Patterns at Mishak Lakes arise from counter-directional stress gradients: a gradient from anaerobic to well-oxygenated from basin bottom to upland and a gradient from extremely high salinity to low salinity in the opposing direction. Because abiotic conditions dominate vegetation zonation, restoration of the altered hydrologic regime of this wetland to a natural hydrologic regime may be sufficient to re-establish many of the natural biodiversity functions provided by these wetlands.
Optimal allocation of Red List assessments to guide conservation of biodiversity in a rapidly changing worldGLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGYHermoso, Virgilio; Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie Renee; Linke, Simon; Dudgeon, David; Petry, Paulo; Mcintyre, Peter20172017/12/14
Optimal dynamic allocation of conservation funding among priority regionsBulletin of Mathematical BiologyBode, Michael; Wilson, Kerrie; McBride, Marissa; Possingham, Hugh P.20082017/12/14
Optimising control of invasive crayfish using life-history informationFreshwater BiologyRogowski, David L.; Sitko, Suzanne; Bonar, Scott A.20132017/12/14
Optimism and Challenge for Science-Based Conservation of Migratory Species in and out of U.S. National ParksConservation BiologyBerger, Joel; Cain, Steven L.; Cheng, Ellen; Dratch, Peter; Ellison, Kevin; Francis, John; Frost, Herbert C.; Gende, Scott; Groves, Craig; Karesh, William A.; Leslie, Elaine; Machlis, Gary; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Noss, Reed F.; Redford, Kent H.; Soukup, Mi20142017/12/14
Optimizing land use decision-making to sustain Brazilian agricultural profits, biodiversity and ecosystem servicesBiological ConservationKennedy, Christina M.; Hawthorne, Peter L.; Miteva, Daniela A.; Baumgarten, Leandro; Sochi, Kei; Matsumoto, Marcelo; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Polasky, Stephen; Hamel, Perrine; Vieira, Emerson M.; Develey, Pedro Ferreira; Sekercioglu, Cagan H.; Davidson, Ana D.; Uhlhorn, Elizabeth M.; Kiesecker, Joseph20162017/12/14Designing landscapes that can meet human needs, while maintaining functioning ecosystems, is essential for long-term sustainability. To achieve this goal, we must better understand the trade-offs and thresholds in the provision of ecosystem services and economic returns. To this end, we integrate spatially explicit economic and biophysical models to jointly optimize agricultural profit (sugarcane production and cattle ranching), biodiversity (bird and mammal species), and freshwater quality (nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment retention) in the Brazilian Cerrado. We generate efficiency frontiers to evaluate the economic and environmental trade-offs and map efficient combinations of agricultural land and natural habitat under varying service importance. To assess the potential impact of the Brazilian Forest Code (FC), a federal policy that aims to promote biodiversity and ecosystem services on private lands, we compare the frontiers with optimizations that mimic the habitat requirements in the region. We find significant opportunities to improve both economic and environmental outcomes relative to the current landscape. Substantial trade-offs between biodiversity and water quality exist when land use planning targets a single service, but these trade-offs can be minimized through multi-objective planning. We also detect non-linear profit-ecosystem services relationships that result in land use thresholds that coincide with the FC requirements. Further, we demonstrate that landscape-level planning can greatly improve the performance of the FC relative to traditional farm-level planning. These findings suggest that through joint planning for economic and environmental goals at a landscape-scale, Brazil's agricultural sector can expand production and meet regulatory requirements, while maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem service provision.sustainable agriculture; production possibility frontier; land use optimization; land use policy; tropical conservation; agriculture
Optimizing regulatory requirements to aid in the implementation of compensatory mitigationJOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGYSochi, Kei; Kiesecker, Joseph20162017/12/14
Options for sustainable groundwater management in arid and semi arid areasSteenhuis TS, Bilgili AV, Kendy E, Zaimoglu Z. Steenhuis, T.S., A.V. Bilgili, E. Kennedy, Z. Zaimoglu, M.E. Cakmak M.A. âullu and S. Ergezer.20062017/12/14
Orangutan  nest  surveys:  the devil  is  in  the  detailsOryxMarshall, A. J., and E. Meijaard20092017/12/14
Orangutan distribution, density, abundance and impacts of disturbanceHusson, S. J., S. A. Wich, A. J. Marshall, R. A. Dennis, M. Ancrenaz, R. Brassey, M. Gumal, A. J. Hearn, E. Meijaard, T. Simorangkir, and I. Singleton20092017/12/14Our understanding of fire and grazing is largely based on small-scale experimental studies in which treatments are uniformly applied to experimental units that are considered homogenous. Any discussion of an interaction between fire and grazing
Orangutan population biology, life history, and conservation. Perspectives from population viability analysis modelsMarshall, A. J., R. Lacy, M. Ancrenaz, O. Byers, S. Husson, M. Leighton, E. Meijaard, N. Rosen, I. Singleton, S. Stephens, K. Traylor-Holzer, S. U. Atmoko, C. P. van Schaik, and S. A. Wich20092017/12/14
Organochlorine pesticides are not implicated in the decline of the Loggerhead ShrikeCondorHerkert, JR20042017/12/14I compared pesticide levels in the eggs of Loggerhead Shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus) collected from Illinois in 1995-1996 with those reported for the state in 1971-1972. Pesticides were detected in 19 of 21 (90%) eggs from 1995-1996. DDE was the
Otolith Chemistry to Determine Within-River Origins of Alabama Shad in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River BasinTransactions Of The American Fisheries SocietySchaffler, Jason J.; Young, Shawn P.; Herrington, Steve; Ingram, Travis; Tannehill, Josh20152017/12/14
Outbreak of Acropora white syndrome following a mild bleaching event at Palmyra Atoll, Northern Line Islands, Central PacificCoral ReefsWilliams, G. J.; Knapp, I. S.; Work, T. M.; Conklin, E. J.20112017/12/14
Outbreak of Phoracantha semipunctata in Response to Severe Drought in a Mediterranean Eucalyptus ForestFORESTSSeaton, Stephen; Matusick, George; Ruthrof, Katinka X.; Hardy, Giles E. St. J.20152017/12/14
Outplanting Wyoming Big Sagebrush Following Wildfire: Stock Performance and EconomicsRangeland Ecology & ManagementDettweiler-Robinson, Eva; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Evans, James R.; Newsome, Heidi; Davies, G. Matt; Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.; Easterly, Richard T.; Salstrom, Debra; Dunwiddie, Peter W.20132017/12/14
Overcoming information  limitations  for developing an en- vironmental flow prescription for a Central American RiverEcology and SocietyEsselman, P. and J. Opperman20102017/12/14
Overfishing of inland watersBioScienceAllan, JD; Abell, R; Hogan, Z; Revenga, C; Taylor, BW; Welcomme, RL; Winemiller, K20052017/12/14Inland waters have received only slight consideration in recent discussions of the global fisheries crisis, even though inland fisheries provide much-needed protein, jobs, and income, especially in poor rural communities of developing countries.
Overstory response to alternative thinning treatments in young Douglas-fir forests of western OregonNorthwest ScienceDavis, L. R., K. J. Puettmann and G. F. Tucker20072017/12/14An increase in land dominated by young second-growth Douglas-fir forests in the Pacific Northwest has coincided with heightened concerns over loss of old-growth habitat. In search of options for managing young forests to provide late-successional forest s
Overstory tree mortality resulting from reintroducing fire to long-unburned longleaf pine forests: the importance of duff moistureCanadian Journal of Forest ResearchVarner, J. Morgan, III; Hiers, J. Kevin; Ottmar, Roger D.; Gordon, Doria R.; Putz, Francis E.; Wade, Dale D.20072017/12/14In forests historically maintained by frequent fire, reintroducing fire after decades of exclusion often causes widespread overstory mortality. To better understand this phenomenon, we subjected 16 fire-excluded (ca. 40 years since fire) 10 ha longleaf pi
Overwater Movement of Raccoons (Procyon lotor) in a Naturally Fragmented Coastal LandscapeNortheastern NaturalistDueser, Raymond D.; Moncrief, Nancy D.; Keiss, Oskars; Martin, Joel D.; Porter, John H.; Truitt, Barry R.20132017/12/14
Oyster habitat restoration monitoring and assessment handbookBaggett, L.P., S.P. Powers, R. Brumbaugh, L.D. Coen, B. DeAngelis, J. Greene, B. Hancock, and S. Morlock20142017/12/14
Oyster reef restoration in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Extent, methods and outcomesOcean and Coastal ManagementLa Peyre, Megan; Furlong, Jessica; Brown, Laura A.; Piazza, Bryan P.; Brown, Ken20142017/12/14
Oyster reefs at risk and recommendations for conservation, restoration, and managementBioScienceBeck, M. W., Brumbaugh, R. D., Airoldi, L., Carranza, A., Coen, L. D., Crawford, C., ... & Guo, X20112017/12/14
Paederia foetida (skunk vine) and P. cruddasiana (sewer vine): Threats and Management StrategiesNatural Areas Journal Gann, G. and D. Gordon.19982017/12/14
Palaeoecology of Southeast Asian megafauna-bearing sites from the Pleistocene and a review of environmental  changes in the regionJournal of BiogeographyLouys, J., and E. Meijaard20102017/12/14
Palau's taro fields and mangroves protect the coral reefs by trapping eroded fine sedimentWetlands Ecology And ManagementKoshiba, Shirley; Besebes, Meked; Soaladaob, Kiblas; Isechal, Adelle Lukes; Victor, Steven; Golbuu, Yimnang20132017/12/14
Paleoenvironmental Framework for Understanding the Development, Stability, and State-Changes of Cienegas in the American DesertsMinckley, T.A., A. Brunelle, and D. Turner20132017/12/14
Pandas-People Coexistence and CompetitionPANDAS AND PEOPLE: COUPLING HUMAN AND NATURAL SYSTEMS FOR SUSTAINABILITYHull, Vanessa; Zhang, Jindong; Liu, Wei; Huang, Jinyan; Zhou, Shiqiang; Bearer, Scott; Xu, Weihua; Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Vina, Andres; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo20162017/12/14
Papuan Bird's Head Seascape: Emerging threats and challenges in the global center of marine biodiversityMarine Pollution BulletinMangubhai, Sangeeta; Erdmann, Mark V.; Wilson, Joanne R.; Huffard, Christine L.; Ballamu, Ferdiel; Hidayat, Nur Ismu; Hitipeuw, Creusa; Lazuardi, Muhammad E.; Muhajir; Pada, Defy; Purba, Gandi; Rotinsulu, Christovel; Rumetna, Lukas; Sumolang, Kartika; Wen20122017/12/14
Partial support for the central-marginal hypothesis within a population: reduced genetic diversity but not increased differentiation at the range edge of an island endemic birdHEREDITYLangin, K. M.; Sillett, T. S.; Funk, W. C.; Morrison, S. A.; Ghalambor, C. K.20172017/12/14
Particulate air pollution and mortality in 38 of China's largest cities: time series analysisBMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNALYin, Peng; He, Guojun; Fan, Maoyong; Chiu, Kowk Yan; Fan, Maorong; Liu, Chang; Xue, An; Liu, Tong; Pan, Yuhang; Mu, Quan; Zhou, Maigeng20172017/12/14
Partitioning of space and water between two California annual grassland speciesAmerican Journal of BotanyGordon, D.R. and K.J. Rice19922017/12/14
Partitioning the sources of demographic variation reveals density-dependent nest predation in an island bird populationEcology and EvolutionSofaer, Helen R.; Sillett, T. Scott; Langin, Kathryn M.; Morrison, Scott A.; Ghalambor, Cameron K.20142017/12/14
Passing the baton of action from research to conservation implementation for Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea)Ornitologia NeotropicalHamel, P.B, D. Mehlman, S.K. Herzog, K.V. Rosenberg, J. Jones20122017/12/14
Passive Recovery of Vegetation after Herbivore Eradication on Santa Cruz Island, CaliforniaRestoration EcologyBeltran, Roxanne S.; Kreidler, Nissa; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Morrison, Scott A.; Zavaleta, Erika S.; Newton, Kelly; Tershy, Bernie R.; Croll, Donald A.20142017/12/14
Past, present, and future. Economic impacts of invasive species in forestsAnnals of the New York Academy of SciencesHolmes, T. P., J. E. Aukema, B. Von Holle, A. Liebhold, and E. Sillse20092017/12/14
Patterns  of  plant  community structure within and among primary and second-growth northern hardwood forest standsForest Ecology and ManagementBurton, J. I., E. K. Zenner, L. E. Frelich, and M. W. Cornett20092017/12/14
Patterns of differentiation in wiregrass (Aristida beyrichiana): implications for restoration efforts.Restoration Ecology Gordon, D.R. and K.J. Rice.19982017/12/14
Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in CaliforniaPLOS ONEHoward, Jeanette K.; Klausmeyer, Kirk R.; Fesenmyer, Kurt A.; Furnish, Joseph; Gardali, Thomas; Grantham, Ted; Katz, Jacob V. E.; Kupferberg, Sarah; McIntyre, Patrick; Moyle, Peter B.; Ode, Peter R.; Peek, Ryan; Quinones, Rebecca M.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Santos, Nick; Schoenig, Steve; Serpa, Larry; Shedd, Jackson D.; Slusark, Joe; Viers, Joshua H.; Wright, Amber; Morrison, Scott A.20152017/12/14
Patterns of genetic differentiation and conservation of the slabside pearlymussel, Lexingtonia dolabelloides (Lea, 1840) in the Tennessee River drainageJournal Of Molluscan StudiesGrobler, PJ; Jones, JW; Johnson, NA; Beaty, B; Struthers, J; Neves, RJ; Hallerman, EM20062017/12/14The restoration and recovery of imperiled mussel species will require the re-establishment of populations into historically occupied habitats. The possible existence of genetic differentiation among populations should be considered before inter-b
Patterns of herbaceous plant diversity in southeastern Louisiana pine savannasApplied Vegetation ScienceKeddy, P. A.; Smith, L.; Campbell, D. R.; Clark, M.; Montz, G.20062017/12/14Keywords: Andropogon virginicus; Competition; Conserva- tion; Disturbance; Diversity; Fugitive species; Longleaf pine; Louisiana; Peripheral species; Pinus palustris; Species-area relationship; Species frequency. ... Nomenclature: Integrated Taxonomic I
Patterns of land snail distribution in a montane habitat on the island of HawaiïiMalacologiaCowie, R.H.; Nishida, G. M.; Basset, Y.; Gon III, S. M.19952017/12/14
Patterns of nucleotide changes in mito-chondrial ribosomal RNA genes and the phylogeny of piranhasJournal of Molecular EvolutionOrti, G., P. Petry, J.I.R. Porto, M. Jegu and A. Meyer19962017/12/14
Patterns of trait convergence and divergence among native and exotic species in herbaceous plant communities are not modified by nitrogen enrichmentJournal Of EcologyCleland, Elsa E.; Clark, Chris M.; Collins, Scott L.; Fargione, Joseph E.; Gough, Laura; Gross, Katherine L.; Pennings, Steven C.; Suding, Katharine N.20112017/12/14
Payment for ecosystem services in practice _ savanna burning and carbon abatement at Fish River, northern AustraliaWalton, N.; Fitzsimons, J.20152017/12/14
Payments for ecosystem services in Amazonia. The challenge of land use heterogeneity in agricultural frontiers near Cruzeiro do Sul (Acre, Brazil)Journal Of Environmental Planning And ManagementEloy, Ludivine; Meral, Philippe; Ludewigs, Thomas; Pinheiro, Gustavo Tosello; Singer, Benjamin20122017/12/14agriculture
Payments for Environmental Services in Latin America as a Tool for Restoration and Rural DevelopmentAmbioMontagnini, Florencia; Finney, Christopher20112017/12/14
Pelagic protected areas: the missing dimension in ocean conservationTrends in Ecology and EvolutionGame, Edward T.; Grantham, Hedley S.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Pressey, Robert L.; Lombard, Amanda T.; Beckley, Lynnath E.; Gjerde, Kristina; Bustamante, Rodrigo; Possingham, Hugh P.; Richardson, Anthony J.20092017/12/14Fewer protected areas exist in the pelagic ocean than any other ecosystem on Earth. Although there is increasing support for marine protected areas (MPAs) as a tool for pelagic conservation, there have also been numerous criticisms of the ecological, logi
Pelagic provinces of the world: A biogeographic classification of the world's surface pelagic watersOcean and Coastal ManagementSpalding, Mark D.; Agostini, Vera N.; Rice, Jake; Grant, Susie M.20122017/12/14
Pelagic SystemsGlobal Open Oceans and Deep Seabed (GOODS) Biogeographic ClassificationSpalding, M., V. Agostini, S. Grant, J. Rice20092017/12/14The classification was produced by an international and multidisciplinary group of experts under the auspices of a number of international and intergovernmental organizations as well as governments, and under the ultimate umbrella of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and its Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC). The classification is intended to provide technical backstopping to planning and policy decisions related to open ocean and deep seabed areas, while paying special attention to not implying the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of authors, sponsors or associated organizations concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.oceans, Biogeographic Classification
People and desertsSeely, M., A. Al-Amoud, D. Chatty, J. Henschel, J. Kinahan, J. Kinahan, P. Klintenberg, A. Le„n, S. Morrison, C. Roedern, E. Abraham, R. S. Felger, P. Laureano, D. Mouat, B. A. Portnov, U. Safriel, S. Schmidt, M. Sciortino, A. Warren, D. Zohary20062017/12/14People have lived in and around deserts since time immemorial where their activities and use of natural resources have been, and are, governed by the basic parameters defining all deserts. Rainfall, essential for growth and reproduction of plants and anim
Perennial biomass feedstocks enhance avian diversityGlobal Change Biology BioenergyRobertson, Bruce A.; Doran, Patrick J.; Loomis, Liz R.; Robertson, J. Roy; Schemske, Douglas W.20112017/12/14
Performance of satellite data sets in monitoring burn events on the Refugio-Goliad Prairie LandscapeFire Management TodayGuse, R. and K. Feuerbacher20122017/12/14
Periphyton responses to experimental phosphorus enrichment in a subtropical wetlandAquatic BotanyMcCormick, PV; O'Dell, MB; Shuford, RBE; Backus, JG; Kennedy, WC20012017/12/14A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of increased phosphorus (P) loading on periphyton abundance, productivity, and taxonomic composition in an oligotrophic Everglades slough characterized by abundant metaphyton and epiphyton. ...
Persistence of historical population structure in an endangered species despite near-complete biome conversion in California's San Joaquin DesertMOLECULAR ECOLOGYRichmond, Jonathan Q.; Wood, Dustin A.; Westphal, Michael F.; Vandergast, Amy G.; Leache, Adam D.; Saslaw, Lawrence R.; Butterfield, H. Scott; Fisher, Robert N.20172017/12/14
Perspectives on the role of cowbird removal in songbird conservationTexas Birds AnnualKostecke, R. M20062017/12/14
Pest interceptions on live plants at US ports of entry: A system overwhelmedPhytopathologyBritton, K. O.; Parke, J. L.; Garrett, L. J.; Lowenstein, F.; Nuding, A.20112017/12/14
Pet Project or Best Project? Online Decision Support Tools for Prioritizing Barrier Removals in the Great Lakes and BeyondFISHERIESMoody, Allison T.; Neeson, Thomas M.; Wangen, Steve; Dischler, Jeff; Diebel, Matthew W.; Milt, Austin; Herbert, Matthew; Khoury, Mary; Yacobson, Eugene; Doran, Patrick J.; Ferris, Michael C.; O'Hanley, Jesse R.; McIntyre, Peter B.20172017/12/14
Phenological matching across hemispheres in a long-distance migratory birdDiversity and DistributionsRenfrew, Rosalind B.; Kim, Daniel; Perlut, Noah; Smith, Joseph; Fox, James; Marra, Peter P.20132017/12/14
Phenotypic covariance at species' bordersBmc Evolutionary BiologyCaley, M. Julian; Cripps, Edward; Game, Edward T.20132017/12/14
Phenotypic variation in seedlings of a "keystone" tree species (Quercus douglasii): The interactive effects of acorn source and competitive environmentOecologiaRice, K.J., D.R. Gordon, J.L. Hardison and J.M. Welker19932017/12/14
Phragmites-Australis (P-Communis) - Threats, Management, And MonitoringNatural Areas JournalMarks, M; Lapin, B; Randall, J19942017/12/14
Phylogenetic age is positively correlated with sensitivity to timber harvest in Bornean mammalsBiotropicaMeijaard, E., Sheil, D., Marshall, A. G. and Nasi, R20072017/12/14The reasons that forest vertebrates differ in their response to selective timber extraction in tropical forests remain poorly characterized. Understanding what determines response and sensitivity can indicate how forest management might yield gre
Phylogeny and the co-occurrence of mammal species on southeast Asian islandsGlobal Ecology and BiogeographyCardillo, M., and E. Meijaard20102017/12/14
Phylogeny, Traits, and Biodiversity of a Neotropical Bat Assemblage: Close Relatives Show Similar Responses to Local DeforestationAMERICAN NATURALISTFrank, Hannah K.; Frishkoff, Luke O.; Mendenhall, Chase D.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Hadly, Elizabeth A.20172017/12/14
Phylogeographic and population genetic structure of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in North American desertsJOURNAL OF MAMMALOGYBuchalski, Michael R.; Sacks, Benjamin N.; Gille, Daphne A.; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T.; Ernest, Holly B.; Morrison, Scott A.; Boyce, Walter M.20162017/12/14
Phylogeography and population structure of the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) inferred from mitochondrial control region DNA sequence analysisMolecular EcologyLiu, Zhijin; Ren, Baoping; Wei, Fuwen; Long, Yongcheng; Hao, Yanli; Ll, Ming20072017/12/14
Piabeiros impulsionam sistema de aviamento no Rio NegroPrang, G. and P. Petry20012017/12/14
Pilot study suggests viable options for reef restoration in Komodo National ParkCoral ReefsFox, HE; Pet, JS20012017/12/14Among the many threats currently facing coral reefs in Southeast Asia, dynamite or "blast" fishing ranks as perhaps the most immediately and extensively damaging in many areas (Erdmann 2000). Although illegal, blast fishing is widely practiced and can res
Pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni and Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi) hibernaculaJournal Of HerpetologyRudolph, D. C.; Schaefer, R. R.; Burgdorf, S. J.; Duran, M.; Conner, R. N.20072017/12/14Snakes are often highly selective in the choice of sites for hibernation, and suitable sites can potentially be a limiting resource. Hibernating Louisiana Pine Snakes (Pituophis ruthveni; N= 7) in eastern Texas and Black Pine Snakes (Pituophis me
Pinpointing and preventing imminent extinctionsPNASRicketts, T., Dinerstein, E., Boucher, T. M., Brooks, T., Butchart, S., Hoffman, M., Lamoreux , J., Morrrison, J., Parr, M., Pilgrim, J., Rodrigues, A., Sechrest, W., Wallace, G., Berlin, K., Bielby, J., Burgess, N., Church, D., Cox, N., Knox, D., Loucks, C., Luck, G., Master, L., Moore, R., Naidoo R., Ridgley, R., Schatz, S., Shire, G.,Strand, H., Wettengel, W., Wikramanayake, E.20052017/12/14Slowing rates of global biodiversity loss requires preventing species extinctions. Here we pinpoint centers of imminent extinction, where highly threatened species are confined to single sites. Within five globally assessed taxa (i.e., mammals, birds, selected reptiles, amphibians, and conifers), we find 794 such species, three times the number recorded as having gone extinct since 1500. These species occur in 595 sites, concentrated in tropical forests, on islands, and in mountainous areas. Their taxonomic and geographical distribution differs significantly from that of historical extinctions, indicating an expansion of the current extinction episode beyond sensitive species and places toward the planet's most biodiverse mainland regions. Only one-third of the sites are legally protected, and most are surrounded by intense human development. These sites represent clear opportunities for urgent conservation action to prevent species loss.biodiversity, conservation, protected area, threatened species
Piping Plovers produce two broods.Wilson BulletinBottitta, GE; Cole, AM; Lapin, B19972017/12/14
Planetary Opportunities: A Social Contract for Global Change Science to Contribute to a Sustainable FutureBioScienceDeFries, Ruth S.; Ellis, Erle C.; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; Matson, Pamela A.; Turner, B. L., II; Agrawal, Arun; Crutzen, Paul J.; Field, Chris; Gleick, Peter; Kareiva, Peter M.; Lambin, Eric; Liverman, Diana; Ostrom, Elinor; Sanchez, Pedro A.; Syvitski, Ja20122017/12/14
Planificaci„n y desarrollo de estrategias para la conservaci„n de la biodiversidad en M_xicoMarch, I. J., M. A. Carvajal, R. M. Vidal, E. J. San Romˆn, and G. Ruiz20092017/12/14
Planning for biodiversity conservation: Putting conservation science into practiceBioScienceGroves, CR; Jensen, DB; Valutis, LL; Redford, KH; Shaffer, ML; Scott, JM; Baumgartner, JV; Higgins, JV; Beck, MW; Anderson, MG20022017/12/14
Planning for persistence in marine reserves: a question of catastrophic importanceEcological ApplicationsGame, E. T., Watts, M. E., Wooldridge, S., and Possingham, H. P.20082017/12/14Large-scale catastrophic events, although rare, lie generally beyond the control of local management and can prevent marine reserves from achieving biodiversity outcomes. We formulate a new conservation planning problem that aims to minimize the probabili
Planning for population viability on Northern Great Plains national grasslandsWildlife Society BulletinSamson, F.B., F.L. Knopf, C.W. McCarthy, B.R. Noon, W.R. Ostlie, S.M. Rinehart. S. Larson, G.E. Plumb, G.L. Schenbeck, D.N. Svingen and T.W. Byer20032017/12/14Broad-scale information in concert with conservation of individual species must be used to develop conservation priorities and a more integrated ecosystem protection strategy. In 1999 the United States Forest Service initiated an approach for the 1.2’ã 10
Planning for reserve adequacy in dynamic landscapes; maximizing future representation of vegetation communities under flood disturbance in the Pantanal wetlandDiversity and DistributionsLourival, Reinaldo; Drechsler, Martin; Watts, Matthew E.; Game, Edward T.; Possingham, Hugh P.20112017/12/14
Plant and animal endemism in the eastern Andean slope: challenges to conservationBMC EcologySwenson, Jennifer J.; Young, Bruce E.; Beck, Stephan; Comer, Pat; Cordova, Jesus H.; Dyson, Jessica; Embert, Dirk; Encarnacion, Filomeno; Ferreira, Wanderley; Franke, Irma; Grossman, Dennis; Hernandez, Pilar; Herzog, Sebastian K.; Josse, Carmen; Navarro, Gonzalo; Pacheco, Victor; Stein, Bruce A.; Timana, Martin; Tovar, Antonio; Tovar, Carolina; Vargas, Julieta; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos M.20122017/12/14Background: The Andes-Amazon basin of Peru and Bolivia is one of the most data-poor, biologically rich, and rapidly changing areas of the world. Conservation scientists agree that this area hosts extremely high endemism, perhaps the highest in the world, yet we know little about the geographic distributions of these species and ecosystems within country boundaries. To address this need, we have developed conservation data on endemic biodiversity (~800 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and plants) and terrestrial ecological systems (~90; groups of vegetation communities resulting from the action of ecological processes, substrates, and/or environmental gradients) with which we conduct a fine scale conservation prioritization across the Amazon watershed of Peru and Bolivia. We modelled the geographic distributions of 435 endemic plants and all 347 endemic vertebrate species, from existing museum and herbaria specimens at a regional conservation practitioner’s scale (1:250,000-1:1,000,000), based on the best available tools and geographic data. We mapped ecological systems, endemic species concentrations, and irreplaceable areas with respect to national level protected areas. Results: We found that sizes of endemic species distributions ranged widely (< 20 km2 to > 200,000 km2) across the study area. Bird and mammal endemic species richness was greatest within a narrow 2500-3000 m elevation band along the length of the Andes Mountains. Endemic amphibian richness was highest at 1000-1500 m elevation and concentrated in the southern half of the study area. Geographical distribution of plant endemism was highly taxon-dependent. Irreplaceable areas, defined as locations with the highest number of species with narrow ranges, overlapped slightly with areas of high endemism, yet generally exhibited unique patterns across the study area by species group. We found that many endemic species and ecological systems are lacking national-level protection; a third of endemic species have distributions completely outside of national protected areas. Protected areas cover only 20% of areas of high endemism and 20% of irreplaceable areas. Almost 40% of the 91 ecological systems are in serious need of protection (= < 2% of their ranges protected). Conclusions: We identify for the first time, areas of high endemic species concentrations and high irreplaceability that have only been roughly indicated in the past at the continental scale. We conclude that new complementary protected areas are needed to safeguard these endemics and ecosystems. An expansion in protected areas will be challenged by geographically isolated micro-endemics, varied endemic patterns among taxa, increasing deforestation, resource extraction, and changes in climate. Relying on pre-existing collections, publically accessible datasets and tools, this working framework is exportable to other regions plagued by incomplete conservation data.Andes-Amazon; conservation planning; ecological systems; endemic species richness; irreplaceability; Latin America
Plant community composition mediates both large transient decline and predicted long-term recovery of soil carbon under climate warmingGlobal Biogeochemical CyclesSaleska, SR; Shaw, MR; Fischer, ML; Dunne, JA; Still, CJ; Holman, ML; Harte, J20022017/12/14
Plant Community Effects and Genetic Diversity of Post-fire Princess Tree (Paulownia tomentosa) InvasionsINVASIVE PLANT SCIENCE AND MANAGEMENTLovenshimer, Joseph B.; Madritch, Michael D.20172017/12/14
Plant diversity and priority conservation areas of Northwestern Yunnan, ChinaBiodiversity And ConservationMa Chang-Le; Moseley, Robert K.; Chen Wen-Yun; Zhou Zhe-Kun20072017/12/14The Global Plant Conservation Strategy of the Convention on Biological Diversity calls for Š—“protection of 50% of the most important areas for plant diversity.Š— All global biodiversity analyses have identified the mountains of northwestern Yun
Planting practices to maximize Garry oak seedling performance in a semiarid environmentNorthwest ScienceBakker, J.D., L.J. Colasurdo, and J.R. Evans20122017/12/14
Point counts surveys of land birds at the Four Canyon Preserve, Ellis County, OklahomaHise, C.M.20142017/12/14
Policy analysis and national forest appeal reformJournal of ForestryMortimer, MJ; Scardina, AV; Jenkins, DH20042017/12/14The USDA Forest Service appeals process has affected the management of national forests for nearly a century. Concerns over wildfire and forest health have recently focused attention on the role of the appeals process in agency decisionmaking and manageme
Policy Development for Biodiversity Offsets: A Review of Offset FrameworksEnvironmental ManagementMcKenney, Bruce A.; Kiesecker, Joseph M.20102017/12/14
Policy Development for Environmental Licensing and Biodiversity Offsets in Latin AmericaPLoS ONEVillarroya, Ana; Barros, Ana Cristina; Kiesecker, Joseph20142017/12/14Attempts to meet biodiversity goals through application of the mitigation hierarchy have gained wide traction globally with increased development of public policy, lending standards, and corporate practices. With interest in biodiversity offsets increasing in Latin America, we seek to strengthen the basis for policy development through a review of major environmental licensing policy frameworks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Here we focused our review on an examination of national level policies to evaluate to which degree current provisions promote positive environmental outcomes. All the surveyed countries have national-level Environmental Impact Assessment laws or regulations that cover the habitats present in their territories. Although most countries enable the use of offsets only Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru explicitly require their implementation. Our review has shown that while advancing quite detailed offset policies, most countries do not seem to have strong requirements regarding impact avoidance. Despite this deficiency most countries have a strong foundation from which to develop policy for biodiversity offsets, but several issues require further guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios; and (4) ensure appropriate time and effort is given to monitor offset performance.conservation science; biodiversity; Brazil; Colombia; Peru; regulations; environmental law; ecosystems
Policy implications and recommendationsEconomics Of Deforestation In The Amazon: Dispelling The MythsCampari, Joao S.20052017/12/14
Policy needs to improve marine capture fisheries management and to define a role for marine protected areas in IndonesiaFisheries Management And EcologyMous, PJ; Pet, JS; Arifin, Z; Djohani, R; Erdmann, MV; Halim, A; Knight, M; Pet-Soede, L; Wiadnya, G20052017/12/14Management of Indonesia's marine capture fisheries faces a huge dilemma: evidence suggests that most, if not all, of Indonesia's capture fisheries are fully or overexploited, but the fishery sector is still expected to contribute to the increase
Policy Relevant Conservation ScienceCONSERVATION LETTERSGame, Edward T.; Schwartz, Mark W.; Knight, Andrew T.20152017/12/14
Popular media records reveal multi-decadal trends in recreational fishing catch ratesPLOS ONEThurstan, Ruth H.; Game, Edward; Pandolfi, John M.20172017/12/14Despite threats to human wellbeing from ecological degradation, public engagement with this issue remains at low levels. However, studies have shown that crafting messages to resonate with peopleÕs personal experiences can enhance engagement. Recreational fishing is one of the principal ways in which people interact with aquatic environments, but long-term data from this perspective are considered rare. We uncovered 852 popular media records of recreational fishing for an Australian estuary across a 140-year period. Using information contained in these articles we analysed the species composition of recreational catches over time and constructed two distinct time series of catch and effort (n fish fisher-1 trip-1; kg fish fisher-1 trip-1) for recreational fishing trips and fishing club competitions (mean n and kg fish caught across all competitors, and n and kg fish caught by the competition winner). Reported species composition remained similar over time. Catch rates reported from recreational fishing trips (1900Ð1998) displayed a significant decline, averaging 32.5 fish fisher-1 trip-1 prior to 1960, and 18.8 fish fisher-1 trip-1 post-1960. Mean n fish fisher-1 competition-1 (1913Ð1983) also significantly declined, but best n fish fisher-1 competition-1 (1925Ð1980) displayed no significant change, averaging 31.2 fish fisher-1 competition-1 over the time series. Mean and best kg fish fisher-1 competition-1 trends also displayed no significant change, averaging 4.2 and 9.9 kg fisher-1 competition-1, respectively. These variable trends suggest that while some fishers experienced diminishing returns in this region over the last few decades, the most skilled inshore fishers were able to maintain their catch rates, highlighting the difficulties inherent in crafting conservation messages that will resonate with all sections of a community. Despite these challenges, this research demonstrates that popular media sources can provide multiple long-term trends at spatial scales, in units and via a recreational experience that many people can relate to.
Population attributes of an Endangered mussel, Epioblasma torulosa rangiana  (Northern Riffleshell), in French Creek and implications  for its recoveryNortheastern NaturalistCrabtree, D. L., and T. A. Smith20092017/12/14
Population Dynamics and Survival Rates of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) in Virginia, USAWATERBIRDSWilke, Alexandra L.; Boettcher, Ruth; Duerr, Adam; Denmon, Pamela; Truitt, Barry R.; Holcomb, Kevin; Watts, Bryan D.20172017/12/14
Population Dynamics of Long-tailed Ducks Breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, AlaskaArcticSchamber, Jason L.; Flint, Paul L.; Grand, J. Barry; Wilson, Heather M.; Morse, Julie A.20092017/12/14
Population structure of the endangered Mitchell's Satyr, Neonympha mitchellii mitchellii (French): Implications for conservationAmerican Midland NaturalistSzymanski, J; Shuey, JA; Oberhauser, K20042017/12/14Basic ignorance about the ecology and life history of the endangered Mitchell's satyr butterfly, Neonympha mitchellii mitchellii, is impeding conservation efforts. To assist with recovery, we examined Mitchell's satyr butterfly population structu
Population structure of two understory plant species along an altitudinal gradient in Costa Rican montane oak forestsEcology and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Oak ForestsGroot, T.V.M., M. Stift, J.G.B. Oostermeijer, A.M. Cleef & M. Kappelle20062017/12/14
Population Trends Of Breeding Birds On The Edwards Plateau, Texas: Local Versus Regional PatternsSouthwestern NaturalistKostecke, Richard M.20082017/12/14
Population trends of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler at Fort Hood, Texas, from 1992-2001Southwestern NaturalistAnders, AD; Dearborn, DC20042017/12/14We assessed population trends of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia) at Fort Hood, Texas, using point-count data from 1992 through 2001. We assessed the effect of a large-scale fire in 1996 on these population trends and
Portafolio de ConservaciÑn de Agua Dulce para la Cuenca del Magdalena _ Cauca. Programa NASCA, The Nature conservancy & CormagdalenaT_llez , P., P.Petry, T. Walschburger, J. Higgins & C. Apse20112017/12/14
Portrayal of sustainability principles in the mission statements and on home pages of the world's largest organizationsCONSERVATION BIOLOGYGarnett, Stephen T.; Lawes, Michael J.; James, Robyn; Bigland, Kristen; Zander, Kerstin K.20162017/12/14
Positive Relationships between Association Strength and Phenotypic Similarity Characterize the Assembly of Mixed-Species Bird Flocks WorldwideAmerican NaturalistSridhar, Hari; Srinivasan, Umesh; Askins, Robert A.; Canales-Delgadillo, Julio Cesar; Chen, Chao-Chieh; Ewert, David N.; Gale, George A.; Goodale, Eben; Gram, Wendy K.; Hart, Patrick J.; Hobson, Keith A.; Hutto, Richard L.; Kotagama, Sarath W.; Knowlton,20122017/12/14
Post-fire tree stress and growth following smoldering duff firesForest Ecology and ManagementVarner, J. Morgan; Putz, Francis E.; O'Brien, Joseph J.; Hiers, J. Kevin; Mitchell, Robert J.; Gordon, Doria R.20092017/12/14
Post-hurricane vegetation response in south Florida hammocks with and without Dioscorea bulbifera controlGordon, D., G. Gann, E. Carter, and K. Thomas19992017/12/14
Postembryonic ontogeny of the spadefoot toad, Scaphiopus intermontanus (Anura : Pelobatidae): Skeletal morphologyJournal Of MorphologyHall, JA; Larsen, JH19982017/12/14
Potential allelopathic interference by the exotic Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum)American Midland NaturalistConway, WC; Smith, LM; Bergan, JF20022017/12/14The Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum) was introduced into the southeastern United States in late 1800s and has rapidly naturalized throughout the region's coastal ecosystems. Because tallow forms monotypic woodlands, we hypothesized that ..
Potential carbon dioxide emission reductions from avoided grassland conversion in the northern Great PlainsECOSPHEREAhlering, Marissa; Fargione, Joseph; Parton, William20162017/12/14Protection of lands threatened with conversion to agriculture can reduce carbon emissions. Until recently, most climate change mitigation incentive programs for avoided conversion have focused on forested ecosystems. We applied the Avoided Conversion of Grasslands and Shrublands v.1.0 (ACoGS) methodology now available through the American Carbon Registry to a threatened region of grasslands in the northern Great Plains. For all soil types across 14 counties in North and South Dakota, we used the DAYCENT model calibrated to the study area to quantify the difference in CO2 and N2O emissions under a cropping and a protection scenario, and we used formulas in the ACoGS methodology to calculate CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation under the protection scenario. We mapped the resulting GHG emissions across the entire project area. Emissions averaged 51.6 tCO2e/ha over 20 years, and with a 31% reduction for leakage and uncertainty from the ACoGS methodology, carbon offsets averaged 35.6 tCO2e/ha over 20 years. Protection of 10% of the 2.1 million unprotected ha in the project area with the highest emissions would reduce emissions by 11.7 million tCO2e over 20 years (11% of the total emissions from all unprotected grassland) and avoid a social cost of $430 million worth of CO2 emissions. These results suggest that carbon offsets generated from avoided conversion of grasslands can meaningfully contribute to climate mitigation and grassland conservation objectives.carbon offsets; DAYCENT; grassland conversion; greenhouse gas emissions; Prairie Pothole Region
Potential impacts of timber harvesting on a rare understory plant, Clematis hirsutissima var arizonicaBiological ConservationMaschinski, J; Kolb, TE; Smith, E; Phillips, B19972017/12/14
Potential Links Between Certified Organic Coffee and Deforestation in a Protected Area in Chiapas, MexicoWorld DevelopmentM. Jurjonas, K. Crossman, J. Solomon, W. Lopez Baez20162017/12/14coffee
Potential use of Uniola paniculata rhizome fragments for dune restorationRestoration EcologyMiller, DL; Yager, L; Thetford, M; Schneider, M20032017/12/14Uniola paniculata (sea oats) rhizomes uprooted by hurri-canes and deposited as wrack could be salvaged and replanted in dune restoration. To test this unexplored technique, percent tiller emergence was observed for 4 years from U. paniculata rhiz
Power generation and ecosystem restoration: United States (Penobscot River Basin, Maine)Water and Green GrowthOpperman, J. J20122017/12/14
Pragmatism and Practice in Classifying Threats: Reply to Balmford et al.Conservation BiologySalafsky, Nick; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Salzer, Daniel; Stattersfield, Alison J.; Neugarten, Rachel; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Collen, Ben; Master, Lawrence L.; O'Connor, Sheila; Wilkie, David20092017/12/14
Prairie restoration flora of the St. Louis region of Illinois and MissouriMissouriensisLadd, D20042017/12/14
Prairie Restorations can Protect Remnant Tallgrass Prairie Plant CommunitiesAmerican Midland NaturalistRowe, Helen I.; Fargione, Joseph; Holland, Jeffrey D.20132017/12/14
Precision Counting of Sandhill Cranes in Staten Island by FAA Approved Small Unmanned Aerial System Night MissionsWORLD ENVIRONMENTAL AND WATER RESOURCES CONGRESS 2017: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES, HISTORY AND HERITAGE, EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES, AND STUDENT PAPERSStark, Brandon; Smith, Brendan; Anderson, Andreas; Viers, Joshua H.; Chen, YangQuan; Kelsey, Rodd20172017/12/14
Predation of a small passerine by the Purple-winged Roller (Coracias temminckii), an endemic species of SulawesiKukilaArgeloo, M. and J. Fitzsimons20112017/12/14