Science Articles

This is a list of peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters authored by TNC staff, including links to pdf versions where available. Click an article's title for more information. To submit additions or corrections, or to report problems using this site, please email us.

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Two scales are better than one: Monitoring multiple-use northern temperate forestsForest Ecology and ManagmentMark A. White, Meredith W. Cornett, Peter T. Wolter 2017Managing forests for multiple, often conflicting values, coupled with the uncertainty of global environmental change, requires a more flexible approach to maintaining functioning ecosystems into the future. Adaptive management offers such flexibility, but is often hampered by a lack of targeted monitoring data collected in a consistent manner—the evidence base. Moreover, effective management of expansive forest ecosystems requires data on both landscape scale processes, as well as finer-scale data on vegetation structure and composition. To address the challenges of adaptive management in forest ecosystems, we tested the ability of a small set of multi-scale indicators to inform management of Minnesota’s Northern Great Lakes forest. Using remotely sensed and field data, we monitored changes in forest condition over a 20-year period in the 42,000 ha Manitou forest landscape in northeastern Minnesota. We used multi-temporal remote sensing data to assess landscape-scale changes in disturbance rates, patch size and age structure. With field data, we used a chronosequence method to assess management effects over time on finer scale characteristics such as canopy composition, tree regeneration, vertical structure and coarse woody debris. Combining remotely sensed and field data provided a more robust evidence base for decision-making than either approach could have provided alone. For example, examining remote-sensing data alone indicates that the rate of severe disturbance (timber harvest) peaked during the 20-year analysis period, and has declined in recent years. As disturbance rates declined, patch size and the proportion of forest in later successional stages all increased from year 2000 levels. These indicators of landscape structure showed positive shifts towards conservation objectives, but only tell part of the whole story. Field data elucidate a number of negative trends, including poor regeneration of key species (Picea glauca, Pinus strobus, Thuja occidentalis, Betula alleghaniensis), and simplified structure in young and mature growth stages. In addition, much of the mature forest transitioning into later-successional growth stages lacks the long-lived species and structural characteristics needed to develop late-successional conditions. An evidence base compiled from data gathered at both the stand and landscape scale provides the flexibility on which sound adaptive management depends. Adaptive management; Evidence base; Complexity; Adaptive capacity; Species diversity; Remote sensing
A 2017 Horizon Scan of Emerging Issues for Global Conservation and Biological DiversityTrends in Ecology & EvolutionWilliam J. Sutherland, Phoebe Barnard, Steven Broad, Mick Clout, Ben Connor, Isabelle M. Côté, Lynn V. Dicks, Helen Doran, Abigail C. Entwistle, Erica Fleishman, Marie Fox, Kevin J. Gaston, David W. Gibbons, Zhigang Jiang, Brandon Keim, Fiona A. Lickorish, Paul Markillie, Kathryn A. Monk, James W. Pearce-Higgins, Lloyd S. Peck, Jules Pretty, Mark D. Spalding, Femke H. Tonneijck, Bonnie C. Wintle, Nancy Ockendon2017 present the results of our eighth annual horizon scan of emerging issues likely to affect global biological diversity, the environment, and conservation efforts in the future. The potential effects of these novel issues might not yet be fully recognized or understood by the global conservation community, and the issues can be regarded as both opportunities and risks. A diverse international team with collective expertise in horizon scanning, science communication, and conservation research, practice, and policy reviewed 100 potential issues and identified 15 that qualified as emerging, with potential substantial global effects. These issues include new developments in energy storage and fuel production, sand extraction, potential solutions to combat coral bleaching and invasive marine species, and blockchain technology.futures, novel issues, predictions, environment, climate change, invasive species, management, energy security
Fuzzy Models to Inform Social and Environmental Indicator Selection for Conservation Impact MonitoringConservation Letters - a journal of the Society for Conservation BiologyEdward T. Game, Leah L. Bremer, Alejandro Calvache, Pedro H. Moreno, Amalia Vargas, Baudelino Rivera, Lina M. Rodriguez2017 projects increasingly aim to deliver both environmental and social benefits. To monitor the success of these projects, it is important to pick indicators for which there is a reasonable expectation of change as a result of the project, and which resonate with project stakeholders. Results chains are widely used in conservation to describe the hypothesized pathways of causal linkages between conservation interventions and desired outcomes. We illustrate how, with limited additional information, results chains can be turned into fuzzy models of social-ecological systems, and how these models can be used to explore the predicted social and environmental impacts of conservation actions. These predictions can then be compared with the interests of stakeholders in order to identify good indicators of project success. We illustrate this approach by using it to select indicators for a water fund, an increasingly popular and multiobjective conservation strategy.Agroforestry; Cauca Valley; Colombia;ecosystem services; fuzzy cognitive maps;mental models; results chains; riparianrestoration; theory of change; water funds
Changing trends and persisting biases in three decades of conservation scienceGlobal Ecology and ConservationMoreno Di Marcoa, Sarah Chapmanb, Glenn Althor, Stephen Kearney, Charles Besancon, Nathalie Butta, Joseph M. Mainad, Hugh P. Possinghama, Katharina Rogalla von Bieberstein, Oscar Venter, James E.M. Watson2017 science is a rapidly developing discipline, and the knowledge base it generates is relevant for practical applications. It is therefore crucial to monitor biases and trends in conservation literature, to track the progress of the discipline and re-align efforts where needed. We evaluated past and present trends in the focus of the conservation literature, and how they relate to conservation needs. We defined the focus of the past literature from 13 published reviews referring to 18,369 article classifications, and the focus of the current literature by analysing 2553 articles published between 2011–2015. We found that some of the historically under-studied biodiversity elements are receiving significantly more attention today, despite being still under-represented. The total proportion of articles on invertebrates, genetic diversity, or aquatic systems is 50%–60% higher today than it was before 2010. However, a disconnect between scientific focus and conservation needs is still present, with greater attention devoted to areas or taxa less rich in biodiversity and threatened biodiversity. In particular, a strong geographical bias persists, with 40% of studies carried out in USA, Australia or the UK, and only 10% and 6% respectively in Africa or South East Asia. Despite some changing trends, global conservation science is still poorly aligned with biodiversity distribution and conservation priorities, especially in relation to threatened species. To overcome the biases identified here, scientists, funding agencies and journals must prioritise research adaptively, based on biodiversity conservation needs. Conservation depends on policy makers and practitioners for success, and scientists should actively provide those who make decisions with the knowledge that best addresses their needs.Convention on biological diversity; Conservation bias; Genetic diversity; Freshwater; Invertebrates; Literature trends
Factors influencing the use of decision support tools in the development and design of conservation policyEnvironmental Science & PolicyFiona L. Gibson, Abbie A. Rogers, Anthony D.M. Smith, Anna Roberts, Hugh Possingham, Michael McCarthy, David J. Pannell2017There are many examples of decision support tools used to analyse information with the intention of assisting conservation managers and policy makers in their decision making. We used structured interviews to collect information on seven case studies from Australia and New Zealand to identify the factors that led to the use (or non-use) of decision support tools when developing conservation policies. The interviews explored hypotheses derived from existing literature on the use of decision support tools in conservation policy. Qualitative analysis of the interviews indicated that key factors influencing the uptake of a decision support tool in conservation policy include the alignment of the tool with the objectives and context of a policy, and its ability to be useful even in the presence of missing data. Two other factors that had been suggested in past literature were not perceived by interviewees to be as important as the above two: the presence of a champion for the decision support tool within the management agency, and the time required to apply the tool. The interviews also revealed a number of additional factors that influenced use or non-use of decision support tools that we had not extracted from existing literature: ambiguity about policy objectives, the autonomy of the agency, and the employee time costs of applying the decision support tool.Decision making; Decision support tools; Conservation policy; Marxan
Trade-offs between data resolution, accuracy, and cost when choosing information to plan reserves for coral reef ecosystemsJournal of Environmental ManagementVivitskaia J. Tullocha, Carissa J. Klein, Stacy D. Jupiter, Ayesha I.T. Tulloch, Chris Roelfsema, Hugh P. Possingham2017Conservation planners must reconcile trade-offs associated with using biodiversity data of differing qualities to make decisions. Coarse habitat classifications are commonly used as surrogates to design marine reserve networks when fine-scale biodiversity data are incomplete or unavailable. Although finely-classified habitat maps provide more detail, they may have more misclassification errors, a common problem when remotely-sensed imagery is used. Despite these issues, planners rarely consider the effects of errors when choosing data for spatially explicit conservation prioritizations. Here we evaluate trade-offs between accuracy and resolution of hierarchical coral reef habitat data (geomorphology and benthic substrate) derived from remote sensing, in spatial planning for Kubulau District, Fiji. For both, we use accuracy information describing the probability that a mapped habitat classification is correct to design marine reserve networks that achieve habitat conservation targets, and demonstrate inadequacies of using habitat maps without accuracy data. We show that using more detailed habitat information ensures better representation of biogenic habitats (i.e. coral and seagrass), but leads to larger and more costly reserves, because these data have more misclassification errors, and are also more expensive to obtain. Reduced impacts on fishers are possible using coarsely-classified data, which are also more cost-effective for planning reserves if we account for data collection costs, but using these data may under-represent reef habitats that are important for fisheries and biodiversity, due to the maps low thematic resolution. Finally, we show that explicitly accounting for accuracy information in decisions maximizes the chance of successful conservation outcomes by reducing the risk of missing conservation representation targets, particularly when using finely classified data.Marine protected area; Conservation; Spatial planning; Cost-effectiveness; Surrogate; Habitat classification
Marine Reserve Targets to Sustain and Rebuild Unregulated FisheriesPLOS BiologyNils C. Krueck , Gabby N. Ahmadia, Hugh P. Possingham, Cynthia Riginos, Eric A. Treml, Peter J. Mumby 2017 threatens the sustainability of coastal marine biodiversity, especially in tropical developing countries. To counter this problem, about 200 governments worldwide have committed to protecting 10%–20% of national coastal marine areas. However, associated impacts on fisheries productivity are unclear and could weaken the food security of hundreds of millions of people who depend on diverse and largely unregulated fishing activities. Here, we present a systematic theoretic analysis of the ability of reserves to rebuild fisheries under such complex conditions, and we identify maximum reserve coverages for biodiversity conservation that do not impair long-term fisheries productivity. Our analysis assumes that fishers have no viable alternative to fishing, such that total fishing effort remains constant (at best). We find that realistic reserve networks, which protect 10%–30% of fished habitats in 1–20 km wide reserves, should benefit the long-term productivity of almost any complex fishery. We discover a “rule of thumb” to safeguard against the long-term catch depletion of particular species: individual reserves should export 30% or more of locally produced larvae to adjacent fishing grounds. Specifically on coral reefs, where fishers tend to overexploit species whose dispersal distances as larvae exceed the home ranges of adults, decisions on the size of reserves needed to meet the 30% larval export rule are unlikely to compromise the protection of resident adults. Even achieving the modest Aichi Target 11 of 10% “effective protection” can then help rebuild depleted catch. However, strictly protecting 20%–30% of fished habitats is unlikely to diminish catch even if overfishing is not yet a problem while providing greater potential for biodiversity conservation and fishery rebuilding if overfishing is substantial. These findings are important because they suggest that doubling or tripling the only globally enforced marine reserve target will benefit biodiversity conservation and higher fisheries productivity where both are most urgently needed.
Unconventional oil and gas spills: Materials, volumes, and risks to surface waters in four states of the U.S.Science of the Total EnvironmentKelly O. Maloney, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Lauren A. Patterson, Jean-Philippe Nicot, Sally A. Entrekin, Joseph E. Fargione, Joseph M. Kiesecker, Kate E. Konschnik, Joseph N. Ryan, Anne M. Trainor, James E. Saiers, Hannah J. Wiseman2017Extraction of oil and gas from unconventional sources, such as shale, has dramatically increased over the past ten years, raising the potential for spills or releases of chemicals, waste materials, and oil and gas. We analyzed spill data associated with unconventional wells from Colorado, New Mexico, North Dakota and Pennsylvania from 2005 to 2014, where we defined unconventional wells as horizontally drilled into an unconventional formation. We identified materials spilled by state and for each material we summarized frequency, volumes and spill rates. We evaluated the environmental risk of spills by calculating distance to the nearest stream and compared these distances to existing setback regulations. Finally, we summarized relative importance to drinking water in watersheds where spills occurred. Across all four states, we identified 21,300 unconventional wells and 6622 reported spills. The number of horizontal well bores increased sharply beginning in the late 2000s; spill rates also increased for all states except PA where the rate initially increased, reached a maximum in 2009 and then decreased. Wastewater, crude oil, drilling waste, and hydraulic fracturing fluid were the materials most often spilled; spilled volumes of these materials largely ranged from 100 to 10,000 L. Across all states, the average distance of spills to a stream was highest in New Mexico (1379 m), followed by Colorado (747 m), North Dakota (598 m) and then Pennsylvania (268 m), and 7.0, 13.3, and 20.4% of spills occurred within existing surface water setback regulations of 30.5, 61.0, and 91.4 m, respectively. Pennsylvania spills occurred in watersheds with a higher relative importance to drinking water than the other three states. Results from this study can inform risk assessments by providing improved input parameters on volume and rates of materials spilled, and guide regulations and the management policy of spills.Shale oil and gas; Hydraulic fracturing; Extraction; Spill rates; Wells; Colorado; New Mexico; North Dakota; Pennsylvania; Setback regulations
Unconventional Oil and Gas Spills: Risks, Mitigation Priorities, and State Reporting RequirementsEnvironmental Science & TechnologyLauren A. Patterson, Katherine E. Konschnik, Hannah Wiseman, Joseph Fargione, Kelly O. Maloney, Joseph Kiesecker, Jean-Philippe Nicot, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Sally Entrekin, Anne Trainor, and James E. Saiers2017Rapid growth in unconventional oil and gas (UOG) has produced jobs, revenue, and energy, but also concerns over spills and environmental risks. We assessed spill data from 2005 to 2014 at 31 481 UOG wells in Colorado, New Mexico, North Dakota, and Pennsylvania. We found 2–16% of wells reported a spill each year. Median spill volumes ranged from 0.5 m3 in Pennsylvania to 4.9 m3 in New Mexico; the largest spills exceeded 100 m3. Seventy-five to 94% of spills occurred within the first three years of well life when wells were drilled, completed, and had their largest production volumes. Across all four states, 50% of spills were related to storage and moving fluids via flowlines. Reporting rates varied by state, affecting spill rates and requiring extensive time and effort getting data into a usable format. Enhanced and standardized regulatory requirements for reporting spills could improve the accuracy and speed of analyses to identify and prevent spill risks and mitigate potential environmental damage. Transparency for data sharing and analysis will be increasingly important as UOG development expands. We designed an interactive spills data visualization tool ( to illustrate the value of having standardized, public data.
Clarifying the role of coastal and marine systems in climate mitigationFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentJennifer Howard, Ariana Sutton-Grier, Dorothée Herr, Joan Kleypas, Emily Landis, Elizabeth Mcleod, Emily Pidgeon, Stefanie Simpson2017 international scientific community is increasingly recognizing the role of natural systems in climate-change mitigation. While forests have historically been the primary focus of such efforts, coastal wetlands – particularly seagrasses, tidal marshes, and mangroves – are now considered important and effective long-term carbon sinks. However, some members of the coastal and marine policy and management community have been interested in expanding climate mitigation strategies to include other components within coastal and marine systems, such as coral reefs, phytoplankton, kelp forests, and marine fauna. We analyze the scientific evidence regarding whether these marine ecosystems and ecosystem components are viable long-term carbon sinks and whether they can be managed for climate mitigation. Our findings could assist decision makers and conservation practitioners in identifying which components of coastal and marine ecosystems should be prioritized in current climate mitigation strategies and policies.
An evaluation of landowners' conservation easements on their livelihoods and well-beingBiological ConservationKatharine Horton, Heather Knight, Kathleen A. Galvin, Joshua H. Goldstein, Jennifer Herrington2017 lands protected by conservation easements are crucial in aiding conservation efforts. While most research on measuring conservation efforts has historically been on ecological outcomes of protecting biodiversity, this study aims to measure the social outcomes of the impacts of conservation easements on private landowners' livelihoods and well-being in Colorado. We conducted 35 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with landowners who had completed conservation easements with The Nature Conservancy in Colorado. Using qualitative interview data, we analyzed what motivated landowners to complete conservation easements with TNC and how the conservation easements influenced their well-being. Five dominant themes emerged from the analyses: 1) conservation, 2) financial, 3) legal and process, 4) personal and family, and 5) social and community. Landowner motivations were to protect the ecosystem, prevent development, and financial gain through tax incentives or income. Negative neighbor reactions, time to complete or amend the easement, and tax audits were some challenges experienced. Landowners revealed that community involvement, connections, and networking were unexpected benefits and brought positive change to their life because of easements. The results from this case study can be used to inform conservation strategies that more purposefully incorporate private landowner experiences with conservation easements in planning to achieve biodiversity and conservation objectives. Coupling ecological conservation outcomes with conservation management practices and at the same time understanding the impact of conservation easements on landowners' livelihoods and well-being will further advance conservation efforts on private lands in the future.Conservation; Livelihoods; Well-being; Ecosystem
Designing coastal conservation to deliver ecosystem and human well-being benefitsPLOS OneGust M. Annis, Douglas R. Pearsall, Katherine J. Kahl, Erika L. Washburn, Christopher A. May, Rachael Franks Taylor, James B. Cole, David N. Ewert, Edward T. Game, Patrick J. Doran2017 scientists increasingly recognize that incorporating human values into conservation planning increases the chances for success by garnering broader project acceptance. However, methods for defining quantitative targets for the spatial representation of human well-being priorities are less developed. In this study we employ an approach for identifying regionally important human values and establishing specific spatial targets for their representation based on stakeholder outreach. Our primary objective was to develop a spatially-explicit conservation plan that identifies the most efficient locations for conservation actions to meet ecological goals while sustaining or enhancing human well-being values within the coastal and nearshore areas of the western Lake Erie basin (WLEB). We conducted an optimization analysis using 26 features representing ecological and human well-being priorities (13 of each), and included seven cost layers. The influence that including human well-being had on project results was tested by running five scenarios and setting targets for human well-being at different levels in each scenario. The most important areas for conservation to achieve multiple goals are clustered along the coast, reflecting a concentration of existing or potentially restorable coastal wetlands, coastal landbird stopover habitat and terrestrial biodiversity, as well as important recreational activities. Inland important areas tended to cluster around trails and high quality inland landbird stopover habitat. Most concentrated areas of importance also are centered on lands that are already conserved, reflecting the lower costs and higher benefits of enlarging these conserved areas rather than conserving isolated, dispersed areas. Including human well-being features in the analysis only influenced the solution at the highest target levels.
Spending limited resources on de-extinction could lead to net biodiversity lossNature Ecology and EvolutionJoseph R. Bennett, Richard F. Maloney, Tammy E. Steeves, James Brazill-Boast, Hugh P. Possingham & Philip J. Seddon2017There is contentious debate surrounding the merits of de-extinction as a biodiversity conservation tool. Here, we use extant analogues to predict conservation actions for potential de-extinction candidate species from New Zealand and the Australian state of New South Wales, and use a prioritization protocol to predict the impacts of reintroducing and maintaining populations of these species on conservation of extant threatened species. Even using the optimistic assumptions that resurrection of species is externally sponsored, and that actions for resurrected species can share costs with extant analogue species, public funding for conservation of resurrected species would lead to fewer extant species that could be conserved, suggesting net biodiversity loss. If full costs of establishment and maintenance for resurrected species populations were publicly funded, there could be substantial sacrifices in extant species conservation. If conservation of resurrected species populations could be fully externally sponsored, there could be benefits to extant threatened species. However, such benefits would be outweighed by opportunity costs, assuming such discretionary money could directly fund conservation of extant species. Potential sacrifices in conservation of extant species should be a crucial consideration in deciding whether to invest in de-extinction or focus our efforts on extant species.
Carbon and Biodiversity Impacts of Intensive Versus Extensive Tropical ForestryConservation Letters - a journal of the Society for Conservation BiologyBronson W. Griscom, Rosa C. Goodman, Zuzana Burivalova, Francis E. Putz2017 should we meet the demand for wood while minimizing climate and biodiversity impacts? We address this question for tropical forest landscapes designated for timber production. We model carbon and biodiversity outcomes for four archetypal timber production systems that all deliver the same volume of timber but vary in their spatial extent and harvest intensity. We include impacts of variable deforestation risk (secure land tenure or not) and alternative harvesting practices (certified reduced-impact logging methods or not). We find that low-intensity selective logging offers both the best and the worst overall outcomes per unit wood produced, depending on whether certified reduced-impact logging methods are used and whether land tenure is secure. Medium-to-high-intensity natural forest harvests and conversion to high-yield plantations generate intermediate outcomes. Deforestation risk had the strongest influence on overall outcomes. In the absence of deforestation, logging impacts were lowest at intermediate and high management intensities.Carbon flux; certification; conservationplanning; deforestation; land use intensification;reduced-impact logging (RIL); selective logging;sharing versus sparing; species richness;tropical forestry.
Marine species distribution shifts on the U.S. Northeast Continental Shelf under continued ocean warmingProgress in OceanographyKristin M. Kleisner, Michael J. Fogarty, Sally McGee, Jonathan A. Hare, Skye Moret, Charles T. Perretti, Vincent S. Saba2017 U.S. Northeast Continental Shelf marine ecosystem has warmed much faster than the global ocean and it is expected that this enhanced warming will continue through this century. Complex bathymetry and ocean circulation in this region have contributed to biases in global climate model simulations of the Shelf waters. Increasing the resolution of these models results in reductions in the bias of future climate change projections and indicates greater warming than suggested by coarse resolution climate projections. Here, we used a high-resolution global climate model and historical observations of species distributions from a trawl survey to examine changes in the future distribution of suitable thermal habitat for various demersal and pelagic species on the Shelf. Along the southern portion of the shelf (Mid-Atlantic Bight and Georges Bank), a projected 4.1 °C (surface) to 5.0 °C (bottom) warming of ocean temperature from current conditions results in a northward shift of the thermal habitat for the majority of species. While some southern species like butterfish and black sea bass are projected to have moderate losses in suitable thermal habitat, there are potentially significant increases for many species including summer flounder, striped bass, and Atlantic croaker. In the north, in the Gulf of Maine, a projected 3.7 °C (surface) to 3.9 °C (bottom) warming from current conditions results in substantial reductions in suitable thermal habitat such that species currently inhabiting this region may not remain in these waters under continued warming. We project a loss in suitable thermal habitat for key northern species including Acadian redfish, American plaice, Atlantic cod, haddock, and thorney skate, but potential gains for some species including spiny dogfish and American lobster. We illustrate how changes in suitable thermal habitat of important commercially fished species may impact local fishing communities and potentially impact major fishing ports along the U.S. Northeast Shelf. Given the complications of multiple drivers including species interactions and fishing pressure, it is difficult to predict exactly how species will shift. However, observations of species distribution shifts in the historical record under ocean warming suggest that temperature will play a primary role in influencing how species fare. Our results provide critical information on the potential for suitable thermal habitat on the U.S. Northeast Shelf for demersal species in the region, and may contribute to the development of ecosystem-based fisheries management strategies in response to climate change.Climate change; Thermal habitat; Global climate model; Northwest Atlantic; Temperature shifts
Leveraging environmental flows to reform water management policy: lessons learned from the 2014 Colorado River delta pulse flowEcological EngineeringKendy, E.; Flessa, K.W.; Schlatter, K.J.; de la Parra, C.A.; Hinojosa-Huerta, O.M.; Carrillo-Guerrero, Y.K.; Guillen, E.2017 Minute 319, a binational agreement between the United States and México, authorized environmental flows into the Colorado River Delta, including a high-profile pulse flow delivered in March through May 2014. Reforming water management policy to secure future delivery of environmental flows to the delta hinges on demonstrating the feasibility of delivering environmental water and documenting positive ecological responses of the delta’s severely degraded riparian habitat. The design of the flow’s hydrograph, the novel utilization of irrigation infrastructure, the preparation and subsequent maintenance of selected restoration sites, and interdisciplinary monitoring at multiple scales combined to show that ecological restoration is possible, even with extremely small water volumes compared to historical flows. The overwhelmingly positive social responses to the flow are likely as pivotal to future flows as are the biophysical responses. The pulse flow’s unique binational character demanded exceptional collaboration and communication involving local, state, and federal government agencies; water managers; water users; scientists; and non-governmental organizations. The success of such a politically, operationally, and scientifically complex endeavor in the severely over-allocated Colorado River Basin bodes well for the future of environmental flows in its delta and in other water-stressed settings, worldwide.Environmental flow; Minute 319; Colorado River Delta; Riparian restoration; Water management; Advocacy Coalition Framework
Shaping the 2014 Colorado River Delta pulse flow: Rapid environmental flow design for ecological outcomes and scientific learningEcological EngineeringPitt, J.; Kendy, E.2017In 2014, the United States and Mexico jointly delivered an environmental flow to the Colorado River Delta, as authorized in a 2012 binational water management agreement known as Minute 319. The agreement specified a volume of water, the source of the water, that the water should be delivered as a pulse flow, and that the objectives of the pulse flow were to pilot environmental restoration and learn about the hydrologic and ecological responses to water delivery into the Colorado River Delta. The Minute did not specify the characteristics of the pulse flow, but rather specified a process, calling on a group of stakeholders, including federal, state, and local water managers as well as non-governmental conservation organizations from both countries, to develop a flow delivery plan. The flow delivery plan was developed, approved, and executed in an exceptionally short period of time, with limited scientific data, under numerous operational constraints. The unique feature that made the hydrograph development a success is the exceptionally close interaction between policy makers, water managers, and scientists, driven by clear objectives for ecological outcomes and scientific learning. In describing this case study, we also document the inevitable tradeoffs that led to a flow design that best met the needs of all parties while fully meeting the needs of none. In so doing, we rationalize the characteristics of the flow delivery hydrograph.Environmental flows; Pulse flow; Hydrograph design; Colorado River Delta; Stakeholders; Collaboration
Hydrological response of an environmental flood: Pulse flow 2014 on the Colorado River DeltaEcological EngineeringJorge Ramírez-Hernández, Eliana Rodríguez-Burgueño, Eloise Kendy, Adrián Salcedo-Peredia, Marcelo A. Lomeli2017Increasing pressure on water availability in the Colorado River Basin due to a long and severe drought, water over-allocation, increasing water demands, and a warming climate point toward the need to optimize use of water to meet all goals, including environmental restoration. In this paper, we analyze the hydrologic response of the Colorado River Delta to the 2014 pulse flow. In so doing, we identify hydrological criteria for optimizing the use of water for riparian restoration. We analyzed continuous hydrographs obtained from discharge measurement sites along the river channel, quantified areas inundated by water, and interpreted groundwater dynamics and their implications for riparian vegetation. Our most important finding is that 91.4% of the delivered water infiltrated into the first 61.2 km of the riverbed (between Morelos Dam and Pescaderos), recharging the underlying aquifer. This large volume of infiltration occurred mainly because several obstructions along the main channel impeded downstream surface flow, abandoned river meanders acted as infiltration basins, sandy riverbed and terrace sediments allowed for rapid infiltration, and a depressed groundwater table created a large unsaturated zone to fill. Most of the water was delivered at Morelos Dam. However, smaller water deliveries via Mexicali Valley’s irrigation canal system bypassed the reaches of maximum infiltration, enabling the achievement of longitudinal river connectivity from Morelos Dam to the Gulf of California, and inundating important flood-dependent restoration sites. To optimize future environmental water deliveries, we encourage the use of irrigation infrastructure to deliver water directly to specific restoration sites to the extent possible, thereby avoiding reaches with high infiltration capacity and low riparian restoration potential. To improve river channel functionality in high-infiltration reaches, we recommend strategies to flood only the main channel and avoid off-channel depressions. By considering hydrological responses to environmental flow deliveries, riparian restoration goals can be achieved efficiently, even in highly controlled rivers with limited water availability.Environmental flows; Colorado river delta; Minute 319; Regulated rivers; Riparian restoration
Logging degrades nursery habitat for an iconic coral reef fishBiological ConservationRichard J. Hamilton, Glenn R. Almany, Christopher J. Brown, John Pita, Nathan A. Peterson, J. Howard Choat2017The loss of nursery habitats is widely believed to contribute disproportionally to declines in abundance and productivity of fish populations. However, it has been difficult to establish links between the processes threatening nurseries and changes in population demography. Here we show that juvenile bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum), an iconic coral reef species that is globally threatened, depend on a highly specific micro-habitat that is vulnerable to sedimentation from logging operations. We conducted surveys on fringing reefs in Solomon Islands. Surveys covered reefs around an island that has been selectively logged, and an island where there has been no logging. B. muricatum juveniles were restricted to shallow lagoonal reefs that fringed mangrove forested shorelines and had a high proportion of live branching corals, with the smallest settlers found in Acropora aspera and Acropora micropthalma colonies that were occupied by damselfish. Statistical path models indicated a 24 times decline in juvenile abundance near logging operations due to the mediating effect of habitat loss, and a possible direct effect of sedimentation on abundance. Our study shows that sedimentation can pose a significant threat to near-shore coral reef fish and highlights the role of nursery habitats in sustaining recruitment to reef fish populations.Coral reef fisheries; Recruitment; Habitat loss; Bolbometopon muricatum; Solomon Islands
How do en route events around the Gulf of Mexico influence migratory landbird populations?The CondorEmily B. Cohen, Wylie C. Barrow, Jr., Jeffrey J. Buler, Jill L. Deppe, Andrew Farnsworth, Peter P. Marra, Scott R. McWilliams, David W. Mehlman, R. Randy Wilson, Mark S. Woodrey, and Frank R. Moore2017 around the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) provide critical resources for Nearctic–Neotropical migratory landbirds, the majority of which travel across or around the GOM every spring and fall as they migrate between temperate breeding grounds in North America and tropical wintering grounds in the Caribbean and Central and South America. At the same time, ecosystems in the GOM are changing rapidly, with unknown consequences for migratory landbird populations, many of which are experiencing population declines. In general, the extent to which events encountered en route limit migratory bird populations is not well understood. At the same time, information from weather surveillance radar, stable isotopes, tracking, eBird, and genetic datasets is increasingly available to address many of the unanswered questions about bird populations that migrate through stopover and airspace habitats in the GOM. We review the state of the science and identify key research needs to understand the impacts of en route events around the GOM region on populations of intercontinental landbird migrants that breed in North America, including: (1) distribution, timing, and habitat associations; (2) habitat characteristics and quality; (3) migratory connectivity; and (4) threats to and current conservation status of airspace and stopover habitats. Finally, we also call for the development of unified and comprehensive long-term monitoring guidelines and international partnerships to advance our understanding of the role of habitats around the GOM in supporting migratory landbird populations moving between temperate breeding grounds and wintering grounds in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean.Gulf of Mexico, landbird migration, Nearctic–Neotropical bird population, stopover habitat, airspace habitat, Gulf coast, migratory connectivity, avian monitoring
IUCN greatly underestimates threat levels of endemic birds in the Western GhatsBiological ConservationVijay Ramesha, Trisha Gopalakrishna, Sahas Barve, Don J. Melnick, 2017The validity of the threat status assigned to a species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) Red List relies heavily on the accuracy of the geographic range size estimate for that species. Range maps used to assess threat status often contain large areas of unsuitable habitat, thereby overestimating range and underestimating threat. In this study, we assessed 18 endemic birds of the Western Ghats to test the accuracy of the geographic range sizes used by the IUCN for their threat assessment. Using independently reviewed data from the world's largest citizen science database (eBird) within a species distribution modeling framework, our results show that: (a) geographic ranges have been vastly overestimated by IUCN for 17 of the 18 endemic bird species; (b) range maps used by IUCN contain large areas of unsuitable habitat, and (c) ranges estimated in this study suggest provisional uplisting of IUCN threat status for at least 10 of the 18 species based on area metrics used by the IUCN for threat assessment. Since global range size is an important parameter for assigning IUCN threat status, citizen science datasets, high resolution and freely available geo-referenced ecological data, and the latest species distribution modeling techniques should be used to estimate and track changes in range extent whenever possible. The methods used here to significantly revise range estimates have important conservation management implications not only for endemic birds in the Western Ghats, but for vertebrate and invertebrate taxa worldwide.Western Ghats; Citizen science; Species distribution modeling; Geographic range; IUCN; Threat status
Two new pinicolous Arthonia (Arthoniaceae; Arthoniomycetes) from the Delmarva Peninsula of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in eastern North AmericaThe BryologistJames C. Lendemer and David Ray2017Two new non-lichenized Arthonia are described from the branches and wood of pine trees (Pinus spp.) in the Coastal Plain of southeastern North America. Arthonia samdykeana is a characterized by its lack of photobiont, large irregularly shaped ascomata, and 6–9(–10–12)-celled ascospores that are macrocephallic. Arthonia gutberletiana is characterized by its lack of photobiont, black circular apothecia with persistent margins, hyaline 2-celled ascospores and occurrence on pine wood.Industrial forestry, lichenization, mycobiont
Mapping the global value and distribution of coral reef tourismMarine PolicyMark Spalding, Lauretta Burke, Spencer A. Wood, Joscelyne Ashpole, James Hutchison, Philine zu Ermgassene2017 coral reef related tourism is one of the most significant examples of nature-based tourism from a single ecosystem. Coral reefs attract foreign and domestic visitors and generate revenues, including foreign exchange earnings, in over 100 countries and territories. Understanding the full value of coral reefs to tourism, and the spatial distribution of these values, provides an important incentive for sustainable reef management. In the current work, global data from multiple sources, including social media and crowd-sourced datasets, were used to estimate and map two distinct components of reef value. The first component is local “reef-adjacent” value, an overarching term used to capture a range of indirect benefits from coral reefs, including provision of sandy beaches, sheltered water, food, and attractive views. The second component is “on-reef” value, directly associated with in-water activities such diving and snorkelling. Tourism values were estimated as a proportion of the total visits and spending by coastal tourists within 30 km of reefs (excluding urban areas). Reef-adjacent values were set as a fixed proportion of 10% of this expenditure. On-reef values were based on the relative abundance of dive-shops and underwater photos in different countries and territories. Maps of value assigned to specific coral reef locations show considerable spatial variability across distances of just a few kilometres. Some 30% of the world's reefs are of value in the tourism sector, with a total value estimated at nearly US$36 billion, or over 9% of all coastal tourism value in the world's coral reef countries.
Standardising English names for Australian bird subspecies as a conservation toolBird Conservation InternationalGlenn Ehmke, James A. Fitzsimons, and Stephen T. Garnett 2017Over the last 25 years subspecies have become an important unit of bird conservation in Australia. Some have evocative common English names which have allowed the subspecies to be vested with meaning among conservation advocates, evoking feelings of concern, loyalty and affection. This suggests that providing subspecies with stable English names can allow development of a ‘brand’ among those in need of conservation action. Also, since scientific names often change with knowledge of taxonomic relationships among birds, a stable list of standardised English names for all species and subspecies can minimise confusion and ambiguity among the public and in legislation. Here we present the arguments for creating a standardised list of English names for Australian bird subspecies and set out principles for formulating subspecies names, along with a list of the names themselves, with the aim of building the general public’s attachment to subspecies, increasing interest in their conservation and as subjects of research.
Identification of ditches and furrows using remote sensing: application to sediment modelling in the Tana watershed, KenyaInternational Journal of Remote SensingEssayas K. Ayana, Jonathan R. B. Fisher, Perrine Hamel, Timothy M. is an agricultural practice where crops are planted on elevated ridges, with furrows in-between. Ridge-tillage has been shown to significantly reduce erosion from croplands, but data on the presence of ridge-tillage is sparse and challenging to collect at the landscape scale. Thus, water quality models often do not account for ridge-tillage in a spatially-explicit manner, potentially overlooking the important impacts of this practice. We have developed a novel method that exploits the spectral, radiometric and linearity shape characteristics to identify both drainage ditches and ridge-tillage furrows using remote sensing of 0.5 m satellite data. We applied the method to the Sasumua watershed in Kenya, where we had false positives in only 3% of randomly selected polygons, and we detected the majority of ditches in 59% of randomly selected polygons. We then assessed the potential value of including these data in sediment modelling, showing that representing these practices could reduce sediment export in the study area by roughly 80%. Being able to readily identify the presence of ditches and furrows could enable the development of more accurate water quality models, and help identify priority areas for intervention to improve water quality (and possibly crop yields) through changing agricultural practices or policies.
Mainstreaming investments in watershed services to enhance water security: Barriers and opportunitiesEnvironmental Science & PolicyAdrian L. Vogla, Joshua H. Goldstein, Gretchen C. Daily, Bhaskar Vira, Leah Bremer, Robert I. McDonald, Daniel Shemie, Beth Tellman, Jan Cassin2017Watersheds are under increasing pressure worldwide, as expanding human activities coupled with global climate change threaten the water security of people downstream. In response, some communities have initiated investments in watershed services (IWS), a general term for policy-finance mechanisms that mitigate diverse watershed threats and promote ecosystem-based adaptation. Here, we explore the potential for increasing the uptake and impact of IWS, evaluating what limits its application and how institutional, financial, and informational barriers can be overcome. Our analysis complements the growing literature on individual programs by identifying levers at regional and global scales. We conclude that mainstreaming IWS as a cost-effective strategy alongside engineered approaches will require advances that (i) lower institutional barriers to implementation and participation in IWS; (ii) introduce structural market changes and standards of practice that account for the value of watersheds’ natural capital; (iii) develop practical tools and metrics of IWS costs and benefits; and (iv) share success stories of replicable institutional and financial models applied in varied contexts.Investments in watershed services; Water infrastructure; Natural infrastructure; Ecosystem-based adaptation; Enabling conditions; Return-on-investment
Can integrating wildlife and livestock enhance ecosystem services in central Kenya?Frontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentBrian F Allan, Heather Tallis, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Steven Huckett, Virginia A Kowal, Jessica Musengezi, Sharon Okanga, Richard S Ostfeld, Jennifer Schieltz, Charles M Warui, Spencer A Wood, Felicia Keesing2017Because wildlife and livestock compete for grazing resources, biodiversity conservation and livestock ranching typically have been portrayed as conflicting uses of African savannas. Here, we offer an alternative perspective by describing a savanna ecosystem in central Kenya where wildlife and livestock exhibit a suite of potential positive interactions. For example, treating livestock with an acaricide offers the unintended benefit of removing ticks from the landscape, a result that has now been shown to occur at both large and small scales. When humans derive financial benefits both from wildlife (through tourism) and from livestock (through food production), they may achieve greater economic stability than when income is derived solely from one source. The integrated management of wildlife and livestock can simultaneously improve human health and wildlife conservation. Optimization of human and wildlife benefits will require the management of ecological and socioeconomic trade-offs when conflicts occur between stakeholders.
Using soundscapes to detect variable degrees of human influence on tropical forests in Papua New GuineaConservation BiologyZuzana Burivalova, Michael Towsey, Tim Boucher, Anthony Truskinger, Cosmas Apelis, Paul Roe, Edward T. Game2017 is global concern about tropical forest degradation, in part, because of the associated loss of biodiversity. Communities and indigenous people play a fundamental role in tropical forest management and they are often efficient at preventing forest degradation. However, monitoring changes in biodiversity due to degradation, especially at a scale appropriate to local tropical forest management, is marred with difficulties including the need for expert training, inconsistency across observers, and the lack of baseline or reference data. We used a new biodiversity remote sensing technology, the recording of soundscapes, to test whether the acoustic saturation of a soundscape decreases with increasing land use intensity by the communities that manage the tropical forests in Papua New Guinea. We found that land use zones where forest cover was fully retained had a significantly higher soundscape saturation during peak acoustic activity times, corresponding to the dawn and dusk chorus, compared with land use types with fragmented forest cover. We conclude that, in Papua New Guinea, the relatively simple measure of soundscape saturation may provide a cheap, objective, reproducible, and effective tool to monitor tropical forest deviation from intact state, particularly through detecting the presence of an intact dawn and dusk chorus.avifauna, bioacoustics, community forest management, forest degradation, hunting, subsistence agriculture, land use planning, vocalizing biodiversity
Consequences of tropical forest conversion to oil palm on soil bacterial community and network structureSoil Biology and BiochemistryStephen A.Wood, Jack A.Gilbert, Jonathan W. Leffe, Noah Fierer, Heather D'Angelo, Carling Bateman, Seren M. Gedallovich, Caitlyn M. Gillikin, Mary R. Gradoville, Patahayah Mansor, Audrey Massmann, Nina Yang, Benjamin L.Turner, Francis Q. Brearley, Krista L.McGuire l2017Tropical forest conversion to agriculture is a major global change process. Understanding of the ecological consequences of this conversion are limited by poor knowledge of how soil microorganisms respond. We analyzed the response of soil bacteria to conversion from primary rain forest to oil palm plantation and regenerating logged forest in Malaysia. Bacterial diversity increased by approximately 20% with conversion to oil palm because of higher pH due to liming by plantation managers. Phylogenetic clustering indicated that bacterial communities were determined by environmental filtering. Regenerating logged forests did not have significantly different soil chemistry, which did not correspond with significant differences in bacterial richness, diversity, or the relative abundances of particular taxa. However, there were significant differences in the structure of bacterial community networks between regenerating logged forests and primary forests, highlighting previously unobserved effects of these two land uses. Network analysis highlighted taxa that are potentially central to bacterial networks, but have low relative abundances, suggesting that these rare taxa could play an ecological role and therefore warrant further research.BacteriaMicrobial diversityMicrobial networksOil palmRare microbesTropical deforestation
Defining Ecological Drought for the 21st Century Journal of the American Meteorological SocietyS. Crausbay, A. Ramirez, S. Carter, M. Cross, K. Hall, D. Bathke, J. Betancourt, S. Colt, A. Cravens, M. Dalton, J. Dunham, L. Hay, M. Hayes, J. McEvoy, C. McNutt, M. Moritz, K. Nislow, N. Raheem, and T. Sanford McNutt 13 , Max A. Moritz 14 , Keith H. Nislow 15 , Nejem Raheem 16 , and Todd Sanford
Nature Contact and Human Health: A Research AgendaEnvironmental Health PerspectivesHoward Frumkin, Gregory N. Bratman, Sara Jo Breslow, Bobby Cochran, Peter H. Kahn Jr., Joshua J. Lawler, Phillip S. Levin, Pooja S. Tandon, Usha Varanasi, Kathleen L. Wolf, and Spencer A. Wood2017 At a time of increasing disconnectedness from nature, scientific interest in the potential health benefits of nature contact has grown. Research in recent decades has yielded substantial evidence, but large gaps remain in our understanding. OBJECTIVES: We propose a research agenda on nature contact and health, identifying principal domains of research and key questions that, if answered, would provide the basis for evidence-based public health interventions. DISCUSSION: We identify research questions in seven domains: a) mechanistic biomedical studies; b) exposure science; c) epidemiology of health benefits; d) diversity and equity considerations; e) technological nature; f) economic and policy studies; and g) implementation science. CONCLUSIONS: Nature contact may offer a range of human health benefits. Although much evidence is already available, much remains unknown. A robust research effort, guided by a focus on key unanswered questions, has the potential to yield high-impact, consequential public health insights.
CAPitalising on conservation knowledge: Using Conservation Action Planning, Healthy Country Planning and the Open Standards in AustraliaEcological Management & RestorationBen Carr, James Fitzsimons, Natalie Holland, Todd Berkinshaw, Keith Bradby, Stuart Cowell, Paula Deegan, Paul Koch, Michael Looker, Tony Varcoe, Philippa Walsh, Frank Weisenberger2017More than 20 organisations use Conservation Action Planning (CAP), Healthy Country Planning and the Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation in over 140 projects, covering almost 160 million ha across Australia. This review documents the history, evolution and application of CAP in Australia and discusses its strengths, limitations and lessons learnt by users, including conservation planners, practitioners and policymakers.Conservation Action Planning; conservation planning; Healthy Country Planning; participatory conservation; targets; threats
Improving Habitat Exchange Planning Through Theory, Application, and Lessons From Other FieldsEnvironmental Science & PolicyChristopher S. Galik, Todd K. BenDor, Julie DeMeester, David Wolfe 2017New tools are being deployed to address the continued decline of species at risk of becoming threatened or endangered. One approach receiving increased attention is the habitat exchange, or the use of a market-based, landscape-scale approach to protect or restore habitat in one place to offset impacts elsewhere. Although considerable resources have been devoted to the establishment of habitat exchanges over the past several years, actual implementation of transactions through habitat exchanges have been limited. As we argue here, important lessons have been slow to translate to habitat exchanges from other planning arenas. We briefly outline how the decision sciences, particularly structured decision making, and other planning processes − such as those governing electricity infrastructure development − can provide examples to facilitate the use of habitat exchanges as a viable and scalable conservation tool. We emphasize the challenge of translating theory to application, and note the importance of cross-fertilization of knowledge and experience across traditional disciplinary bounds.Conservation markets, Endangered species act, Habitat exchange, Structured decision making, Integrated resource planning
Return on investment from fuel treatments to reduce severe wildfire and erosion in a watershed investment program in ColoradoJournal of Environmental ManagementKelly W. Jones, Jeffery B. Cannon, Freddy A. Saavedra, Stephanie K. Kampf, Robert N. Addington, Antony S.Cheng, Lee H. MacDonald, Codie Wilson, Brett Wolk 2017A small but growing number of watershed investment programs in the western United States focus on wildfire risk reduction to municipal water supplies. This paper used return on investment (ROI) analysis to quantify how the amounts and placement of fuel treatment interventions would reduce sediment loading to the Strontia Springs Reservoir in the Upper South Platte River watershed southwest of Denver, Colorado following an extreme fire event. We simulated various extents of fuel mitigation activities under two placement strategies: (a) a strategic treatment prioritization map and (b) accessibility. Potential fire behavior was modeled under each extent and scenario to determine the impact on fire severity, and this was used to estimate expected change in post-fire erosion due to treatments. We found a positive ROI after large storm events when fire mitigation treatments were placed in priority areas with diminishing marginal returns after treating >50–80% of the forested area. While our ROI results should not be used prescriptively they do show that, conditional on severe fire occurrence and precipitation, investments in the Upper South Platte could feasibly lead to positive financial returns based on the reduced costs of dredging sediment from the reservoir. While our analysis showed positive ROI focusing only on post-fire erosion mitigation, it is important to consider multiple benefits in future ROI calculations and increase monitoring and evaluation of these benefits of wildfire fuel reduction investments for different site conditions and climates.Wildfire risk, Wildfire mitigation, Payments for ecosystem services, Watershed partnerships, Watershed services, Sediment
Groundwater declines are linked to changes in Great Plains stream fish assemblagesProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America PNAS, Proceedings of the National Academy of SciencesJoshuah S. Perkin, Keith B. Gido, Jeffrey A. Falke, Kurt D. Fausch, Harry Crockett, Eric R. Johnson, and John Sanderson2017Groundwater pumping for agriculture is a major driver causing declines of global freshwater ecosystems, yet the ecological consequences for stream fish assemblages are rarely quantified. We combined retrospective (1950–2010) and prospective (2011–2060) modeling approaches within a multiscale framework to predict change in Great Plains stream fish assemblages associated with groundwater pumping from the United States High Plains Aquifer. We modeled the relationship between the length of stream receiving water from the High Plains Aquifer and the occurrence of fishes characteristic of small and large streams in the western Great Plains at a regional scale and for six subwatersheds nested within the region. Water development at the regional scale was associated with construction of 154 barriers that fragment stream habitats, increased depth to groundwater and loss of 558 km of stream, and transformation of fish assemblage structure from dominance by large-stream to small-stream fishes. Scaling down to subwatersheds revealed consistent transformations in fish assemblage structure among western subwatersheds with increasing depths to groundwater. Although transformations occurred in the absence of barriers, barriers along mainstem rivers isolate depauperate western fish assemblages from relatively intact eastern fish assemblages. Projections to 2060 indicate loss of an additional 286 km of stream across the region, as well as continued replacement of large-stream fishes by small-stream fishes where groundwater pumping has increased depth to groundwater. Our work illustrates the shrinking of streams and homogenization of Great Plains stream fish assemblages related to groundwater pumping, and we predict similar transformations worldwide where local and regional aquifer depletions occur.ecology, conservation, freshwater, Great Plains, fishes
First integrative trend analysis for a great ape species in BorneoScientific ReportsTruly Santika, Marc Ancrenaz, Kerrie A. Wilson, Stephanie Spehar, Nicola Abram, Graham L. Banes, Gail Campbell-Smith, Lisa Curran, Laura d’Arcy, Roberto A. Delgado, Andi Erman, Benoit Goossens, Herlina Hartanto, Max Houghton, Simon J. Husson, Hjalmar S. Kühl, Isabelle Lackman, Ashley Leiman, Karmele Llano Sanchez, Niel Makinuddin, Andrew J. Marshall, Ari Meididit, Kerrie Mengersen, Musnanda, Nardiyono, Anton Nurcahyo, Kisar Odom, Adventus Panda, Didik Prasetyo, Purnomo, Andjar Rafiastanto, Slamet Raharjo, Dessy Ratnasari, Anne E. Russon, Adi H. Santana, Eddy Santoso, Iman Sapari, Jamartin Sihite, Ahmat Suyoko, Albertus Tjiu, Sri Suci Utami-Atmoko, Carel P. van Schaik, Maria Voigt, Jessie Wells, Serge A. Wich, Erik P. Willems & Erik Meijaard2017 many threatened species the rate and drivers of population decline are difficult to assess accurately: species’ surveys are typically restricted to small geographic areas, are conducted over short time periods, and employ a wide range of survey protocols. We addressed methodological challenges for assessing change in the abundance of an endangered species. We applied novel methods for integrating field and interview survey data for the critically endangered Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), allowing a deeper understanding of the species’ persistence through time. Our analysis revealed that Bornean orangutan populations have declined at a rate of 25% over the last 10 years. Survival rates of the species are lowest in areas with intermediate rainfall, where complex interrelations between soil fertility, agricultural productivity, and human settlement patterns influence persistence. These areas also have highest threats from human-wildlife conflict. Survival rates are further positively associated with forest extent, but are lower in areas where surrounding forest has been recently converted to industrial agriculture. Our study highlights the urgency of determining specific management interventions needed in different locations to counter the trend of decline and its associated drivers.Biodiversity, Conservation biology, Population dynamics
Vol. 12(22), pp. 1889-1896, 1 June, 2017 DOI: 10.5897/AJAR2017.12331 Article Number: C18DF1864548 ISSN 1991-637X Copyright ©2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article African Journal of Agricultural Research Full Length Research Paper Improving grain legume yields using local Evate rock phosphate in Gùrué District, MozambiqueAfrican Journal of Agricultural Research António Rocha, Ricardo Maria, Unasse S. Waite, Uatema A. Cassimo, Kim Falinski, and Russell Yost2017Acid, infertile reddish-brown soils characterize large amounts of central Mozambique. Few of these soils are in food production representing a missed opportunity for agricultural productivity and a missed alternative to improve the food security of the country. Low levels of soil nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, and potassium limit crop growth. Local agricultural amendments for acid, infertile soils such as limestone and rock phosphate exist but are unexploited. An experiment was conducted to assess the feasibility of using local Evate rock phosphate (40.7% total P2O5) as a corrective to supply phosphorus. The rock phosphate was applied at rates of 20, 40, 80 and 160 kg total P ha-1. Comparison triple super phosphate was also added at four P levels (0, 10, 20 and 40 kg P ha-1). A long growth cycle crop of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L., Mill sp. variety “ICAEP00020”) with a growth cycle of 190 days was used to assess effectiveness of the local rock phosphate. A pigeon pea grain yield of 1000 kg grain ha-1 was possible with an application of 80 kg ha-1 of total P added as Evate rock phosphate. By comparison 20 kg P ha-1 as TSP was needed to reach a maximum yield of pigeon pea grain. This ratio suggests that Evate rock phosphate was 25% as effective as TSP on a total P basis. This research suggests that the Evate rock phosphate can be an effective amendment that can enable or enhance food grain production on the acid, infertile upland soils of Central Mozambique. Whether for direct application for acid-tolerant crops or acid soils or processed into soluble fertilizer phosphate, the existence of such a valuable resource provides a great opportunity for improved local food crop production. Rock phosphate, pigeon pea, acid soils, food grains, food security.
Sediment delivery modeling in practice: Comparing the effects of watershed characteristics and data resolution across hydroclimatic regionsScience of the Total EnvironmentPerrine Hamel, Kim Falinski, Richard Sharp Daniel A. Auerbach, María Sánchez-Canales, P. James Dennedy-Franka 2017Geospatial models are commonly used to quantify sediment contributions at the watershed scale. However, the sensitivity of these models to variation in hydrological and geomorphological features, in particular to land use and topography data, remains uncertain. Here, we assessed the performance of one such model, the InVEST sediment delivery model, for six sites comprising a total of 28 watersheds varying in area (6–13,500 km2), climate (tropical, subtropical, mediterranean), topography, and land use/land cover. For each site, we compared uncalibrated and calibrated model predictions with observations and alternative models. We then performed correlation analyses between model outputs and watershed characteristics, followed by sensitivity analyses on the digital elevation model (DEM) resolution. Model performance varied across sites (overall r2 = 0.47), but estimates of the magnitude of specific sediment export were as or more accurate than global models. We found significant correlations between metrics of sediment delivery and watershed characteristics, including erosivity, suggesting that empirical relationships may ultimately be developed for ungauged watersheds. Model sensitivity to DEM resolution varied across and within sites, but did not correlate with other observed watershed variables. These results were corroborated by sensitivity analyses performed on synthetic watersheds ranging in mean slope and DEM resolution. Our study provides modelers using InVEST or similar geospatial sediment models with practical insights into model behavior and structural uncertainty: first, comparison of model predictions across regions is possible when environmental conditions differ significantly; second, local knowledge on the sediment budget is needed for calibration; and third, model outputs often show significant sensitivity to DEM resolution.InVEST, Sediment delivery model, Sensitivity analyses, DEM, Uncertainty
Upstream solutions to coral reef conservation: The payoffs of smart and cooperative decision-makingJournal of Environmental ManagementKirsten L.L. Oleson, Kim A. Falinski, Joey Lecky Clara Rowe, Carrie V. Kappel, Kimberly A.Selkoe, Crow White 2017 source pollutants (LBSP) actively threaten coral reef ecosystems globally. To achieve the greatest conservation outcome at the lowest cost, managers could benefit from appropriate tools that evaluate the benefits (in terms of LBSP reduction) and costs of implementing alternative land management strategies. Here we use a spatially explicit predictive model (InVEST-SDR) that quantifies change in sediment reaching the coast for evaluating the costs and benefits of alternative threat-abatement scenarios. We specifically use the model to examine trade-offs among possible agricultural road repair management actions (water bars to divert runoff and gravel to protect the road surface) across the landscape in West Maui, Hawaii, USA. We investigated changes in sediment delivery to coasts and costs incurred from management decision-making that is (1) cooperative or independent among landowners, and focused on (2) minimizing costs, reducing sediment, or both. The results illuminate which management scenarios most effectively minimize sediment while also minimizing the cost of mitigation efforts. We find targeting specific “hotspots” within all individual parcels is more cost-effective than targeting all road segments. The best outcomes are achieved when landowners cooperate and target cost-effective road repairs, however, a cooperative strategy can be counter-productive in some instances when cost-effectiveness is ignored. Simple models, such as the one developed here, have the potential to help managers make better choices about how to use limited resources.Sediment, Roads Trade-off analysis, Cost-effectiveness, Cooperation, Coral reef, Resource management, Watershed, Land-sea interface, Soil erosion
Potential Links Between Certified Organic Coffee and Deforestation in a Protected Area in Chiapas, MexicoWorld DevelopmentM. Jurjonas, K. Crossman, J. Solomon, W. Lopez Baez2016coffee
Ecosystem-service based metrics of sustainability as tools for promoting conservation and food securityFisher, J.R.B. and Kareiva, P.2016agriculture, metrics, corporate, green labels, sustainability
A Horizon Scan of Global Conservation Issues for 2016Trends in Ecology & EvolutionSutherland, William J, Broad, Steven, Caine, Jacqueline, Clout, Mick, Dicks, Lynn V, Doran, Helen, Entwistle, Abigail C, Fleishman, Erica, Gibbons, David W, Keim, Brandon, LeAnstey, Becky, Lickorish, Fiona A, Markillie, Paul, Monk, Kathryn A, Mortimer, Diana, Ockendon, Nancy, Pearce-Higgins, James W, Peck, Lloyd S, Pretty, Jules, Rockstršm, Johan, Spalding, Mark D, Tonneijck, Femke H, Wintle, Bonnie C, Wright, Katherine E2016
Balancing hydropower and biodiversity in the Amazon, Congo, and MekongScienceK. O. Winemiller, P. B. McIntyre, L. Castello, E. Fluet-Chouinard, T. Giarrizzo, S. Nam, I. G. Baird, W. Darwall, N. K. Lujan, I. Harrison, M. L. J. Stiassny, R. A. M. Silvano, D. B. Fitzgerald, F. M. Pelicice, A. A. Agostinho, L. C. Gomes, J. S. Albert, E. Baran, M. Petrere Jr., C. Zarfl, M. Mulligan, J. P. Sullivan, C. C. Arantes, L. M. Sousa, A. A. Koning, D. J. Hoeinghaus, M. Sabaj, J. G. Lundberg, J. Armbruster, M. L. Thieme, P. Petry, J. Zuanon, G. Torrente Vilara, J. Snoeks, C. Ou, W. Rainboth, C. S. Pavanelli, A. Akama, A. van Soesbergen, L. S‡enz2016fish, energy, rivers, South America, Asia, Africa
Quantifying livestock effects on bunchgrass vegetation with Landsat ETM+ data across a single growing season International Journal of Remote SensingJansen, Vincent S.; Kolden, Crystal A.; Taylor, Robert V.; Newingham, Beth A.2016 systems provide important habitat for native biodiversity and forage for livestock, with livestock grazing playing an important role influencing sustainable ecosystem function. Traditional field techniques to monitor the effects of grazing on velivestock, cattle, grasslands, biodiversity, vegetation, remote sensing
Synergies and tradeoffs among environmental impacts under conservation planning of shale gas surface infrastructureEnvironmental ManagementAustin W. Milt, Tamara Gagnolet, Paul R. Armsworth2016Shale Gas Development, Effective Mesh Size, State Forest Land, Marcellus Shale, SI Fig, Central Appalachian Region, Impact Metric, Shale Gas Reserve, Least-cost Path, State Game Land, Forest Fragmentation, Hydraulic Fracture
Synthesizing Global and Local Datasets to Estimate Jurisdictional Forest Carbon Fluxes in Berau, IndonesiaPLoS ONEGriscom BW, Ellis PW, Baccini A, Marthinus D, Evans JS, Ruslandi2016
Using food-web theory to conserve ecosystemsNature CommunicationsE. McDonald-Madden; R. Sabbadin; E. T. Game; P. W. J. Baxter; I. Chads; H. P. Possingham2016
Bigger is better: Improved nature conservation and economic returns from landscape-level mitigationScience AdvancesChristina M. Kennedy, Daniela A. Miteva, Leandro Baumgarten, Peter L. Hawthorne, Kei Sochi, Stephen Polasky, James R. Oakleaf, Elizabeth M. Uhlhorn, Joseph Kiesecker2016 mitigation is a primary mechanism on which countries rely to reduce environmental externalities and balance development with conservation. Mitigation policies are transitioning from traditional project-by-project planning to landscape-level planning. Although this larger-scale approach is expected to provide greater conservation benefits at the lowest cost, empirical justification is still scarce. Using commercial sugarcane expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado as a case study, we apply economic and biophysical steady-state models to quantify the benefits of the Brazilian Forest Code (FC) under landscape- and property-level planning. We find that FC compliance imposes small costs to business but can generate significant long-term benefits to nature: supporting 32 (±37) additional species (largely habitat specialists), storing 593,000 to 2,280,000 additional tons of carbon worth $69 million to $265 million ($ pertains to U.S. dollars), and marginally improving surface water quality. Relative to property-level compliance, we find that landscape-level compliance reduces total business costs by $19 million to $35 million per 6-year sugarcane growing cycle while often supporting more species and storing more carbon. Our results demonstrate that landscape-level mitigation provides cost-effective conservation and can be used to promote sustainable development.
Reducing cultivation risk for at-risk species: Predicting outcomes of conservation easements for sage-grouseBiological ConservationSmith, J.T., Evans, J.S., Martin, B.H., Baruch-Mordo, S., Kiesecker, J.M. & Naugle, D.E.2016 of native habitats to cropland is a leading cause of biodiversity loss. The northeastern extent of the sagebrush (Artemisia L.) ecosystem of western North America has experienced accelerated rates of cropland conversion resulting in many declining shrubland species including greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Here we present point-process models to elucidate the magnitude and spatial scale of cropland effects on sage-grouse lek occurrence in eastern Montana, northeastern Wyoming, North Dakota and South Dakota. We also use a non-parametric, probabilistic crop suitability model to simulate future cropland expansion and estimate impacts to sage-grouse. We found cropland effects manifest at a spatial scale of 32.2 km2 and a 10 percentage point increase in cropland is associated with a 51% reduction in lek density. Our crop suitability model and stochastic cropland build-outs indicate 5Ð7% of the remaining population in the US portion of sage-grouse Management Zone I is vulnerable to future cropland conversion under a severe scenario where cropland area expands by 50%. Using metrics of biological value, risk of conversion, and acquisition cost to rank parcels, we found that a US $100 M investment in easements could reduce potential losses by about 80%, leaving just over 1% of the population in the study are vulnerable to cropland expansion. Clustering conservation easements into high-risk landscapes by incorporating landscape-scale vulnerability to conversion into the targeting scheme substantially improved conservation outcomes.
Mapping selective logging impacts in Borneo with GPS and airborne lidarForest Ecology and ManagementEllis, P., Griscom, B., Walker, W., Gonalves, F., Cormier, T.2016 logging (RIL) is a promising management strategy for biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration, but incentive mechanisms are hindered by inadequate monitoring methods. We mapped 937 ha of logging infrastructure in a selectively harvested tropical forest to inform a scalable approach to measuring the impacts of discrete management practices (hauling, skidding, and felling). We used a lidar-derived disturbance model to map all skid trails and haul roads within 26 months of the selective harvest of six blocks of dipterocarp forest in five industrial concessions in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Lidar maps of logging impacts (220 ha) agreed well with ground-based maps (total of 217 ha, RMS error of 6 ha or 3%), but skid trail positions agreed only 59% of the time. Due to rapid forest regeneration, total lidar-derived haul road area was 31% smaller than road area measured in the field; agreement was higher for lidar collections within a year of the harvest. Maps of carbon density generated from Fourier transforms of lidar height profiles estimated skidding and felling biomass losses to within 1Ð5% of ground-based measurements. Lidar-derived skidding and hauling impact zones covered only 69% of the permitted harvest area; the remaining areas showed no signs of logging disturbance, and available biophysical data did not explain their location. These results emphasize the need for more extensive mapping of logging infrastructure to capture spatial variability in skid trail density and hitherto undetected no-impact zones. While a ground-based GPS is recommended as the most affordable method for wide-scale infrastructure mapping, aerial lidar is an effective tool for remotely quantifying the extent of logging impacts in tropical forests.
Tamm Review: Are fuel treatments effective at achieving ecological and social objectives? A systematic reviewForest Ecology and ManagementElizabeth L. Kalies, Larissa L. Yocom Kent2016 prevailing paradigm in the western U.S. is that the increase in stand-replacing wildfires in historically frequent-fire dry forests is due to unnatural fuel loads that have resulted from management activities including fire suppression, logging, and grazing, combined with more severe drought conditions and increasing temperatures. To counteract unnaturally high fuel loads, fuel reduction treatments which are designed to reduce fire hazard and improve overall ecosystem functioning have been increasing over the last decade. However, until recently much of what we knew about treatment effectiveness was based on modeling and predictive studies. Now, there are many examples of wildfires burning through both treated and untreated areas, and the effectiveness of treatments versus no action can be evaluated empirically. We carried out a systematic review to address the question: Are fuel treatments effective at achieving ecological and social (saving human lives and property) objectives? We found 56 studies addressing fuel treatment effectiveness in 8 states in the western US. There was general agreement that thin + burn treatments had positive effects in terms of reducing fire severity, tree mortality, and crown scorch. In contrast, burning or thinning alone had either less of an effect or none at all, compared to untreated sites. Most studies focused on carbon storage agreed that treatments do not necessarily store more carbon after wildfire, but result in less post-wildfire emissions and less carbon loss in a wildfire due to tree mortality. Understory responses are mixed across all treatments, and the response of other ecological attributes (e.g., soil, wildlife, water, insects) to treatment post-wildfire represents an important data gap; we provide a detailed agenda for future research. Overall, evidence is strong that thin + burn treatments meet the goal of reducing fire severity, and more research is needed to augment the few studies that indicate treatments protect human lives and property.Forest restoration; Fuel management; Prescribed fire; Treatment effectiveness; Western dry forests; Wildfire
Upgrading Marine Ecosystem Restoration Using Ecological_Social ConceptsBioScienceAvigdor Abelson, Benjamin S. Halpern, Daniel C. Reed, Robert J. Orth, Gary A. Kendrick, Michael W. Beck, Jonathan Belmaker, Gesche Krause, Graham J. Edgar, Laura Airoldi, Eran Brokovich, Robert France, Nadav Shashar, Arianne de Blaeij, Noga Stambler, Pierre Salameh, Mordechai Shechter, Peter A. Nelson2016 and environmental management are principal countermeasures to the degradation of marine ecosystems and their services. However, in many cases, current practices are insufficient to reverse ecosystem declines. We suggest that restoration ecology, the science underlying the concepts and tools needed to restore ecosystems, must be recognized as an integral element for marine conservation and environmental management. Marine restoration ecology is a young scientific discipline, often with gaps between its application and the supporting science. Bridging these gaps is essential to using restoration as an effective management tool and reversing the decline of marine ecosystems and their services. Ecological restoration should address objectives that include improved ecosystem services, and it therefore should encompass socialÐecological elements rather than focusing solely on ecological parameters. We recommend using existing management frameworks to identify clear restoration targets, to apply quantitative tools for assessment, and to make the re-establishment of ecosystem services a criterion for success.
Upgrading Marine Ecosystem Restoration Using Ecological_Social ConceptsBioScienceAbelson, A., Halpern, B.S., Reed, D.C., Orth, R.J., Kendrick, G.A., Beck, M.W., Belmaker, J., Krause, G., Edgar, G.J., Airoldi, L., Brokovich, E., France, R., Shashar, N., Blaeij, A. de, Stambler, N., Salameh, P., Shechter, M. & Nelson, P.A.2016 and environmental management are principal countermeasures to the degradation of marine ecosystems and their services. However, in many cases, current practices are insufficient to reverse ecosystem declines. We suggest that restoration ecology, the science underlying the concepts and tools needed to restore ecosystems, must be recognized as an integral element for marine conservation and environmental management. Marine restoration ecology is a young scientific discipline, often with gaps between its application and the supporting science. Bridging these gaps is essential to using restoration as an effective management tool and reversing the decline of marine ecosystems and their services. Ecological restoration should address objectives that include improved ecosystem services, and it therefore should encompass socialÐecological elements rather than focusing solely on ecological parameters. We recommend using existing management frameworks to identify clear restoration targets, to apply quantitative tools for assessment, and to make the re-establishment of ecosystem services a criterion for success.
Inconsistent food safety pressures complicate environmental conservation for California produce growersCalifornia AgriculturePatrick Baur, Laura Driscoll, Sasha Gennet, Daniel Karp2016 human pathogens on fresh vegetables, fruits and nuts is imperative for California growers. A range of rules and guidelines have been developed since 2006, when a widespread outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 was linked to bagged spinach grown in California. Growers face pressure from industry and government sources to adopt specific control measures on their farms, resulting in a complex, shifting set of demands, some of which conflict with environmental stewardship. We surveyed 588 California produce growers about on-farm practices related to food safety and conservation. Nearly all respondents considered both food safety and environmental protection to be important responsibilities for their farms. Responses indicate that clearing vegetation to create buffers around cropped fields, removing vegetation from ditches and ponds, and using poison bait and wildlife fences are commonly used practices intended to reduce wildlife movements onto farm fields. The survey also revealed that on-farm practices vary substantially even among farms with similar characteristics. This variability suggests inconsistencies in food safety requirements, auditorsÕ interpretations or growersÕ perception of the demands of their buyers. Although site-specific considerations are important and practices should be tailored to local conditions, our findings suggest growers, natural resources and food safety would benefit from clearer, more consistent requirements.agricultural management, California, farms, food safety
What are the effects of nature conservation on human well-being? A systematic map of empirical evidence from developing countriesEnvironmental EvidenceMadeleine C. McKinnon, Samantha H. Cheng, Samuel Dupre, Janet Edmond, Ruth Garside, Louise Glew, Margaret B. Holland, Eliot Levine, Yuta J. Masuda, Daniel C. Miller, Isabella Oliveira, Justine Revenaz, Dilys Roe, Sierra Shamer, David Wilkie, Supin Wongbusarakum and Emily Woodhouse2016 policy initiatives and international conservation organizations have sought to emphasize and strengthen the link between the conservation of natural ecosystems and human development. While many indices have been developed to measure various social outcomes to conservation interventions, the quantity and strength of evidence to support the effects, both positive and negative, of conservation on different dimensions of human well-being, remain unclear, dispersed and inconsistent.
Water depletion: An improved metric for incorporating seasonal and dry-year water scarcity into water risk assessmentsElementaBrauman, K., B.D. Richter, S. Postel, M. Malsy, and M. Florke2016 present an improved water-scarcity metric we call water depletion, calculated as the fraction of renewable water consumptively used for human activities. We employ new data from the WaterGAP3 integrated global water resources model to illustrate water depletion for 15,091 watersheds worldwide, constituting 90% of total land area. Our analysis illustrates that moderate water depletion at an annual time scale is better characterized as high depletion at a monthly time scale and we are thus able to integrate seasonal and dry-year depletion into the water depletion metric, providing a more accurate depiction of water shortage that could affect irrigated agriculture, urban water supply, and freshwater ecosystems. Applying the metric, we find that the 2% of watersheds that are more than 75% depleted on an average annual basis are home to 15% of global irrigated area and 4% of large cities. An additional 30% of watersheds are depleted by more than 75% seasonally or in dry years. In total, 71% of world irrigated area and 47% of large cities are characterized as experiencing at least periodic water shortage.
The Effects of Sub-Regional Climate Velocity on the Distribution and Spatial Extent of Marine Species AssemblagesPLoS ONEKristin M. Kleisner, Michael J. Fogarty, Sally McGee, Analie Barnett, Paula Fratantoni, Jennifer Greene, Jonathan A. Hare, Sean M. Lucey, Christopher McGuire, Jay Odell, Vincent S. Saba, Laurel Smith, Katherine J. Weaver, Malin L. Pinsky2016 studies illustrate variable patterns in individual species distribution shifts in response to changing temperature. However, an assemblage, a group of species that shares a common environmental niche, will likely exhibit similar responses to climate changes, and these community-level responses may have significant implications for ecosystem function. Therefore, we examine the relationship between observed shifts of species in assemblages and regional climate velocity (i.e., the rate and direction of change of temperature isotherms). The assemblages are defined in two sub-regions of the U.S. Northeast Shelf that have heterogeneous oceanography and bathymetry using four decades of bottom trawl survey data and we explore temporal changes in distribution, spatial range extent, thermal habitat area, and biomass, within assemblages. These sub-regional analyses allow the dissection of the relative roles of regional climate velocity and local physiography in shaping observed distribution shifts. We find that assemblages of species associated with shallower, warmer waters tend to shift west-southwest and to shallower waters over time, possibly towards cooler temperatures in the semi-enclosed Gulf of Maine, while species assemblages associated with relatively cooler and deeper waters shift deeper, but with little latitudinal change. Conversely, species assemblages associated with warmer and shallower water on the broad, shallow continental shelf from the Mid-Atlantic Bight to Georges Bank shift strongly northeast along latitudinal gradients with little change in depth. Shifts in depth among the southern species associated with deeper and cooler waters are more variable, although predominantly shifts are toward deeper waters. In addition, spatial expansion and contraction of species assemblages in each region corresponds to the area of suitable thermal habitat, but is inversely related to assemblage biomass. This suggests that assemblage distribution shifts in conjunction with expansion or contraction of thermal habitat acts to compress or stretch marine species assemblages, which may respectively amplify or dilute species interactions to an extent that is rarely considered. Overall, regional differences in climate change effects on the movement and extent of species assemblages hold important implications for management, mitigation, and adaptation on the U.S. Northeast Shelf.
Achieving Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 to improve the performance of protected areas and conserve freshwater biodiversityAquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater EcosystemsDiego Juffe-Bignoli, Ian Harrison, Stuart HM Butchart, Rebecca Flitcroft, Virgilio Hermoso, Harry Jonas, Anna Lukasiewicz, Michele Thieme, Eren Turak, Heather Bingham, James Dalton, William Darwall, Marine Deguignet, Nigel Dudley, Royal Gardner, Jonathan Higgins, Ritesh Kumar, Simon Linke, G Randy Milton, Jamie Pittock, Kevin G Smith, Arnout van Soesbergen2016 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011Ð2020), adopted at the 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, sets 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets to be met by 2020 to address biodiversity loss and ensure its sustainable and equitable use. Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 describes what an improved conservation network would look like for marine, terrestrial and inland water areas, including freshwater ecosystems. To date, there is no comprehensive assessment of what needs to be achieved to meet Target 11 for freshwater biodiversity. Reports on implementation often fail to consider explicitly freshwater ecosystem processes and habitats, the pressures upon them, and therefore the full range of requirements and actions needed to sustain them. Here the current progress and key gaps for meeting Aichi Target 11 are assessed by exploring the implications of each of its clauses for freshwater biodiversity. Concerted action on Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 for freshwater biodiversity by 2020 is required in a number of areas: a robust baseline is needed for each of the clauses described here at national and global scales; designation of new protected areas or expansion of existing protected areas to cover known areas of importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, and a representative sample of biodiversity; use of Other Effective Area-Based Conservation Measures (OECMs) in places where designating a protected area is not appropriate; and promoting and implementing better management strategies for fresh water in protected areas that consider its inherent connectivity, contextual vulnerability, and required human and technical capacity. Considering the specific requirements of freshwater systems through Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 has long-term value to the Sustainable Development Goals discussions and global conservation policy agenda into the coming decades.
Freshwater conservation potential of protected areas in the Tennessee and Cumberland River Basins, USAAquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater EcosystemsMichele L. Thieme, N. Sindorf, J. Higgins, R. Abell, J. A. Takats, R. Naidoo, A. Barnett2016 ability of existing protected areas (PAs) to conserve freshwater species and ecosystems has been little investigated. In this study the freshwater conservation potential of PAs was evaluated based on their geospatial attributes and spatial relationship to threats. Specifically, the following questions were addressed: (a) to what extent, if any, do PA drainage network location and size affect the potential of PAs to conserve freshwater species and habitats within them?; (b) how are the factors that limit or promote conservation potential distributed in relation to PAs across a region?; and (c) what are the broader implications for how PAs can be designed and managed to contribute to freshwater conservation around the world? Eight factors that affect freshwater conservation potential for 297 PAs within the Tennessee and Cumberland River Basins (US) were analysed. Four of these attributes (connectivity, impervious surface area, agricultural land cover, and upstream storage) showed enough variation across PAs such that the effect of PA size, drainage network position, and their interaction on those attributes, was able to be modelled. The results support the hypothesis that PA drainage network location and size affect freshwater conservation potential of PAs. Both have a statistically significant effect on each of the four conservation potential attributes, either as a main effect, or through an interaction, although the direction of these relationships is not always intuitive. Of the factors that limit or promote conservation potential, PAs appear to be most often affected by land conversion to agriculture and a loss of connectivity. This study underscores the importance of PA managers understanding key internal and external threats so that they can take mitigating or minimizing action, and the need to define PA locations and boundaries within a larger basin context.
The path back: oaks (Quercus spp.) facilitate longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seedling establishment in xeric sitesEcosphereE. Louise Loudermilk, J. Kevin Hiers, Scott Pokswinski, Joseph J. O'Brien, Analie Barnett, Robert J. Mitchell2016 plantÐplant facilitation is critical for predicting how plant community function will respond to changing disturbance and climate. In longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystems of the southeastern United States, understanding processes that affect pine reproduction is imperative for conservation efforts that aim to maintain ecosystem resilience across its wide geographic range and edaphic gradients. Variation in wildland fire and plantÐplant interactions may be overlooked in Òcoarse filterÓ restoration management, where actions are often prescribed over a variety of ecological conditions with an assumed outcome. For example, hardwood reduction techniques are commonly deemed necessary for ecological restoration of longleaf pine ecosystems, as hardwoods are presumed competitors with longleaf pine seedlings. Natural regeneration dynamics are difficult to test experimentally given the infrequent and irregular mast seed events of the longleaf pine. Using a long-term, large-scale restoration experiment and a long-term monitoring data site at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida (USA), this study explores the influence of native fire-intolerant oaks on longleaf regeneration. We test for historical observations of hardwood facilitation against the null hypothesis of competitive exclusion. Our results provide evidence of hardwood facilitation on newly germinated longleaf pine seedlings (
Optimizing regulatory requirements to aid in the implementation of compensatory mitigationJournal of Applied EcologySochi, K. & Kiesecker, J.2016
Optimizing regulatory requirements to aid in the implementation of compensatory mitigationJournal of Applied EcologyKei Sochi, Joseph Kiesecker2016 offsets, compensatory mitigation, energy development, Marxan,mitigation planning, protected species mitigation
Factors affecting media coverage of species rediscoveriesConservation BiologyJohn Zablocki, Siddharth Arora, Maan Barua2016, extinct, media, news, attention
Entry Points for Considering Ecosystem Services within Infrastructure Planning: How to Integrate Conservation with Development in Order to Aid Them BothConservation LettersMandle, L., Bryant, B.P., Ruckelshaus, M., Geneletti, D., Kiesecker, J.M. & Pfaff, A.2016 infrastructure is needed globally to support economic development and improve human well-being. Investments that do not consider ecosystem services (ES) can eliminate these important societal benefits from nature, undermining the development benefits infrastructure is intended to provide. Such tradeoffs are acknowledged conceptually but in practice have rarely been considered in infrastructure planning. Taking road investments as one important case, here we examine where and what forms of ES information have the potential to meaningfully influence decisions by multilateral development banks (MDBs). Across the stages of a typical road development process, we identify where and how ES information could be integrated, likely barriers to the use of available ES information, and key opportunities to shift incentives and thereby practice. We believe inclusion of ES information is likely to provide the greatest development benefit in early stages of infrastructure decisions. Those strategic planning stages are typically guided by in-country processes, with MDBs playing a supporting role, making it critical to express the ES consequences of infrastructure development using metrics relevant to government decision makers. This approach requires additional evidence of the in-country benefits of cross-sector strategic planning and more tools to lower barriers to quantifying these benefits and facilitating ES inclusion.
Don't Discount Economic Valuation for ConservationConservation LettersTim Scharks, Yuta J. Masuda2016; valuation; ethics.
Exploring the permanence of conservation covenantsConservation LettersHardy, M.J., J.A. Fitzsimons, S.A. Bekessy and A. Gordon2016 on private land is a growing part of international efforts to stem the decline of biodiversity. In many countries, private land conservation policy often supports in perpetuity covenants and easements, which are legally binding agreements used to protect biodiversity on private land by restricting activities that may negatively impact ecological values. With a view to understand the long-term security of these mechanisms, we examined release and breach data from all 13 major covenanting programs across Australia. We report that out of 6,818 multi-party covenants, only 8 had been released, contrasting with approximately 130 of 673 single-party covenants. Breach data was limited, with a minimum of 71 known cases where covenant obligations had not been met. With a focus on private land conservation policy, we use the results from this case study to argue that multi-party covenants appear an enduring conservation mechanism, highlight the important role that effective monitoring and reporting of the permanency of these agreements plays in contributing to their long-term effectiveness, and provide recommendations for organizations seeking to improve their monitoring programs. The collection of breach and release data is important for the continuing improvement of conservation policies and practices for private land.
Advancing Conservation by Understanding and Influencing Human BehaviorConservation LettersSheila M.W. Reddy, Jensen Montambault, Yuta J. Masuda, Ayelet Gneezy, Elizabeth Keenan, William Butler, Jonathan R.B. Fisher, Stanley T. Asah2016 sciences can advance conservation by systematically identifying behavioral barriers to conservation and how to best overcome them. Behavioral sciences have informed policy in many other realms (e.g., health, savings), but they are a largely untapped resource for conservation. We propose a set of guiding questions for applying behavioral insights to conservation policy. These questions help define the conservation problem as a behavior change problem, understand behavioral mechanisms and identify appropriate approaches for behavior change (awareness, incentives, nudges), and evaluate and adapt approaches based on new behavioral insights. We provide a foundation for the questions by synthesizing a wide range of behavior change models and evidence related to littering, water and energy conservation, and land management. We also discuss the methodology and data needed to answer these questions. We illustrate how these questions have been answered in practice to inform efforts to promote conservation for climate risk reduction. Although more comprehensive research programs to answer these questions are needed, some insights are emerging. Integrating two or more behavior change approaches that target multiple, context-dependent factors may be most successful; however, caution must be taken to avoid approaches that could undermine one another (e.g., economic incentives crowding out intrinsic incentives).
Analysis of Trade-Offs Between Biodiversity, Carbon Farming and Agricultural Development in Northern Australia Reveals the Benefits of Strategic PlanningConservation LettersMor‡n-Ord—–ez, A., A.L. Whitehead, G.W. Luck, G.D. Cook, R. Maggini, J.A. Fitzsimons and & B.A. Wintle2016's northern savannas are one of the few remaining large and mostly intact natural areas on Earth. However, their biodiversity and ecosystem values could be threatened if proposed agricultural development proceeds. Through land-use change scenarios, we explored trade-offs and synergies among biodiversity conservation, carbon farming and agriculture production in northern Australia. We found that if all suitable soils were converted to agriculture, habitat at unique recorded locations of three species would disappear and 40 species and vegetation communities could lose more than 50% of their current distributions. Yet, strategically considering agriculture and biodiversity outcomes leads to zoning options that could yield >56,000 km2 of agricultural development with a significantly lower impact on biodiversity values and carbon farming. Our analysis provides a template for policy-makers and planners to identify areas of conflict between competing land-uses, places to protect in advance of impacts, and planning options that balance agricultural and conservation needs.
Response of medium- and large-sized terrestrial fauna to corridor restoration along the middle Sacramento RiverRestoration EcologyDerugin, V.V.; Silveira, J.G.; Golet, G.H.; LeBuhn, G.2016
Hydrological conditions and evaluation of sustainable groundwater use in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, southeastern ArizonaBruce Gungle, James B. Callegary, Nicholas V. Paretti, Jeffrey R. Kennedy, Christopher J. Eastoe, Dale S. Turner, Jesse E. Dickinson, Lainie R. Levick, and Zachary P. Sugg2016 study assessed progress toward achieving sustainable groundwater use in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona, through evaluation of 14 indicators of sustainable use. Sustainable use of groundwater in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed requires, at a minimum, a stable rate of groundwater discharge to, and thus base flow in, the San Pedro River. Many of the 14 indicators are therefore related to long-term or short-term effects on base flow and provide us with a means to evaluate groundwater discharge to and base flow in the San Pedro River. The indicators were based primarily on 10 to 20 years of data monitoring in the subwatershed, ending in 2012, and included subwatershedwide indicators, riparian-system indicators, San Pedro River indicators, and springs indicators. Groundwater management actions including voluntary retirement of irrigation pumping in the subwatershed resulted in about a 5,100 acre-feet (acre-ft) reduction in net human use from 2002 to 2012. Subwatershed population increased more than 10,000 during the same period. Most of the reduction occurred during 2002Ð07 and included reductions in groundwater pumping and increases in managed recharge; net human use varied annually by a few hundred acre-ft during 2007Ð12. The groundwater budget for 2012 showed a deficit of about 5,000 acre-ft, although the total water-budget uncertainty was about 5,500 acre-ft. In the vicinity of the U.S. ArmyÕs Fort Huachuca, regional-aquifer water levels were in steady decline beginning in at least the mid-1990s (in older wells since at least the early-1970s), as the cone of depression centered on the Sierra Vista and Fort Huachuca pumping centers continued to deepen. This was evident in the individual water levels on Fort Huachuca, as well as from the horizontal hydraulic gradients that extend from the pumping centers toward the San Pedro and Babocomari Rivers. Basin water levels in wells southeast of Sierra Vista, away from the river, were also experiencing declines, while some water levels closer to the river were rising. Near-stream vertical gradients along the San Pedro River showed no clear increasing or decreasing trends that would indicate a shift in the direction of subsurface flow between the riverbed and the alluvial aquifer, or a trend in the magnitude of groundwater/surface-water exchange. Annual streamflow permanence data showed no clear change in streamflow permanence trends in any of the river reaches, other than those related to precipitation trends. Similarly, the single-day, dry-season, wet-dry streamflow analysis of all subwatershed river reaches indicated no change in condition over the past 14 years, with the exception of the Hereford reach, which has seen a statistically significant increase in wetted length. Dry-season, alluvial-aquifer water levels in the Hereford reach also showed a statistically significant increase. These improvements are attributed to the end of irrigation pumping in the area. Although data indicate that the length of the Fairbank North wetted reach may be in decline, it is not yet statistically significant. Stable-isotope data indicated reduced groundwater discharge to the Babocomari River in the vicinity of the Babocomari River near Tombstone gaging station and to the San Pedro River near the San Pedro River at Palominas gaging station and near the Lewis Springs DCP stage recorder. The Babocomari River near Tombstone gaging station is downgradient of the major pumping centers. The change in isotopic signature at the Lewis Springs stage recorder could have been the result of alterations in groundwater/surface-water interactions there caused by beaver damming of the river. Base flow in the San Pedro River declined over the periods of record at the three San Pedro River gaging stations in the subwatershed (Palominas, Charleston, and Tombstone), as well as at the Babocomari River near Tombstone gaging station. Precipitation declined slightly from the 1990s to the 2000s, although there is no statistically significant trend in subwatershed precipitation from 1991 to 2012. The occurrence of large winter discharge events appeared to decline and that of large summer discharge events appeared to increase over this same period. Data for physical parameters, general chemistry, nutrient species, select trace elements, and suspended sediment were collected at San Pedro River at Charleston stream-gaging station. These data were summarized over time and analyzed in relation to discharge and season as a means to assess trends over the period of analysis. Federal and State of Arizona drinking-water and human-contact standards were all met and few exceedances occurred for the ecological thresholds investigated. Several constituents showed a significant trend over the period of analysis, but only concentration and flux data for total phosphate, orthophosphate, total nitrogen, suspended sediment, and sulfate were suitable to be used in a weighted regression analysis that statistically accounted for time, discharge, and season. Sulfate concentrations and flux showed a significant downward trend over the period of analysis, whereas total phosphorus and ortho-phosphate showed a relatively small magnitude upward trend relative to standards. Suspended sediment concentrations and flux both showed a significant downward trend in the 1980s, an effect attributed to reduction of cattle in the subwatershed at about this time, and (or) increased cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and willow (Salix goodingii) recruitment, and (or) the curtailment of sand and gravel mining adjacent to the San Pedro River with the designation of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area in 1988. A spike in sediment flux in 2006 may be attributable to the more than 100 debris flows in the Huachuca Mountains during the summer monsoon of that year. Spring discharge along the San Pedro River generally increased at three sites proximate to the Sierra Vista treated effluent recharge facility and varied somewhat with climate at two other sites. Median annual discharge at the recharge facility peaked in 2006, and at Murray Springs and Horsethief Spring, downgradient of the recharge facility, in 2009. Sampling for trace organic compounds in flow from springs was carried out using both discrete sampling and passive sampling methods. Spring samples thus collected showed the presence of trace-organic compounds. Lewis Springs (background site) had the least number of detections, whereas Murray Springs, located directly downgradient of the City of Sierra VistaÕs treated effluent recharge facility, had the greatest number of detections of all the springs. Discrete samples from the recharge facility had more than twice the detections found in discrete samples from Murray Spring and at much higher concentrations. Few similar trace-organic compounds were detected at both the springs and the treated effluent recharge facility, and the number of detections did not increase during the collection period. Limitations of the study prevented the determination of trace-organic concentration in passive samplers and also prevented linking trace organic compounds detected at the treated effluent recharge facility with compounds detected from the springs. In particular, trace organic compounds could also derive from other sources such as septic systems. Looking at the subwatershed as a whole, base flow was in decline along the entire river reach, but determination of the specific cause of the decline was beyond the scope of this report. Conditions in the area from the municipal pumping center of Sierra Vista and Fort Huachuca northeast to the river (from about the Charleston to Tombstone gaging stations) were more commonly in decline than in regions further south. Both long-term indicators, such as regional aquifer groundwater levels and horizontal gradients, and the isotope analysis indicated that groundwater discharge to the river and thus base flow may continue to decline in that area. South of Charleston, indicators were more mixed. Some indicators in the Hereford reach suggest groundwater discharge to the San Pedro River may be increasing there, whereas some indicators in the Palominas reach suggest groundwater discharge to the river there may be declining.Scientific Investigations Report 2016-5114
Restricted grouper reproductive migrations support community-based managementRoyal Society Open SciencePeter A. Waldie, Glenn R. Almany, Tane H. Sinclair-Taylor, Richard J. Hamilton, Tapas Potuku, Mark A. Priest, Kevin L. Rhodes, Jan Robinson, Joshua E. Cinner, Michael L. Berumen2016 commonly requires trade-offs between social and ecological goals. For tropical small-scale fisheries, spatial scales of socially appropriate management are generally smallÑthe median no-take locally managed marine area (LMMA) area throughout the Pacific is less than 1_km2. This is of particular concern for large coral reef fishes, such as many species of grouper, which migrate to aggregations to spawn. Current data suggest that the catchment areas (i.e. total area from which individuals are drawn) of such aggregations are at spatial scales that preclude effective community-based management with no-take LMMAs. We used acoustic telemetry and tag-returns to examine reproductive migrations and catchment areas of the grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus at a spawning aggregation in Papua New Guinea. Protection of the resultant catchment area of approximately 16_km2 using a no-take LMMA is socially untenable here and throughout much of the Pacific region. However, we found that spawning migrations were skewed towards shorter distances. Consequently, expanding the current 0.2_km2 no-take LMMA to 1Ð2_km2 would protect approximately 30Ð50% of the spawning population throughout the non-spawning season. Contrasting with current knowledge, our results demonstrate that species with moderate reproductive migrations can be managed at scales congruous with spatially restricted management tools.
Lichens, lichenicolous fungi, and allied fungi of Pipestone National Monument, Minnesota, U.S.A., revisitedOpuscula PhilolichenumM.K. ADVAITA, CALEB A. MORSE, DOUGLAS LADD2016 total of 154 lichens, four lichenicolous fungi, and one allied fungus were collected by the authors from 2004 to 2015 from Pipestone National Monument (PNM), in Pipestone County, on the Prairie Coteau of southwestern Minnesota. Twelve additional species collected by previous researchers, but not found by the authors, bring the total number of taxa known for PNM to 171. This represents a substantial increase over previous reports for PNM, likely due to increased intensity of field work, and also to the marked expansion of corticolous and anthropogenic substrates since the site was first surveyed in 1899. Reexamination of 116 vouchers deposited in MIN and the PNM herbarium led to the exclusion of 48 species previously reported from the site. Crustose lichens are the most common growth form, comprising 65% of the lichen diversity. Sioux Quartzite provided substrate for 43% of the lichen taxa collected. Saxicolous lichen communities were characterized by sampling four transects on cliff faces and low outcrops. An annotated checklist of the lichens of the site is provided, as well as a list of excluded taxa. We report 24 species (including 22 lichens and two lichenicolous fungi) new for Minnesota: Acarospora boulderensis, A. contigua, A. erythrophora, A. strigata, Agonimia opuntiella, Arthonia clemens, A. muscigena, Aspicilia americana, Bacidina delicata, Buellia tyrolensis, Caloplaca flavocitrina, C. lobulata, C. soralifera, Candelariella antennaria, Dermatocarpon arenosaxi, Diplotomma subdispersa, Endocarpon pallidulum, Enterographa osagensis, Pseudosagedia chlorotica, Psoroglaena dictyospora, Punctelia missouriensis, Verrucaria calkinsiana, V. furfuracea, and V. sphaerospora. In addition, we report Acarospora erythrophora new for Kansas and Oklahoma, Enteroggrapha osagensis new for Nebraska and South Dakota, and Pseudosagedia chlorotica new for Oklahoma.Great Plains, floristic change, lichen community structure, Northern Glaciated Plains Ecoregion
Estimating watershed degradation over the last century and its impact on water-treatment costs for the world's large citiesPNASRobert I. McDonald, Katherine F. Weber, Julie Padowski, Tim Boucher, and Daniel Shemie2016 water systems are impacted by land use within their source watersheds, as it affects raw water quality and thus the costs of water treatment. However, global estimates of the effect of land cover change on urban water-treatment costs have been hampered by a lack of global information on urban source watersheds. Here, we use a unique map of the urban source watersheds for 309 large cities (population > 750,000), combined with long-term data on anthropogenic land-use change in their source watersheds and data on water-treatment costs. We show that anthropogenic activity is highly correlated with sediment and nutrient pollution levels, which is in turn highly correlated with treatment costs. Over our study period (1900Ð2005), median population density has increased by a factor of 5.4 in urban source watersheds, whereas ranching and cropland use have increased by a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively. Nearly all (90%) of urban source watersheds have had some level of watershed degradation, with the average pollutant yield of urban source watersheds increasing by 40% for sediment, 47% for phosphorus, and 119% for nitrogen. We estimate the degradation of watersheds over our study period has impacted treatment costs for 29% of cities globally, with operation and maintenance costs for impacted cities increasing on average by 53 ± 5% and replacement capital costs increasing by 44 ± 14%. We discuss why this widespread degradation might be occurring, and strategies cities have used to slow natural land cover loss.
Missing the boat: Critical threats to coral reefs are neglected at global scaleMarine PolicyStephanie L. Wear2016 reefs have experienced a global decline due to overfishing, pollution, and warming oceans that are becoming increasingly acidic. To help halt and reverse this decline, interventions should be aimed at those threats reef experts and managers identify as most severe. The survey included responses from 170 managers, representing organizations from 50 countries and territories, and found that respondents generally agreed on the two major threats: overfishing and coastal development. However, resource allocation did not match this consensus on major threats. In particular, while overfishing receives much attention, coastal development and its attendant pollution are largely neglected and underfunded. These results call for a re-examination of how resources are allocated in coral reef conservation, with more attention given to aligning how money is spent with what are perceived to be the primary threats.Coastal development; Decision-making; Overfishing; Resource allocation; Ocean warming; Watershed pollution
A systematic review of approaches to quantify hydrologic ecosystem services to inform decision-makingInternational Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & ManagementHarrison-Atlas, D., Theobald, D.M. & Goldstein, J.H.2016 threats to freshwater resources are prompting widespread concern about their management and implications for well-being. In recent decades, hydrologic ecosystem services (HES) have emerged as an innovative concept to evaluate freshwater resources, providing opportunity for researchers to engage in decision-relevant science. We conducted a systematic review of studies published within the last decade, documenting approaches for mapping and quantifying HES and classifying the decision context. To gauge the relevance of HES science, we evaluated 49 case studies using multiple criteria for credibility, legitimacy, and saliency. We found compelling evidence that much of the variability in the quantification of HES can be explained by research motivations and scoping, reflecting the decision-oriented framing of the ecosystem services concept. Our review highlights key knowledge gaps in the state of the science including the need to articulate beneficiaries and to make connections to policy and management more explicit. To strengthen the potential for impact of HES science, we provide recommendations to assist researchers, practitioners, and decision-makers in identifying goals, formulating relevant questions, and selecting informative approaches for quantifying HES. We argue that sustained progress in applying HES requires critical evaluation and careful framing to link science and practice. Ecosystem services, hydrologic ecosystem services, water resources, mapping, validation, decision-making
Emerging threats to snow leopards from energy and mineral developmentHeiner, M., Oakleaf, J.R., Davaa, G., Yunden, B. & Kiesecker, J.2016
A Framework for Developing Monitoring Plans for Coastal Wetland Restoration and Living Shoreline Projects in New JerseyMetthea Yepsen, Joshua Moody, Elizabeth Schuster2016
Tree diversity, tree height and environmental harshness in eastern and western North AmericaEcology LettersChristian O. Marks, Helene C. Muller-Landau, David Tilman2016 variation in environmental harshness explain local and regional species diversity gradients? We hypothesise that for a given life form like trees, greater harshness leads to a smaller range of traits that are viable and thereby also to lower species diversity. On the basis of a strong dependence of maximum tree height on site productivity and other measures of site quality, we propose maximum tree height as an inverse measure of environmental harshness for trees. Our results show that tree species richness is strongly positively correlated with maximum tree height across multiple spatial scales in forests of both eastern and western North America. Maximum tree height co-varied with species richness along gradients from benign to harsh environmental conditions, which supports the hypothesis that harshness may be a general mechanism limiting local diversity and explaining diversity gradients within a biogeographic region.
Managing Coasts with Natural Solutions2016 guidance note provides review and recommendations for how the protective services of mangroves and coral reefs can be measured and valued in a manner consistent with national economic accounts and included in other decision-making processes to support planning for development, disaster risk, and coastal zone management. coral reefs, mangroves, marine/coastal, technical report, The Nature Conservancy, WAVES, WBG
Energy sprawl is the largest driver of land use change in United StatesPLOS ONETrainor AM, McDonald RI, Fargione J2016 production in the United States for domestic use and export is predicted to rise 27% by 2040. We quantify projected energy sprawl (new land required for energy production) in the United States through 2040. Over 200,000 km2 of additional land area will be directly impacted by energy development. When spacing requirements are included, over 800,000 km2 of additional land area will be affected by energy development, an area greater than the size of Texas. This pace of development in the United States is more than double the historic rate of urban and residential development, which has been the greatest driver of conversion in the United States since 1970, and is higher than projections for future land use change from residential development or agriculture. New technology now places 1.3 million km2 that had not previously experienced oil and gas development at risk of development for unconventional oil and gas. Renewable energy production can be sustained indefinitely on the same land base, while extractive energy must continually drill and mine new areas to sustain production. We calculated the number of years required for fossil energy production to expand to cover the same area as renewables, if both were to produce the same amount of energy each year. The land required for coal production would grow to equal or exceed that of wind, solar and geothermal energy within 2Ð31 years. In contrast, it would take hundreds of years for oil production to have the same energy sprawl as biofuels. Meeting energy demands while conserving nature will require increased energy conservation, in addition to distributed renewable energy and appropriate siting and mitigation.
Evidence for genetic erosion of a California native tree, Platanus racemosa, via recent, ongoing introgressive hybridization with an introduced ornamental speciesConservation GeneticsJohnson, M.G.; Lang, K.; Manos, P.; Golet, G.H.; Schierenbeck, K.2016
Completing the System: Opportunities and Challenges for a National Habitat Conservation SystemBioScienceJocelyn L. Aycrigg, Craig Groves, Jodi A. Hilty, J. Michael Scott, Paul Beier, D. A. Boyce Jr., Dennis Figg, Healy Hamilton, Gary Machlis, Kit Muller, K. V. Rosenberg, Raymond M. Sauvajot, Mark Shaffer, Rand Wentworth2016The United States has achieved significant conservation goals to date, but the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem processes is accelerating. We evaluate opportunities and challenges to conserving our biodiversity by completing a national habitat conservation system, which could stem losses of natural resources and ecosystem services and proactively prepare for climate-change impacts. Lessons learned from two international conservation systems and the infrastructure of national bird conservation partnerships provide examples for completing a national habitat conservation system. One option is to convene a national forum of interested public and private parties to undertake four key actions; develop a common conservation vision and set measureable goals, complete a conservation assessment, use an adaptive management framework to monitor progress toward this vision, and implement strategies to complete a national habitat conservation system. Completing a national habitat conservation system is key to meeting the challenges of conserving habitats and biodiversity of the United States.national habitat conservation system conservation planning biodiversity conservation areas publicÐprivate partnerships
Cattle grazing and grassland birds in the northern tallgrass prairieJournal of Wildlife ManagementMarissa A. Ahlering; Christopher L. Merkord2016With the loss of over 70% of North America's grasslands (Samson et al. 2004), grassland birds increasingly rely on habitat that is privately owned and managed for livestock production. Therefore, it is critical to understand how livestock grazing influences grassland bird abundance and community structure. We evaluated the response of 4 obligate grassland bird species to grazing intensity, vegetation structure, ecological site description, and burning across a landscape including pastures with no recent grazing to pastures experiencing grazing intensities similar to that for private livestock production operations. We evaluated models using a binomial N-mixture model implemented in the R package unmarked. Overall, 3 of the 4 obligate species included positive relationships with grazing intensity in the top abundance model (i.e., grasshopper sparrow [Ammodramus savannarum], bobolink [Dolichonyx oryzivorus], and upland sandpiper [Bartramia longicauda]), suggesting the range of grazing intensities evaluated (0Ð4.57 animal months/ha) did not negatively affect the abundance of these species. Marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa) abundance, however, was higher with greater variability in litter depth but was not directly related to grazing intensity. Finally, the effect of year was correlated with decreasing precipitation over the course of the study and had the greatest influence on community composition with some community separation by grazing intensity. Our results suggest that cattle grazing can positively influence the abundance of some grassland bird species but annual variation in weather patterns can influence community composition at sites regardless of management decisions.
Climate change impacts on ecosystems and ecosystem services in the United States: process and prospects for sustained assessmentClimatic ChangeGrimm, N.B., Groffman, P., Staudinger, M. & Tallis, H.2016The third United States National Climate Assessment emphasized an evaluation of not just the impacts of climate change on species and ecosystems, but also the impacts of climate change on the benefits that people derive from nature, known as ecosystem services. The ecosystems, biodiversity, and ecosystem services component of the assessment largely drew upon the findings of a transdisciplinary workshop aimed at developing technical input for the assessment, involving participants from diverse sectors. A small author team distilled and synthesized this and hundreds of other technical input to develop the key findings of the assessment. The process of developing and ranking key findings hinged on identifying impacts that had particular, demonstrable effects on the U.S. public via changes in national ecosystem services. Findings showed that ecosystem services are threatened by the impacts of climate change on water supplies, species distributions and phenology, as well as multiple assaults on ecosystem integrity that, when compounded by climate change, reduce the capacity of ecosystems to buffer against extreme events. As ecosystems change, such benefits as water sustainability and protection from storms that are afforded by intact ecosystems are projected to decline across the continent due to climate change. An ongoing, sustained assessment that focuses on the co-production of actionable climate science will allow scientists from a range of disciplines to ascertain the capability of their forecasting models to project environmental and ecological change and link it to ecosystem services; additionally, an iterative process of evaluation, development of management strategies, monitoring, and reevaluation will increase the applicability and usability of the science by the U.S. public.
Collaborative scenario modeling reveals potential advantages of blending strategies to achieve conservation goals in a working forest landscapeLandscape EcologyJessica M. Price, Janet Silbernagel, Kristina Nixon, Amanda Swearingen, Randy Swaty, Nicholas Miller2016Context Broad-scale land conservation and management often involve applying multiple strategies in a single landscape. However, the potential outcomes of such arrangements remain difficult to evaluate given the interactions of ecosystem dynamics, resource extraction, and natural disturbances. The costs and potential risks of implementing these strategies make robust evaluation critical. Objectives We used collaborative scenario modeling to compare the potential outcomes of alternative management strategies in the Two Hearted River watershed in MichiganÕs Upper Peninsula to answer key questions: Which management strategies best achieve conservation goals of maintaining landscape spatial heterogeneity and conserving mature forests and wetlands? And how does an increase in wildfire and windthrow disturbances influence these outcomes? Methods Scenarios were modeled using the VDDT/TELSA state-and-transition modeling suite, and resulting land cover maps were analyzed using ArcGIS, FRAGSTATS, and R statistical software. Results Results indicate that blending conservation strategies, such as single-ownership forest reserves and working forest conservation easements in targeted areas of the landscape, may better achieve these goals than applying a single strategy across the same area. However, strategies that best achieve these conservation goals may increase the sensitivity of the landscape to changes in wildfire and windthrow disturbance regimes. Conclusions These results inform decision-making about which conservation strategy or combination of strategies to apply in specific locations on the landscape to achieve optimum conservation outcomes, how to best utilize scarce financial resources, and how to reduce the financial and ecological risks associated with the application of innovative strategies in an uncertain future.Landscape scenarios Forest landscape modeling State and transition modeling Working forest conservation easement Conservation planning Stakeholder engagement
Guiding conservation and renewable energy development using a paired return-on-investment approachBiological ConservationTimothy G. Howard, Matthew D. Schlesinger, Cara Lee, Gregory Lampman, Timothy H. Tear2016Return-on-investment (ROI) can help integrate prioritization efforts for developers and conservation organizations alike. To examine this complementarity and to investigate improving dialogue across these two sectors, we conducted paired ROI assessments from the perspective of wind development and biodiversity conservation in the northeastern United States. Spatially explicit layers defined the three ROI components: benefit, cost, and probability of success. For the wind development ROI, we modeled turbine suitability using the random forest algorithm to develop the benefit surface. We treated biodiversity information related to permitting and development as a cost surface and applied land conservation status towards the probability of success term. The conservation ROI applied biodiversity priorities as the benefit surface, applied a higher environmental cost to areas with high wind turbine development value, and used estimates of ecosystem resilience to define the probability of success. This ROI highlighted conservation potential after applying the constraints of wind energy development. The analysis suggests that New York State, US, may be able to accommodate 16,000 Megawatts of power generation while avoiding conservation priorities, more than sufficient landscape to situate turbines up to the predicted capacity based on grid reliability (6600 MW). Further, the two ROI models taken together are more instructive than results from either model alone. Sensitivity analyses revealed that altering the weightings of the biodiversity input variables rarely changed the relationship among the two ROI models from place to place. We suggest that applying ROI from different perspectives may help form an important communication bridge between conservation and development tradeoffs, and prove valuable in the debate over renewable energy production options in the context of their environmental impacts.Return on investment; ROI; Wind turbine development; Development priorities; Conservation priorities
Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands provide ecosystem service benefits that exceed land rental payment costsEcosystem ServicesKris A. Johnson, Brent J. Dalzell, Marie Donahue, Jesse Gourevitch, Dennis L. Johnson, Greg S. Karlovits, Bonnie Keeler, Jason T. Smith2016Global demand for commodities prompted the expansion of row crop agriculture in the Upper Midwest, USA with unknown consequences for multiple ecosystem services. The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) was designed to protect these services by paying farmers to retire environmentally sensitive land. Here we assessed whether the benefits provided by CRP's targeted retirement of agricultural land are equal to or greater in value than the cost of rental payments to farmers. We quantified the benefits of CRP lands for reducing flood damages, improving water quality and air-quality, and contributing to greenhouse gas mitigation in the Indian Creek watershed in Iowa. We found that for all assessed scenarios of CRP implementation, the ecosystem service benefits provided by CRP lands exceed the cost of payments to farmers. Expanding CRP implementation under one of three potential scenarios would require an average per-acre payment of $1311 over the life of a 10-year contract but would generate benefits with a net present value of between $1710 and $6401. This analysis suggests that investment in CRP in Indian Creek, and likely in other watersheds in the Upper Midwest, is justified based upon the value of public and private benefits provided by CRP lands.
Framing the private land conservation conversation: Strategic framing of the benefits of conservation participation could increase landholder engagementEnvironmental Science & PolicyKusmanoff, A.M., F. Fidler, M.J. Hardy, G. Maffey, C. Raymond, M. Reed, J.A. Fitzsimons and S. Bekessy2016How conservation messages are framed will impact the success of our efforts to engage people in conservation action. This is highly relevant in the private land conservation (PLC) sector given the low participation rates of landholders. Using a case study of PLC schemes targeted at Australian landholders, we present the first systematic analysis of communication strategies used by organisations and government departments delivering those schemes to engage the public. We develop a novel approach for analysing the framing of conservation messages that codes the stated benefits of schemes according to value orientation. We categorised the benefits as flowing to either the landholder, to society, or to the environment, corresponding to the egoistic, altruistic and biospheric value orientations that have been shown to influence human behaviour. We find that messages are biased towards environmental benefits. Surprisingly, this is the case even for market-based schemes that have the explicit objective of appealing to production-focussed landholders and those who are not already involved in conservation. The risk is that PLC schemes framed in this way will fail to engage more egoistically oriented landholders and are only likely to appeal to those likely to already be conservation-minded. By understanding the frame in which PLC benefits are communicated, we can begin to understand the types of people who may be engaged by these messages, and who may not be. Results suggest that the framing of the communications for many schemes could be broadened to appeal to a more diverse group (and thus ultimately to a larger group) of landholders.
Towards dynamic flow regime management for floodplain restoration in the Atchafalaya River Basin, LouisianaEnvironmental Science & PolicyJustin P. Kozak, , Micah G. Bennett, Bryan P. Piazza, Jonathan W.F. Remo2016This study proposes a novel approach for establishing adaptive environmental-flow prescriptions for rivers, channels, and floodways with substantial flow augmentation and a limited decision space using the highly altered Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB) in Louisiana as an example. Development of the ARB into the primary floodway of the Mississippi River and Tributaries Project has contributed to hydrologic changes basin-wide that have altered the river-floodplain interface threatening important ecosystems, notably the expansive baldcypress-water tupelo swamp forests. Current restoration efforts only address the spatial distribution of water in local areas of the basin; however, the timing, frequency, magnitude, and duration of ecologically-important high and low flows are determined at the basin-wide scale by the daily implementation of a federal flow mandate that limits available water management options. We used current hydrologic conditions and established flow-ecology relationships from the literature to develop an environmental flow prescription for the ARB that provides basin-wide flow targets to complement ongoing restoration efforts. Hydrologic analysis of current flows and the flow-ecology requirements for these wetland forests revealed an overlap in the range of flow variability under the current water management model, suggesting environmental flows can be complementary with the desired hydraulic and geomorphic characteristics of the floodway. The result is a first step towards an adaptive flow regime that strives to balance important flow-ecology relationships within a decision space limited by a federal flow mandate. We found high potential for success in managing water for nature while accommodating other management needs for the river.Environmental flow; Water management; Flood mitigation; Floodplains; Wetland forest
Mapping the potential mycorrhizal associations of the conterminous United States of AmericaFungal EcologyRandy Swaty, Haley M. Michael, Ron Deckert, Catherine A. Gehring2016Mycorrhizal associations are recognized as key symbioses in a changing world, yet our understanding of their geographic distribution and temporal dynamics remains limited. We combined data on mycorrhizal associations and historical dominant vegetation to map the pre-European Settlement mycorrhizal associations of the conterminous United States of America (USA). As a demonstration of the map's utility, we estimated changes in mycorrhizal associations due to urbanization, agriculture and the establishment of non-native species in two regions. We found that the conterminous USA was dominated by vegetation associated with arbuscular mycorrhizas, but that _40% of vegetation types included multiple mycorrhizal associations. Shifting land use to agriculture and the introduction of non-native species has disproportionately affected ectomycorrhizas, as did urbanization. These preliminary results set a baseline for mycorrhizal biogeography of the USA and illustrate how synthesis of available data can help us understand the impact of anthropogenic changes on an important mutualism.
Economic value of a large marine ecosystem: Danajon double barrier reef, PhilippinesOcean & Coastal ManagementSamontea, Giselle P.B.; Eisma-Osoriob, Rose-Liza; Amolob, Rizaller; Whitec, Alan2016Economic valuation; Inter-governmental cooperation; Marine protected area
The benefits of crops and field management practices to wintering waterbirds in the SacramentoÐSan Joaquin River Delta of CaliforniaRenewable Agriculture and Food StstemsShuford, W.D.; Reiter, M.E.; Strum, K.M.; Gilbert, M.M.; Hickey, C.M.; Golet, G.H.2016
Achieving climate connectivity in a fragmented landscapePNASJenny L. McGuire, Joshua J. Lawler, Brad H. McRae, Tristan A. Nu–ez, and David M. Theobald2016The contiguous United States contains a disconnected patchwork of natural lands. This fragmentation by human activities limits speciesÕ ability to track suitable climates as they rapidly shift. However, most models that project species movement needs have not examined where fragmentation will limit those movements. Here, we quantify climate connectivity, the capacity of landscape configuration to allow species movement in the face of dynamically shifting climate. Using this metric, we assess to what extent habitat fragmentation will limit species movements in response to climate change. We then evaluate how creating corridors to promote climate connectivity could potentially mitigate these restrictions, and we assess where strategies to increase connectivity will be most beneficial. By analyzing fragmentation patterns across the contiguous United States, we demonstrate that only 41% of natural land area retains enough connectivity to allow plants and animals to maintain climatic parity as the climate warms. In the eastern United States, less than 2% of natural area is sufficiently connected. Introducing corridors to facilitate movement through human-dominated regions increases the percentage of climatically connected natural area to 65%, with the most impactful gains in low-elevation regions, particularly in the southeastern United States. These climate connectivity analyses allow ecologists and conservation practitioners to determine the most effective regions for increasing connectivity. More importantly, our findings demonstrate that increasing climate connectivity is critical for allowing species to track rapidly changing climates, reconfiguring habitats to promote access to suitable climates.
A meta-analysis of management effects on forest carbon storageJournal of Sustainable ForestryElizabeth L. Kalies, Karen A. Haubensak & Alex J. Finkral2016Forest management can have substantial impacts on ecosystem carbon storage, but those effects can vary significantly with management type and species composition. We used systematic review methodology to identify and synthesize effects of thinning and/or burning, timber harvesting, clear-cut, and wildfire on four components of ecosystem carbon: aboveground vegetation, soil, litter, and deadwood. We performed a meta-analysis on studies from the United States and Canada because those represented 85% of the studies conducted worldwide. We found that the most important variables in predicting effect sizes (ratio of carbon stored in treated stands versus controls) were, in decreasing order of importance, ecosystem carbon component, time since treatment, and age of control. Management treatment was the least important of all the variables we examined, but the trends we found suggest that thinning and/or burning treatments resulted in less carbon loss than wildfire or clear-cut. This finding is consistent with recent modeling studies indicating that forest management is unimportant to long-term carbon dynamics relative to the effects of large-scale natural disturbances (e.g., drought, fire, pest outbreak). However, many data gaps still exist on total ecosystem carbon, particularly in regions other than North America, and in timber production forests and plantations.Ecosystem carbon, fuel reduction treatment, harvest, plantation, prescribed fire, wildfire,
Characterization of spatial relationships between three remotely sensed indirect indicators of biodiversity and climate: a 21years' data series review across the Canadian boreal forestInternational Journal of Digital EarthLiliana Perez, Trisalyn Nelson, Nicholas C. Coops, Fabio Fontana & C. Ronnie Drever2016Climate drives ecosystem processes and impacts biodiversity. Biodiversity patterns over large areas, such as Canada's boreal, can be monitored using indirect indicators derived from remotely sensed imagery. In this paper, we characterized the historical spaceÐtime relationships between climate and a suite of indirect indicators of biodiversity, known as the Dynamic Habitat Index (DHI) to identify where climate variability is co-occurring with changes in biodiversity indicators. We represented biodiversity using three indirect indicators generated from 1987 to 2007 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer images. By quantifying and clustering temporal variability in climate data, we defined eight homogeneous climate variability zones, where we then analyzed the DHI. Results identified unique areas of change in climate, such as the Hudson Plains, that explain significant variations in DHI. Past variability in temperatures and growing season index had a strong influence on observed vegetation productivity and seasonality changes throughout Canada's boreal. Variation in precipitation, for most of the area, was not associated with DHI changes. The methodology presented here enables assessment of spatialÐtemporal relationships between biodiversity and climate variability and characterizes distinctive zones of variation that may be used for prioritization and planning to ensure long-term biodiversity conservation in Canada.Climate change, biodiversity, boreal forest, spatialÐtemporal analysis, fPAR, DHI
Expanding marine protected areas to include degraded coral reefsConservation BiologyAbelson, A., Nelson, P. A., Edgar, G. J., Shashar, N., Reed, D. C., Belmaker, J., Krause, G., Beck, M. W., Brokovich, E., France, R. & Gaines, S.D.2016Coral reefs of the world face rapid degradation of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and marine protected areas (MPAs) are a commonly applied solution. Nevertheless, coral reefs continue to decline worldwide, raising questions about the adequacy of management and protection efforts. We argue that expanding the range of MPA targets to also include degraded reefs (i.e. 'DR-MPA'), could help reverse this trend. This approach requires new ecological criteria for MPA design, siting, and management. Rather than focusing solely on preserving healthy reefs, the proposed approach focuses on the potential for biodiversity recovery and renewal of ecosystem services. The new criteria highlight sites with the highest potential for recovery, the greatest resistance to future threats (e.g., temperature and acidification) and the largest contribution to connectivity of MPA networks. The DR-MPA approach is not a substitute for traditional MPA selection criteria; it is rather a complimentary framework when traditional approaches are inadequate. We believe that the DR-MPA approach can help to: 1. Enhance the natural, or restoration-assisted, recovery of degraded reefs and their ecosystem services, 2. Increase the total reef area available for protection, 3. Promote more resilient and better-connected MPA networks, and 4. More effectively contribute to improved conditions for human communities dependent on these ecosystem services.
Weed Risk Assessments Are an Effective Component of Invasion Risk ManagementInvasive Plant Science and ManagementGordon, D.R., S.L. Flory, D. Lieurance, P.E. Hulme, C. Buddenhagen, B. Caton, P.D. Champion, T.M. Culley, C. Daehler, F. Essl, J.E. Hill, R.P. Keller, L. Kohl, A.L. Koop, S. Kumschick, D.M. Lodge, R.N. Mack, L.A. Meyerson, G.R. Pallipparambil, F.D. Panetta, R. Porter, P. Py_ek, L.D. Quinn, D.M. Richardson, D. Simberloff, and M. Vilˆ.2016
The faces of Bacidia schweinitzii: molecular and morphological data reveal three new species including a widespread sorediate morphThe BryologistJames C. Lendemer, Richard C. Harris, Douglas Ladd2016Bacidia schweinitzii is a common crustose lichen that is widespread in eastern North America. It is comprised of three distinct morphotypes differing in apothecial pigmentation. Here we show that molecular data from the mtSSU region affirms the distinctiveness of these morphotypes, prompting the recognition of three species: B. schweinitzii s.str., B. ekmaniana sp. nov. and B. purpurans sp. nov. We also show that a common sorediate crustose lichen, sympatric with B. schweinitzii, represents a monophyletic lineage whose relationship with B. schweinitzii s.str. could not be resolved with certainty using analyses of ITS and mtSSU sequence data. We recognize this sorediate lineage as a distinct species, B. sorediata sp. nov. All four taxa are described, illustrated and mapped.Bacidiaceae, crustose lichen, pigment morph, sterile crust
Decision Tools and Approaches to Advance Ecosystem-Based Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation in the Twenty-First CenturyAdam W. Whelchel, Michael W. Beck2016Organisations and governments around the globe are developing methodologies to cope with increasing numbers of disasters and climate change as well as implementing risk reducing measures across diverse socio-economic and environmental sectors and scales. What is often overlooked and certainly required for comprehensive planning and programming are better tools and approaches that include ecosystems in the equations. Collectively, these mechanisms can help to enhance societiesÕ abilities to capture the protective benefits of ecosystems for communities facing disaster and climate risks. As illustrated within this chapter, decision support tools and approaches are clearly improving rapidly. Despite these advancements, factors such as resistance to change, the cautious approach by development agencies, governance structure and overlapping jurisdictions, funding, and limited community engagement remain, in many cases, pre-requisites to successful implementation of ecosystem-based solutions. Herein we provide case studies, lessons learned and recommendations from applications of decision support tools and approaches that advance better risk assessments and implementation of ecosystem-based solutions. The case studies featured in this chapter illustrate opportunities that have been enhanced with cutting edge tools, social media and crowdsourcing, cost/benefit comparisons, and scenario planning mechanisms. Undoubtedly, due to the large areas and extent of exposure to natural hazards, ecosystems will increasingly become a critical part of societiesÕ overall responses to equitably solve issues of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation.Ecosystem-based solutions Community resilience building Risk matrix Floodplain by design Water funds Connecticut Resilience planning to action frameworkSeries: Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research
Atlas of Ocean WealthSpalding, M.D., Brumbaugh, R.D. & Landis, E.2016Arlington, VA
Status of Implementation and Sources of Leverage to Enhance Ambition.Conservation Science and PracticeLinda Krueger2016This chapter reviews the role and status of legal frameworks and other commitments for protected areas. It explores the relationship between scientific evidence and political practicality in implementing current targets and achieving the more ambitious ones. Prompted by increasingly urgent scientific warnings on biodiversity loss and supported by an emerging international community of practice around protected areas, governments have been commendably responsive both through commitment and action in developing national protected area networks. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), signed at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, has gradually emerged as the most comprehensive legal framework for protected areas. Programme of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA) remains the framework for implementing protected area goals, although it has been supplemented by the Strategic Plan Targets, the Aichi Targets, adopted at the CBD's 10th Conference of the Parties (COP 10).Convention on Biological Diversity; government commitments; protected areas; Strategic Plan Targets
Does hunting or hiking affect wildlife communities in protected areas?Journal of Applied EcologyRoland Kays, Arielle W. Parsons, Megan C. Baker, Elizabeth L. Kalies, Tavis Forrester, Robert Costello, Christopher T. Rota, Joshua J. Millspaugh, William J. McShea20161. Managed public wild areas have dual mandates to protect biodiversity and provide recreational opportunities for people. These goals could be at odds if recreation, ranging from hiking to legal hunting, disrupts wildlife enough to alter their space use or community structure. 2. We evaluated the effect of managed hunting and recreation on 12 terrestrial wildlife species by employing a large citizen science camera trapping survey at 1947 sites stratified across different levels of human activities in 32 protected forests in the eastern USA. 3. Habitat covariates, especially the amount of large continuous forest and local housing density, were more important than recreation for affecting the distribution of most species. The four most hunted species (white-tailed deer, raccoons, eastern grey and fox squirrels) were commonly detected throughout the region, but relatively less so at hunted sites. Recreation was most important for affecting the distribution of coyotes, which used hunted areas more compared with unhunted control areas, and did not avoid areas used by hikers. 4. Most species did not avoid human-made trails, and many predators positively selected them. Bears and bobcats were more likely to avoid people in hunted areas than unhunted preserves, suggesting that they perceive the risk of humans differently depending on local hunting regulations. However, this effect was not found for the most heavily hunted species, suggesting that human hunters are not broadly creating ÔfearÕ effects to the wildlife community as would be expected for apex predators. 5. Synthesis and applications. Although we found that hiking and managed hunting have measureable effects on the distribution of some species, these were relatively minor in comparison with the importance of habitat covariates associated with land use and habitat fragmentation. These patterns of wildlife distribution suggest that the present practices for regulating recreation in the region are sustainable and in balance with the goal of protecting wildlife populations and may be facilitated by decades of animal habituation to humans. The citizen science monitoring approach we developed could offer a long-term monitoring protocol for protected areas, which would help managers to detect where and when the balance between recreation and wildlife has tipped.
A multispecies occupancy model for two or more interacting speciesMethods in Ecology and EvolutionChristopher T. Rota, Marco A. R. Ferreira, Roland W. Kays, Tavis D. Forrester, Elizabeth L. Kalies, William J. McShea, Arielle W. Parsons, Joshua J. Millspaugh20161. Species occurrence is influenced by environmental conditions and the presence of other species. Current approaches for multispecies occupancy modelling are practically limited to two interacting species and often require the assumption of asymmetric interactions. We propose a multispecies occupancy model that can accommodate two or more interacting species. 2. We generalize the single-species occupancy model to two or more interacting species by assuming the latent occupancy state is a multivariate Bernoulli random variable. We propose modelling the probability of each potential latent occupancy state with both a multinomial logit and a multinomial probit model and present details of a Gibbs sampler for the latter. 3. As an example, we model co-occurrence probabilities of bobcat (Lynx rufus), coyote (Canis latrans), grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as a function of human disturbance variables throughout 6 Mid-Atlantic states in the eastern United States. We found evidence for pairwise interactions among most species, and the probability of some pairs of species occupying the same site varied along environmental gradients; for example, occupancy probabilities of coyote and grey fox were independent at sites with little human disturbance, but these two species were more likely to occur together at sites with high human disturbance. 4. Ecological communities are composed of multiple interacting species. Our proposed method improves our ability to draw inference from such communities by permitting modelling of detection/non-detection data from an arbitrary number of species, without assuming asymmetric interactions. Additionally, our proposed method permits modelling the probability two or more species occur together as a function of environmental variables. These advancements represent an important improvement in our ability to draw community-level inference from multiple interacting species that are subject to imperfect detection.
Mitigation for the people: an ecosystem services frameworkTallis, H., Kennedy, C.M., Ruckelshaus, M., Goldstein, J. & Kiesecker, J.M.2016Many of the laws that establish environmental impact mitigation were designed to protect people from the impacts of environmental degradation, yet economic development impacts on ecosystem servicesÐ the benefits nature provides to people Ð are seldom well incorporated in mitigation. We lack a unified conceptual framework and analytical precedent to guide the integration of ecosystem services into more commonly practiced biodiversity mitigation contexts. Here, we present a four-step framework that addresses key deficiencies in current biodiversity mitigation practice and recommend how ecosystem services can be included in the context of existing regulatory approaches. Within this framework, we address the conceptual and analytical advances needed to establish ecosystem service targets, delineate a spatial extent that captures ecosystem service supply and delivery (servicesheds), establish avoidance thresholds for services, quantitatively estimate impacts on services, consistently construct mitigation replacement ratios, and identify and design potential ecosystem service offsets. In each of these areas, we identify opportunities to embed ecosystem services alongside biodiversity in a single integrated framework.
Big, Bold and Blue: Lessons from AustraliaÕs Marine Protected Areas.J. Fitzsimons and G. Wescott2016The worldÕs oceans cover about 70% of our planet. To safeguard the delicate ecological and environmental functions of the oceans and their remarkable biodiversity, networks of marine protected areas are being created. In some of these areas, human activity is restricted to non-exploitative activities and in others it is managed in a sustainable way. Australia is at the forefront of marine conservation, with one of the largest systems of marine protected areas in the world. Big, Bold and Blue: Lessons from AustraliaÕs Marine Protected Areas captures AustraliaÕs experience, sharing important lessons from the Great Barrier Reef and many other extraordinary marine protected areas. It presents real-world examples, leading academic research, perspectives on government policy, and information from Indigenous sea country management, non-governmental organisations, and commercial and recreational fishing sectors. The lessons learnt during the rapid expansion of AustraliaÕs marine protected areas, both positive and negative, will aid and advise other nations in their own marine conservation efforts.Australia, marine protected areas
Introduction: the expansion of AustraliaÕs marine protected area networksFitzsimons, J. and G. Wescott2016oceanMelbourne
Lessons from the expansion of AustraliaÕs marine protected area networks: a synthesisFitzsimons, J. and G. Wescott2016Melbourne
Marine protected areas: past, present and future Ð a global perspectiveSpalding, M. and L.Z. Hale2016Melbourne
Property Rights for Fishing Cooperatives: How (and How Well) Do They Work?The World Bank Economic ReviewOctavio Aburto-Oropeza, Heather M. Leslie, Austen Mack-Crane, Sriniketh Nagavarapu, Sheila M.W. Reddy, Leila Sievanen2016Octavio Aburto-Oropeza is an assistant professor at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California-San Diego <a href="mailto:(">(</a>. Heather M. Leslie is director and Libra Associate Professor at Darling Marine Center, University of Maine <a href="mailto:(">(</a>. Austen Mack-Crane is a research assistant at the Center on Social Dynamics and Policy, Brookings Institution <a href="mailto:(">(</a>. Sriniketh Nagavarapu (corresponding author) is a senior policy associate at Acumen, LLC. Sheila M.W. Reddy is a senior scientist for sustainability at The Nature Conservancy <a href="mailto:(">(</a>. Leila Sievanen is an associate scientist at California Ocean Science Trust <a href="mailto:(">(</a>. We appreciate outstanding research assistance from Gustavo Hinojosa Arango, Juan JosŽ Cota Nieto, Alexandra S‡nchez, Alexander Lobert, Florencia Borrescio-Higa, Ashley Anderson, Steven Hagerty, and Katherine Wong. For invaluable advice, we thank Chris Costello, Robert Deacon, Andrew Foster, Vernon Henderson, Kaivan Munshi, and seminar participants at Brown's Population Studies and Training Center, Brown's Spatial Structures in the Social Sciences, the UC-Santa Barbara fisheries working group, the MIT/Harvard Environment and Development seminar, and the UC-Berkeley ARE seminar. We are grateful for financial support from the Institute at Brown for Environment and Society at Brown University and the US National Science Foundation Coupled Natural and Human Systems program (NSF Award GEO-11114964). Remaining errors are our own. Author contributions&#58; 1) Design of research&#58; Leslie, Nagavarapu, Reddy; 2) Quantitative data&#58; Aburto, Reddy; 3) Qualitative data&#58; Leslie, Reddy, Sievanen; 4) Theoretical model&#58; Mack-Crane, Nagavarapu; 5) Empirical analysis&#58; Mack-Crane, Nagavarapu, Reddy; 6) Writing&#58; Leslie, Mack-Crane, Nagavarapu, Reddy. A supplemental appendix to this article is available at http&#58;//
Nature-based solutions: lessons from around the worldProceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Maritime EngineeringNigel Pontee, Siddharth Narayan, Michael W. Beck, Adam H. Hosking2016This paper considers an emerging group of coastal management approaches that offer the potential to reduce coastal flood and erosion risks while also providing nature conservation, aesthetic and amenity benefits. These solutions mimic the characteristics of natural features, but are enhanced or created by man to provide specific services such as wave energy dissipation and erosion reduction. Such approaches can include beaches, dunes, saltmarshes, mangroves, sea grasses, coral and oyster reefs. The paper describes a number of innovative projects and the lessons learned in their development and implementation. These lessons include the planning, design and construction of projects, their development following implementation, the engagement of local communities and the cost-effectiveness of solutions.
Government Commitments for Protected Areas: Status of Implementation and Sources of Leverage to Enhance AmbitionKrueger, L.2016This chapter reviews the role and status of legal frameworks and other commitments for protected areas. It explores the relationship between scientific evidence and political practicality in implementing current targets and achieving the more ambitious ones. Prompted by increasingly urgent scientific warnings on biodiversity loss and supported by an emerging international community of practice around protected areas, governments have been commendably responsive both through commitment and action in developing national protected area networks. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), signed at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, has gradually emerged as the most comprehensive legal framework for protected areas. Programme of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA) remains the framework for implementing protected area goals, although it has been supplemented by the Strategic Plan Targets, the Aichi Targets, adopted at the CBD's 10th Conference of the Parties (COP 10).
Examining the relationship between environmental factors and conflict in pastoralist areas of East AfricaScience of The Total EnvironmentEssayas K. Ayana, Pietro Ceccato, Jonathan R.B. Fisher, Ruth DeFries2016The eastern Africa region has long been known for recurring drought, prolonged civil war and frequent pastoral conflicts. Several researchers have suggested that environmental factors can trigger conflicts among pastoralist communities, but quantitative support for this hypothesis is lacking. Here we use 29 years of georeferenced precipitation and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data to evaluate long term trends in scarcity of water and forage for livestock, and then ask whether these environmental stressors have any predictive power with respect to the location and timing of 11 years of conflict data based on Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED) and Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP). Results indicate that environmental stressors were only partly predictive of conflict events. To better understand the drivers behind conflict, the contribution of other potential stressors to conflict need to be systematically quantified and be taken into consideration.
Hyperstability masks declines in bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) populationsCoral ReefsRichard J. Hamilton , Glenn R. Almany, Don Stevens, Michael Bode, John Pita, Nate A. Peterson, J. Howard Choat2016Bolbometopon muricatum, the largest species of parrotfish, is a functionally important species that is characterised by the formation of aggregations for foraging, reproductive, and sleeping behaviours. Aggregations are restricted to shallow reef habitats, the locations of which are often known to local fishers. Bolbometopon muricatum fisheries are therefore vulnerable to overfishing and are likely to exhibit hyperstability, the maintenance of high catch per unit effort (CPUE) while population abundance declines. In this study, we provide a clear demonstration of hyperstable dynamics in a commercial B. muricatum fishery in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. Initially, we used participatory mapping to demarcate the Kia fishing grounds into nine zones that had experienced different historic levels of fishing pressure. We then conducted comprehensive underwater visual census (UVC) and CPUE surveys across these zones over a 21-month period in 2012Ð2013. The individual sites for replicate UVC surveys were selected using a generalised random tessellation stratified variable probability design, while CPUE surveys involved trained provincial fisheries officers and local spearfishers. A comparison of fishery-independent abundance data and fishery-dependent CPUE data indicate extreme hyperstability, with CPUE maintained as B. muricatum abundance declines towards zero. Hyperstability may explain the sudden collapses of many B. muricatum spear fisheries across the Pacific and highlights the limitations of using data-poor fisheries assessment methods to evaluate the status of commercially valuable coral reef fishes that form predicable aggregations.
Protection and Restoration of Freshwater EcosystemsBrian D. Richter, Emily Maynard Powell, Tyler Lystash, Michelle Faggert2016Chapter 5
Putting biodiversity and ecosystem services into urban planning and conservationMcDonald, R.I.2016Okon, UK
Building partnerships to scale up conservation: 4R Nutrient Stewardship Certification Program in the Lake Erie watershedJournal of Great Lakes ResearchCarrie Vollmer-Sanders, Andrew Allman, Doug Busdeker, Lara Beal Moody, William G. Stanley2016Harmful algal blooms in the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB) can be considered a wicked problem—there are conflicting interpretations of the problem and science, stakeholders have different values and goals, and there is no definitive solution. This paper provides an overview and lessons learned of how one set of diverse stakeholders worked together to initiate a voluntary 4R Nutrient Stewardship Certification Program to address the wicked problem in the WLEB. 4R Nutrient Stewardship (Right rate, Right time, Right place, and Right source) provides the foundation for a science-based framework that achieves sustainable plant nutrition management while considering the environment, society, and economics. The 4R Certification Program ensures a third-party auditor objectively evaluates the nutrient service providers' implementation of the 41 criteria of the program that encompass education, recordkeeping, nutrient recommendations, and applications. While the environmental impact of 4R Certification Program adoption is being evaluated currently, implementing the 4Rs has been identified as a key step to improving water quality. In two years, the 4R Certification Program has influenced nearly 40% of WLEB's farmland through the 30 4R certified providers. While any single organization could have created a nutrient management program, it would not have been as robust, as practical, or as accepted as the one created by the broad group of stakeholders involved with the WLEB 4R Advisory Committee. The rigor, structure, governance, and credibility of the 4R Certification Program make it a top candidate to act in other regions with wicked problems related to nutrient management.Non-point source pollution; Agriculture; Conservation; Water quality; Voluntary; Nutrients
Reforms required to the Australian tax system to improve biodiversity conservation on private landEnvironmental and Planning Law JournalSmith, F., Smillie, K., Fitzsimons, J., Lindsay, B., Wells, G., Marles, V., Hutchinson, J., O’Hara, B., Perrigo, T. & Atkinson, I.2016
Bronchocela cristatella (Green Crested Lizard). Diet and foraging behaviorHerpetological ReviewFitzsimons, J.A. & Thomas, J.L.2016
Effects of floristic and structural features of shade agroforestry plantations on the migratory bird community in ColombiaAgroforestry SystemsGabriel J. Colorado Z.; David Mehlman; Giovany Valencia-C.2016How habitat mediates the distribution and habitat selection of migratory birds that winter in agroforestry systems is still poorly known. In this research, we evaluated how different habitat characteristics in shade agroforestry plantations influenced the richness and abundance of the overwintering migratory bird community. We examined migratory bird diversity and habitat structure in nine farms with coffee agroforestry systems with different shading regimes during two wintering seasons in southwestern Antioquia Department, Colombia. 15.9 ± 3.69 species of migratory birds were found on the 9 farms (range 11–21 species). While we found little support for a strong association between richness of migratory birds and habitat variables, abundance of migratory birds was best explained by the combined effect of habitat characteristics. Particularly, the total number of individuals of migratory birds was positively related to structural attributes such as shrub density, canopy cover, tree density and diameter at breast height, suggesting that a denser and closed shading system might be beneficial for migratory birds, which may both increase the horizontal and vertical complexity of the agroforestry system and the variety of food resources for birds. Our surveys showed additional evidence that shaded systems can provide overwinter habitat to Neotropical migrant birds in the Colombian Andes. Moreover, we suggest that migratory birds can benefit by managing structurally and floristically diverse agroforestry and silvopastoral systems.Colombia Agroforestry Shade coffee Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds
Glenn is just testing out the system on the first day of log-in. Testing of Tests CECILIA KANG and ADAM GOLDMAN2016linking to a random article that is publically avaialble as a test - will delete after successful posting
Diet preferences of goats in subtropical dry forest and implications for habitat managementTropical EcologyFleming, Genie M.; Wunderle Jr., Joseph; Ewert, David N.;2016 As part of an experimental study of using controlled goat grazing to manage winter habitat of the Kirtland’s warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii), an endangered Nearcticneotropical migratory bird, we evaluated diet preferences of domesticated goats within earlysuccessional subtropical dry forest in The Bahamas. We expected goats would show a low preference for two plants (Lantana involucrata, Erithalis fruticosa) important to the bird’s winter diet and that occur in abundance in goat-grazed areas throughout the region. Contrary to our expectations, the plants were among a set of species, including Acacia choriophylla, Passiflora spp., and Thrinax morrisii, with moderate to high palatability during the mid-late dry season. Thus, strict avoidance of the two warbler food plants by goats is not a direct mechanism promoting their abundance in grazed areas. Nonetheless, grazing may still prove an economically viable means of managing existing warbler habitat by delaying succession toward a mature forest community where important food resources may be lacking.Bahamas, coppice, Erithalis fruticosa, goat grazing, Kirtland’s warbler, Lantana involucrata, resource selection.
Western Lake Erie Basin: Soft-data-constrained, NHDPlus resolution watershed modeling and exploration of applicable conservation scenarios. Science of the Total EnvironmentHaw Yena, Michael J. Whiteb, Jeffrey G. Arnoldb, S. Conor Keitzerc, Mari-Vaughn V. Johnsond, Jay D. Atwoodd, Prasad Daggupatie, Matthew E. Herbertf, Scott P. Sowaf, Stuart A. Ludsinc, Dale M. Robertsong, Raghavan Srinivasane, Charles A. Rewah2016Complex watershed simulation models are powerful tools that can help scientists and policy-makers address challenging topics, such as land use management and water security. In the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB), complex hydrological models have been applied at various scales to help describe relationships between land use and water, nutrient, and sediment dynamics. This manuscript evaluated the capacity of the current Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT2012) to predict hydrological and water quality processes within WLEB at the finest resolution watershed boundary unit (NHDPlus) along with the current conditions and conservation scenarios. The process based SWAT model was capable of the fine-scale computation and complex routing used in this project, as indicated by measured data at five gaging stations. The level of detail required for fine-scale spatial simulation made the use of both hard and soft data necessary in model calibration, alongside other model adaptations. Limitations to the model's predictive capacity were due to a paucity of data in the region at the NHDPlus scale rather than due to SWAT functionality. Results of treatment scenarios demonstrate variable effects of structural practices and nutrient management on sediment and nutrient loss dynamics. Targeting treatment to acres with critical outstanding conservation needs provides the largest return on investment in terms of nutrient loss reduction per dollar spent, relative to treating acres with lower inherent nutrient loss vulnerabilities. Importantly, this research raises considerations about use of models to guide land management decisions at very fine spatial scales. Decision makers using these results should be aware of data limitations that hinder fine-scale model interpretation.Lake Erie; NHDPlus model; Soft data; Conservation practice; Swat-SAS; Model calibration
Using reef fish movement to inform marine reserve design.Journal of Applied EcologyRebecca Weeks, Alison L. Green, Eugene Joseph, Nate Peterson and Elizabeth Terk2016 central tenet of protected area design is that conserva-tion areas must be adequate to ensure the persistence ofthe features that they aim to conserve. These featuresmight include species, populations, communities and/orenvironmental processes. Protected area adequacy entailsboth good design (e.g. size, configuration, replication) andmanagement effectiveness (e.g. level of protection, compli-ance with regulations). With respect to design, guidelinesrecommend that protected area size be informed by spe-cies’ home ranges, as individuals that move beyond pro-tected area boundaries are exposed to threats and arethus only partially protected (Kramer &amp; Chapman 1999).This is especially important for species that are directlyexploited, as are many coral reef-associated fishes.Information on movement patterns of coral reef fisheshas only recently been summarized in the literature, alongwith guidelines on how this information might be used toinform the adequate design of marine protected areas(MPAs; Green et al. 2015). Here, we demonstrate, usingan example from Micronesia, how these guidelines can beadapted and applied within a particular socio-ecologicalcontext to guide discussions with stakeholders aimed atimproving the efficacy of an existing protected area net-work. We discuss aspects of this process that were suc-cessful and those that were challenging, and in so doing,identify areas where future ecological research effortmight benefit protected area planning and design.adaptive management; adequacy; community-based conservation; conservation planning; home range; marine reserves; Micronesia; movement; protected areas; reef fishes
Bright spots among the world’s coral reefs.NatureJoshua E. Cinner, Cindy Huchery, M. Aaron MacNeil, Nicholas A.J. Graham, Tim R. McClanahan, Joseph Maina, Eva Maire, John N. Kittinger, Christina C. Hicks, Camilo Mora, Edward H. Allison, Stephanie D’Agata, Andrew Hoey, David A. Feary, Larry Crowder, Ivor D. Williams, Michel Kulbicki, Laurent Vigliola, Laurent Wantiez, Graham Edgar, Rick D. Stuart-Smith, Stuart A. Sandin, Alison L. Green, Marah J. Hardt, Maria Beger2016The health of the world's coral reefs, which provide goods and services for millions of people, is declining. Effective management of these ecosystems requires an understanding of the underlying drivers of reef decline. In a study that spans the gap between ecology and the social sciences, Joshua Cinner and colleagues develop a Bayesian hierarchical model, using data from more than 2,500 reefs worldwide, to predict reef fish biomass based on various socioeconomic drivers and environmental conditions. They identify 15 bright spots — sites where reef biomass is significantly higher than expected. The bright spots are found not only among iconic remote and pristine areas, but also where there are strong sociocultural institutions and high levels of local engagement. On the basis of this analysis, the authors argue for a refocus of coral reef conservation efforts away from locating and protecting remote, pristine sites, towards unlocking potential solutions from sites that have successfully confronted the coral reef crisis.Sustainability Environmental impact Tropical ecology
Effects of lead exposure, flock behavior, and management actions on the survival of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus).EcoHealthVictoria J. Bakker, Donald R. Smith, Holly Copeland, Joseph Brandt, Rachel Wolstenholme, Joe Burnett, Steve Kirkland, Myra E. Finkelstein2016*~hmac=a97128931f40ac7e10c427a019c34a1cc9917ef062449d899ae8c88635c25cfdTranslocation is an increasingly important tool for managing endangered species, but factors influencing the survival of translocated individuals are not well understood. Here we examine intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of survival for critically endangered California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) whose wild population recovery is reliant upon releases of captively bred stock. We used known fate models and information-theoretic methods to compare the ability of hypothesized covariates, most of which serve as proxies for lead exposure risk, to predict survival rates of condors in California. Our best supported model included the following predictors of survival&#58; age of the recovery program, precipitation, proportion of days observed feeding on proffered carcasses, maximum blood lead concentration over the preceding 18 months, and time since release. We found that as flocks have increased in size and age, condors are increasingly likely to range more widely and less likely to be observed feeding on proffered food, and these “wilder” behaviors were associated with lower survival. After accounting for these behaviors, we found a positive survival trend, which we attribute to ongoing improvements in management. Our findings illustrate that the survival of translocated animals, such as highly social California condors, is influenced by behaviors that change through time.lead exposuresurvivalCalifornia condormanagement actionsflockprecipitationtranslocation
Completing the system: opportunities and challenges for a National Habitat Conservation SystemBioScienceJocelyn L. Aycrigg, Craig Groves, Jodi A. Hilty, J. Michael Scott, Paul Beier, D. A. Boyce Jr., Dennis Figg, Healy Hamilton, Gary Machlis, Kit Muller, K. V. Rosenberg, Raymond M. Sauvajot, Mark Shaffer and Rand Wentworth2016The United States has achieved significant conservation goals to date, but the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem processes is accelerating. We evaluate opportunities and challenges to conserving our biodiversity by completing a national habitat conservation system, which could stem losses of natural resources and ecosystem services and proactively prepare for climate-change impacts. Lessons learned from two international conservation systems and the infrastructure of national bird conservation partnerships provide examples for completing a national habitat conservation system. One option is to convene a national forum of interested public and private parties to undertake four key actions; develop a common conservation vision and set measureable goals, complete a conservation assessment, use an adaptive management framework to monitor progress toward this vision, and implement strategies to complete a national habitat conservation system. Completing a national habitat conservation system is key to meeting the challenges of conserving habitats and biodiversity of the United States.national habitat conservation system conservation planning biodiversity conservation areas public–private partnerships
Changing agricultural practices: potential consequences to aquatic organismsEnvironmental Monitoring and AssessmentPeter J. Lasier, Matthew L. Urich, Sayed M. Hassan, Whitney N. Jacobs, Robert B. Bringo, Kathleen M. Owens2016Agricultural practices pose threats to biotic diversity in freshwater systems with increasing use of glyphosate-based herbicides for weed control and animal waste for soil amendment becoming common in many regions. Over the past two decades, these particular agricultural trends have corresponded with marked declines in populations of fish and mussel species in the Upper Conasauga River watershed in Georgia/Tennessee, USA. To investigate the potential role of agriculture in the population declines, surface waters and sediments throughout the basin were tested for toxicity and analyzed for glyphosate, metals, nutrients, and steroid hormones. Assessments of chronic toxicity with Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca indicated that few water or sediment samples were harmful and metal concentrations were generally below impairment levels. Glyphosate was not observed in surface waters, although its primary degradation product, aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA), was detected in 77% of the samples (mean = 509 μg/L, n = 99) and one or both compounds were measured in most sediment samples. Waterborne AMPA concentrations supported an inference that surfactants associated with glyphosate may be present at levels sufficient to affect early life stages of mussels. Nutrient enrichment of surface waters was widespread with nitrate (mean = 0.7 mg NO3-N/L, n = 179) and phosphorus (mean = 275 μg/L, n = 179) exceeding levels associated with eutrophication. Hormone concentrations in sediments were often above those shown to cause endocrine disruption in fish and appear to reflect the widespread application of poultry litter and manure. Observed species declines may be at least partially due to hormones, although excess nutrients and herbicide surfactants may also be implicated.GlyphosateSteroid hormonesNutrient enrichmentSurface watersSediments
OPAL: An open-source software tool for integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services into impact assessment and mitigation decisionsEnvironmental Monitoring & SoftwareLisa Mandlea, James Douglass, Juan Sebastian Lozano, Richard P. Sharpa, Adrian L. Vogla, Douglas Denua, Thomas Walschburger, Heather Tallis2016Governments and financial institutions increasingly require that environmental impact assessment and mitigation account for consequences to both biodiversity and ecosystem services. Here we present a new software tool, OPAL (Offset Portfolio Analyzer and Locator), which maps and quantifies the impacts of development on habitat and ecosystem services, and facilitates the selection of mitigation activities to offset losses. We demonstrate its application with an oil and gas extraction facility in Colombia. OPAL is the first tool to provide direct consideration of the distribution of ecosystem service benefits among people in a mitigation context. Previous biodiversity-focused efforts led to redistribution or loss of ecosystem services with environmental justice implications. Joint consideration of biodiversity and ecosystem services enables targeting of offsets to benefit both nature and society. OPAL reduces the time and technical expertise required for these analyses and has the flexibility to be used across a range of geographic and policy contexts.Environmental impact assessment; Biodiversity offsets; Compensatory mitigation; Decision support tool; Land use planning; Environmental justice
Climate change impacts on ecosystems and ecosystem services in the United States: process and prospects for sustained assessmentClimatic ChangeNancy B. Grimm, Peter Groffman, Michelle Staudinger, Heather Tallis2016The third United States National Climate Assessment emphasized an evaluation of not just the impacts of climate change on species and ecosystems, but also the impacts of climate change on the benefits that people derive from nature, known as ecosystem services. The ecosystems, biodiversity, and ecosystem services component of the assessment largely drew upon the findings of a transdisciplinary workshop aimed at developing technical input for the assessment, involving participants from diverse sectors. A small author team distilled and synthesized this and hundreds of other technical input to develop the key findings of the assessment. The process of developing and ranking key findings hinged on identifying impacts that had particular, demonstrable effects on the U.S. public via changes in national ecosystem services. Findings showed that ecosystem services are threatened by the impacts of climate change on water supplies, species distributions and phenology, as well as multiple assaults on ecosystem integrity that, when compounded by climate change, reduce the capacity of ecosystems to buffer against extreme events. As ecosystems change, such benefits as water sustainability and protection from storms that are afforded by intact ecosystems are projected to decline across the continent due to climate change. An ongoing, sustained assessment that focuses on the co-production of actionable climate science will allow scientists from a range of disciplines to ascertain the capability of their forecasting models to project environmental and ecological change and link it to ecosystem services; additionally, an iterative process of evaluation, development of management strategies, monitoring, and reevaluation will increase the applicability and usability of the science by the U.S. public.
Effective Monitoring to Evaluate Ecological Restoration in the Gulf of Mexico National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Division on Earth and Life Studies; Ocean Studies Board; Water Science and Technology Board2016 Coast communities and natural resources suffered extensive direct and indirect damage as a result of the largest accidental oil spill in US history, referred to as the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Notably, natural resources affected by this major spill include wetlands, coastal beaches and barrier islands, coastal and marine wildlife, seagrass beds, oyster reefs, commercial fisheries, deep benthos, and coral reefs, among other habitats and species. Losses include an estimated 20% reduction in commercial fishery landings across the Gulf of Mexico and damage to as much as 1,100 linear miles of coastal salt marsh wetlands.
Potential carbon dioxide emission reductions from avoided grassland conversion in the northern Great PlainsEcosphereMarissa Ahlering, Joseph Fargione, William Parton2016 of lands threatened with conversion to agriculture can reduce carbon emissions. Until recently, most climate change mitigation incentive programs for avoided conversion have focused on forested ecosystems. We applied the Avoided Conversion of Grasslands and Shrublands v.1.0 (ACoGS) methodology now available through the American Carbon Registry to a threatened region of grasslands in the northern Great Plains. For all soil types across 14 counties in North and South Dakota, we used the DAYCENT model calibrated to the study area to quantify the difference in CO2 and N2O emissions under a cropping and a protection scenario, and we used formulas in the ACoGS methodology to calculate CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation under the protection scenario. We mapped the resulting GHG emissions across the entire project area. Emissions averaged 51.6 tCO2e/ha over 20 years, and with a 31% reduction for leakage and uncertainty from the ACoGS methodology, carbon offsets averaged 35.6 tCO2e/ha over 20 years. Protection of 10% of the 2.1 million unprotected ha in the project area with the highest emissions would reduce emissions by 11.7 million tCO2e over 20 years (11% of the total emissions from all unprotected grassland) and avoid a social cost of $430 million worth of CO2 emissions. These results suggest that carbon offsets generated from avoided conversion of grasslands can meaningfully contribute to climate mitigation and grassland conservation objectives.carbon offsets; DAYCENT; grassland conversion; greenhouse gas emissions; Prairie Pothole Region
Prioritizing land management efforts at a landscape scale: a case study using prescribed fire in WisconsinEcological ApplicationsTracy L. Hmielowski, Sarah K. Carter, Hannah Spaul, David Helmers, Volker C. Radeloff, Paul Zedler2016One challenge in the effort to conserve biodiversity is identifying where to prioritize resources for active land management. Cost–benefit analyses have been used successfully as a conservation tool to identify sites that provide the greatest conservation benefit per unit cost. Our goal was to apply cost–benefit analysis to the question of how to prioritize land management efforts, in our case the application of prescribed fire to natural landscapes in Wisconsin, USA. We quantified and mapped frequently burned communities and prioritized management units based on a suite of indices that captured ecological benefits, management effort, and the feasibility of successful long-term management actions. Data for these indices came from LANDFIRE, Wisconsin's Wildlife Action Plan, and a nationwide wildland–urban interface assessment. We found that the majority of frequently burned vegetation types occurred in the southern portion of the state. However, the highest priority areas for applying prescribed fire occurred in the central, northwest, and northeast portion of the state where frequently burned vegetation patches were larger and where identified areas of high biological importance area occurred. Although our focus was on the use of prescribed fire in Wisconsin, our methods can be adapted to prioritize other land management activities. Such prioritization is necessary to achieve the greatest possible benefits from limited funding for land management actions, and our results show that it is feasible at scales that are relevant for land management decisions.
Nitrate Reduction in a Hydrologically Restored Bottomland Hardwood Forest in the Mississippi River Watershed, Northern LouisianaSoil Science Society of America Journal (SSSAJ)Nia Hursta, John R. White, and Joseph Baustian2016Nitrogen loading from the Mississippi River leads to formation of water column hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico every summer. Bottomland hardwood (BLH) forests located within the Mississippi River watershed could play a crucial role in reducing NO3− loading to the Gulf of Mexico. However, much river–floodplain connectivity has been muted due to building of levees and land conversion for agriculture. Restoring floodplain–river connectivity can potentially reduce river NO3−. Mollicy Farms, a 6475-ha BLH site in northern Louisiana, is the largest floodplain reconnection and BLH reforestation project in the Mississippi River Basin. Soil properties, including microbial measures (microbial biomass N, potentially mineralizable N, and β-glucosidase activity) and NO3− reduction rates were compared with a control site. Nitrate reduction rates in the restored site were 28% lower than in the control site (11.8 ± 3.4 vs. 16.4 ± 8.1 mg N m−2 d−1), with the potential removal of ∼48.1 Mg of NO3–N from the Ouachita River annually. Other soil microbial measures, however, were &gt;50% lower in the restored site compared with the control site, demonstrating that NO3− reduction has responded more quickly to hydrologic reconnection. Therefore, NO3− reduction in restored floodplain wetlands may have a relatively more rapid trajectory of recovery, allowing hydrologic reconnection to be an effective tool for enhancing NO3− reduction in the Lower Mississippi alluvial valley and reducing N flux to the coastal ocean.
Connecting people and places: the emerging role of network governance in large landscape conservationFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentLynn Scarlett and Matthew McKinney2016 most important land and water issues facing North America and the world – including land-use patterns, water management, biodiversity protection, and climate adaptation – require innovative governance arrangements. Most of these issues need to be addressed at several scales simultaneously, ranging from local to global. They require action at the scale of large landscapes given that the geographic scope of the issues often transcends the legal and geographic reach of existing jurisdictions and institutions. No single entity has the authority to address these types of cross-boundary issues, resulting in gaps in governance and a corresponding need to create formal and informal ways work more effectively across administrative boundaries, land ownerships, and political jurisdictions. In response to this challenge, numerous models of “network governance” are emerging. These approaches vary in terms of purpose, spatial scale, composition, organization, and complexity. This article explains what network governance is, why it is emerging, how it compares to other models of natural resource governance, and the different ways in which it develops and evolves.
Forging new models of natural resource governanceFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentPatrick Bixler, Matthew McKinney, Lynn Scarlett2016 abstract - it's an Editorial.
Rethinking Our Global Coastal Investment PortfolioJournal of Ocean and Coastal EconomicsErin McCreless, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz / Michael W. Beck, Department of Ocean Sciences and The Nature Conservancy, University of California, Santa Cruz2016 level rise and other effects of climate change on oceans and coasts around the world are major reasons to halt the emissions of greenhouse gases to the maximum extent. But historical emissions and sea level rise have already begun so steps to adapt to a world where shorelines, coastal populations, and economies could be dramatically altered are now essential. This presents significant economic challenges in four areas. (1) Large expenditures for adaptation steps may be required but the extent of sea level rise and thus the expenditures are unknowable at this point. Traditional methods for comparing benefits and costs are severely limited, but decisions must still be made. (2) It is not clear where the funding for adaptation will come from, which is a barrier to even starting planning. (3) The extent of economic vulnerability has been illustrated with assessments of risks to current properties, but these likely significantly understate the risks that lie in the future. (4) Market-based solutions to reducing climate change are now generally accepted, but their role in adaptation is less clear. Reviewing the literature addressing each of these points, this paper suggests specific strategies for dealing with uncertainty in assessing the economics of adaptation options, reviews the wide range of options for funding coastal adaption, identifies a number of serious deficiencies in current economic vulnerability studies, and suggests how market based approaches might be used in shaping adaptation strategies. The paper concludes by identifying a research agenda for the economics of coastal adaptation that, if completed, could significantly increase the likelihood of economically efficient coastal adaptation.
Drought, and Host-Plant Mortality. In: Mycorrhizal Mediation of Soil: Fertility, Structure, and Carbon StorageGehring, C.A., Swaty, R.L. and Deckert, R. Mycorrhizas2016Mycorrhizal Mediation of Soil&#58; Fertility, Structure, and Carbon Storage offers a better understanding of mycorrhizal mediation that will help inform earth system models and subsequently improve the accuracy of global carbon model predictions. Mycorrhizas transport tremendous quantities of plant-derived carbon below ground and are increasingly recognized for their importance in the creation, structure, and function of soils. Different global carbon models vary widely in their predictions of the dynamics of the terrestrial carbon pool, ranging from a large sink to a large source. This edited book presents a unique synthesis of the influence of environmental change on mycorrhizas across a wide range of ecosystems, as well as a clear examination of new discoveries and challenges for the future, to inform land management practices that preserve or increase below ground carbon storage.
Does the gender composition of forest and fishery management groups affect resource governance and conservation outcomes? A systematic mapEnvironmental EvidenceCraig Leisher, Gheda Temsah, Francesca Booker, Michael Day, Leah Samberg, Debra Prosnitz, Bina Agarwal, Elizabeth Matthews, Dilys Roe, Diane Russell, Terry Sunderland, and David Wilkie2016 often use natural resources differently than men yet frequently have minimal influence on how local resources are managed. An emerging hypothesis is that empowering more women in local resource decision-making may lead to better resource governance and conservation. Here we focus on the forestry and fisheries sectors to answer the question&#58; What is the evidence that the gender composition of forest and fisheries management groups affects resource governance and conservation outcomes? We present a systematic map detailing the geographic and thematic extent of the evidence base and assessing the quality of the evidence, as per a published a priori protocol.Community based Conservation Equity Gender mainstreaming Livelihoods Sustainability Systematic review
Developing and Implementing Climate Change Adaptation Options in Forest Ecosystems: A Case Study in Southwestern Oregon, USAForestsJessica E. Halofsky, David L. Peterson, Kerry L. Metlen, M. Gwyneth Myer, and V. Alaric Sample 2016 change will likely have significant effects on forest ecosystems worldwide. In Mediterranean regions, such as that in southwestern Oregon, USA, changes will likely be driven mainly by wildfire and drought. To minimize the negative effects of climate change, resource managers require tools and information to assess climate change vulnerabilities and to develop and implement adaptation actions. We developed an approach to facilitate development and implementation of climate change adaptation options in forest management. This approach, applied in a southwestern Oregon study region, involved establishment of a science–manager partnership, a science-based assessment of forest and woodland vulnerabilities to climate change, climate change education in multiple formats, hands-on development of adaptation options, and application of tools to incorporate climate change in planned projects. Through this approach, we improved local manager understanding of the potential effects of climate change in southwestern Oregon, and enabled evaluation of proposed management activities in the context of climatic stressors. Engaging managers throughout the project increased ownership of the process and outcomes, as well as the applicability of the adaptation options to on-the-ground actions. Science–management partnerships can effectively incorporate evolving science, regardless of the socio-political environment, and facilitate timely progress in adaptation to climate change.adaptation; climate change; resource management; vegetation; vulnerability assessment; southwestern Oregon; Klamath-Siskiyou ecoregion
A new approach to evaluate forest structure restoration needs across Oregon and Washington, USAForest Ecology and ManagementHaugo, R. D., C. Zanger, T. DeMeo, C. D. Ringo, A. J. Shlisky, K. Blankenship, M. Simpson, K. MellenMcLean, J. Kertis, and M. Stern2015
Restoring Longleaf Pine: Effects of Seasonal Prescribed Fire and Overstory Density on Vegetation Structure of a Young Longleaf Pine PlantationForest ScienceAddington, R.N., T.A. Greene, W.C. Harrison, G.G. Sorrell, M.L. Elmore, and S.M. Herman2015
Private protected areas in Australia: current status and future directionsNature ConservationFitzsimons, J.A2015
Managing the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive plants in the Laurentian Great Lakes: a regional risk assessment approachManagement of Biological InvasionsGantz, C.A.,D.R. Gordon, C.L. Jerde, R.P. Keller,W.L. Chadderton, P. Champion, and D.M. Lodge2015
Climate change implications in the northern coastal temperate rainforest of North AmericaClimatic ChangeShanley, C.S., S. Pyare, M.I. Goldstein, P.B. Alaback,æD.M. Albert, C.M. Beier, T.J. Brinkman, R.T. Edwards, E. Hood, A. MacKinnon, M.V. McPhee, T.M. Patterson, L.H. Suring, D. Tallmon, M.S. Wipfli2015
Spatial design principles for sustainable hydropower development in river basinsRenewable & Sustainable Energy ReviewsJager, Henriette I.; Efroymson, Rebecca A.; Opperman, Jeff J.; Kelly, Michael R.2015
Spatial heterogeneity increases diversity and stability in grassland bird communitiesEcological ApplicationsHovick, Torre J.; Elmore, R. Dwayne; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Engle, David M.; Hamilton, Robert G.2015
Native North American pine attenuates the competitive effects of a European invader on native grassesBiological InvasionsMetlen, Kerry L.; Callaway, Ragan M.2015
Ten ways remote sensing can contribute to conservationConservation BiologyRose, Robert A.; Byler, Dirck; Eastman, J. Ron; Fleishman, Erica; Geller, Gary; Goetz, Scott; Guild, Liane; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matt; Headley, Rachel; Hewson, Jennifer; Horning, Ned; Kaplin, Beth A.; Laporte, Nadine; Leidner, Allison; Leinagruber, Pe2015
Islands within an island: Repeated adaptive divergence in a single populationEvolutionLangin, Kathryn M.; Sillett, T. Scott; Funk, W. Chris; Morrison, Scott A.; Desrosiers, Michelle A.; Ghalambor, Cameron K.2015
Vulnerability and adaptation of US shellfisheries to ocean acidificationNature Climate ChangeEkstrom, Julia A.; Suatoni, Lisa; Cooley, Sarah R.; Pendleton, Linwood H.; Waldbusser, George G.; Cinner, Josh E.; Ritter, Jessica; Langdon, Chris; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Gledhill, Dwight; Wellman, Katharine; Beck, Michael W.; Brander, Luke M.; Rittschof, D2015
Hec-Rpt - Software For Facilitating Development Of River Management AlternativesRiver Research And ApplicationsHickey, J. T.; Newbold, S. J.; Warner, A. T.2015
Incorporating critical elements of city distinctiveness into urban biodiversity conservationBiodiversity And ConservationParker, Sophie S.2015
Groundwater nitrogen processing in Northern Gulf of Mexico restored marshesJournal Of Environmental ManagementSparks, Eric L.; Cebrian, Just; Tobias, Craig R.; May, Christopher A.2015
The spatiotemporal dynamics of habitat use by blacktip (Carcharhinus limbatus) and lemon (Negaprion brevirostris) sharks in nurseries of St. John, United States Virgin IslandsMarine BiologyLegare, Bryan; Kneebone, Jeff; DeAngelis, Bryan; Skomal, Gregory2015
Building the Foundation for International Conservation Planning for Breeding Ducks across the US and Canadian BorderPLoS ONEDoherty, Kevin E.; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Walker, Johann; Devries, James H.; Howerter, David W.2015
Mitochondrial Genomes Suggest Rapid Evolution of Dwarf California Channel Islands Foxes (Urocyon littoralis)PLoS ONEHofman, Courtney A.; Rick, Torben C.; Hawkins, Melissa T. R.; Funk, W. Chris; Ralls, Katherine; Boser, Christina L.; Collins, Paul W.; Coonan, Tim; King, Julie L.; Morrison, Scott A.; Newsome, Seth D.; Sillett, T. Scott; Fleischer, Robert C.; Maldonado, J2015
Comment on Using ecological thresholds to evaluate the costs and benefits of set-asides in a biodiversity hotspotScienceFinney, Christopher2015
Purpose, History, and Importance of the Student AngleFisheriesCarlson, Andrew K.; Fischer, Jesse R.; Pierce, Landon L.; Dembkowski, Dan J.; Colvin, Michael E.; Kerns, Janice A.; Fore, Jeffrey D.2015
Recommendations for Improving Recovery Criteria under the US Endangered Species ActBioScienceDoak, Daniel F.; Boor, Gina K. Himes; Bakker, Victoria J.; Morris, William F.; Louthan, Allison; Morrison, Scott A.; Stanley, Amanda; Crowder, Larry B.2015
A gap analysis of tree species representation in the protected areas of the Canadian boreal forest: applying a new assemblage of digital Forest Resource Inventory dataCanadian Journal of Forest ResearchCumming, Steven G.; Drever, C. Ronnie; Houle, Melina; Cosco, John; Racine, Pierre; Bayne, Erin; Schmiegelow, Fiona K. A.2015
Water Quality Monitoring Station Design For Remote Sites Experiencing Extreme Water Level FluctuationRiver Research And ApplicationsRice, C. L.; Weber, D. S.; Haase, C. S.; Piazza, B. P.2015
Marine zoning in St. Kitts and Nevis: A design for sustainable management in the CaribbeanOcean and Coastal ManagementAgostini, Vera N.; Margles, Shawn W.; Knowles, John K.; Schill, Steven R.; Bovino, Robbie J.; Blyther, Ruth J.2015
Conserving Biodiversity: Practical Guidance about Climate Change Adaptation Approaches in Support of Land-use PlanningNatural Areas JournalSchmitz, Oswald J.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Beier, Paul; Groves, Craig; Knight, Gary; Boyce, Douglas A., Jr.; Bulluck, Jason; Johnston, Kevin M.; Klein, Mary L.; Muller, Kit; Pierce, D. John; Singleton, William R.; Strittholt, James R.; Theobald, David M.; Tro2015
Otolith Chemistry to Determine Within-River Origins of Alabama Shad in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River BasinTransactions Of The American Fisheries SocietySchaffler, Jason J.; Young, Shawn P.; Herrington, Steve; Ingram, Travis; Tannehill, Josh2015
Real-world progress in overcoming the challenges of adaptive spatial planning in marine protected areasBiological ConservationMills, Morena; Weeks, Rebecca; Pressey, Robert L.; Gleason, Mary G.; Eisma-Osorio, Rose-Liza; Lombard, Amanda T.; Harris, Jean M.; Killmer, Annette B.; White, Alan; Morrison, Tiffany H.2015
Floral visitation by the Argentine ant reduces bee visitation and plant seed setEcologyHanna, Cause; Naughton, Ida; Boser, Christina; Alarcon, Ruben; Hung, Keng-Lou James; Holway, David2015
Ecological effects of bottom trawling on the structural attributes of fish habitat in unconsolidated sediments along the central California outer continental shelfFishery BulletinLindholm, James; Gleason, Mary; Kline, Donna; Clary, Larissa; Rienecke, Steve; Cramer, Alli; Huertos, Marc Los2015
ChinaSall, Christopher; Brandon, Katrina2015
A proposed process for applying a structured decision-making framework to restoration planning in the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana, USARestoration EcologyKozak, Justin P.; Piazza, Bryan P.2015
Floodplain conservation in the Mississippi River Valley: combining spatial analysis, landowner outreach, and market assessment to enhance land protection for the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana, USARestoration EcologyPiazza, Bryan P.; Allen, Yvonne C.; Martin, Richard; Bergan, James F.; King, Katherine; Jacob, Rick2015
Distribution of Mangrove Habitats of Grenada and the GrenadinesJournal Of Coastal ResearchMoore, Gregg E.; Gilmer, Ben F.; Schill, Steven R.2015
Operationalizing resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental changeGlobal Change BiologyAnthony, Kenneth R. N.; Marshall, Paul A.; Abdulla, Ameer; Beeden, Roger; Bergh, Chris; Black, Ryan; Eakin, C. Mark; Game, Edward T.; Gooch, Margaret; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Green, Alison; Heron, Scott F.; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Knowland, Cheryl; Mangubhai2015
Geologic and Geomorphic Controls on the Occurrence of Fens in the Oregon Cascades and Implications for Vulnerability and Conservation.WetlandsAldous, A.R., Gannett, M.W., Keith, M., and O'Connor, J.2015
Spatial patterns of agricultural expansion determine impacts on biodiversity and carbon storageProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesChaplin-Kramer, R., R.P. Sharp, L. Mandle, S. SIm, J. Johnson, I. Butnar, Lloren Milö i Canals, B. A. Eichelberger, I. Ramler, C. Mueller, N. McLachlan, A. Yousefi, H. King, and P. M. Kareiva.2015The agricultural expansion and intensification required to meet growing food and agri-based product demand present important challenges to future levels and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Influential actors such as corporationagriculture
Multi-scale responses of eastern Massasauga rattlesnakes (Sistrurus catenatus) to prescribed fire.American Midland NaturalistCross, M. D., K. V. Root, C. J. Mehne, J. McGowan-Stinski, and D. R. Pearsall2015
Functional equivalence of constructed and natural intertidal eastern oyster reef habitats in a northern Gulf of Mexico estuaryMarine Ecology Progress SeriesDillon, K.S., M.S. Peterson, and C.A. May2015 functional equivalence of constructed and natural intertidal eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica reefs was evaluated over 2 yr using oyster density, taxa richness, phyletic abundance, and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope (‘Ç13C and
The Human Footprint in Mexico: Physical Geography and Historical LegaciesPLoS ONEGonzàlez-Abraham, C., Ezcurra E., P.P. Garcillàn, A. Ortega-Rubio, M. Kolb, and J.E. Bezaury Creel2015Using publicly available data on land use and transportation corridors we calculated the human footprint index for the whole of Mexico to identify large-scale spatial patterns in the anthropogenic transformation of the land surface. We developed
Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practice.Proceedings of the National Academy of SciencesGuerry, A.D., S. Polasky, J. Lubchenco, R. Chaplin-Kramer, G.C. Daily, R. Griffin, M. Ruckelshaus, I.J. Bateman, A. Duraiappah, T. Elmqvist, M.W. Feldman, C. Folke, J. Hosekstra, P. M. Kareiva, B. L. Keeler, S. Li, E. McKenzie, Z. Ouyang, B. Reyers, T. H.2015
Improving global environmental management with standard corporate reporting.Proceedings of the National Academy of SciencesKareiva, P.M., B. W. McNally, S. McCormick, T. Miller, M. Ruckelshaus.2015
Setting the bar: Standards for ecosystem services.Proceedings of the National Academy of SciencesPolasky, S., H. Tallis, and B. Reyers.2015
A new era for ecologists: Incorporating climate change into natural resource managementHall, K.R.2015
Establishing a marine conservation baseline for the insular CaribbeanMarine PolicyKnowles, J. E., E. Doyle, S. R. Schill, L. M. Roth, A. Milam, and G. T. Raber2015
A Systematic Framework for Spatial Conservation Planning and Ecological Priority Design in St. Lucia, Eastern CaribbeanEvans, J.S., S.R. Schill, G.T. Raber2015
Removing Dams: Benefits for People and NatureSolutionsCathy Bozek2015
Do protected areas reduce blue carbon emissions? A quasi-experimental evaluation of mangroves in IndonesiaEcological EconomicsMiteva, D.A., Murray, B.C., Pattanayak, S.K.2015
A Systematic Framework for Spatial Conservation Planning and Ecological Priority Design in St. Lucia, Eastern CaribbeanCentral American Biodiversity: Conservation, Ecology and a Sustainable FutureEvans, J.S., S.R. Schill, G.T. Raber2015
Establishing a marine conservation baseline for the insular CaribbeanMarine PolicyKnowles, J. E., E. Doyle, S. R. Schill, L. M. Roth, A. Milam, and G. T. Raber2015
Density-dependent effects on initial growth of a branching coral under restorationRestoration EcologyGriffin, J. N., Schrack, E. C., Lewis, K.-A., Baums, I. B., Soomdat, N. and Silliman, B. R2015http&#58;//
Marine zoning in St. Kitts and Nevis: A design for sustainable management in the CaribbeanOcean and Coastal ManagementAgostini, V. N., Margles, S. W., Knowles, J. K., Schill, S. R., Bovino, R. J., & Blyther, R. J2015http&#58;//<a href=""></a>
The Micronesia Challenge: Assessing the Relative Contribution of Stressors on Coral Reefs to Facilitate Science-to-Management FeedbackPLoS ONEHouk, P., R Camacho, S. Johnson, M .McLean, S. Maxin, J. Anson, E. Joseph, O. Nedlic, M. Luckymis, K. Adams, D. Hess, E. Kabua, A. Yalon, E. Buthung, C. Graham, T. Leberer, B. Taylor, R. van Woesik2015
Use of monitoring data to support conservation management and policy decisions in MicronesiaConservation BiologyMontambault, J.R., S. Wongbusarakum, T. Leberer, E. Joseph, W. Andrew, F. Castro, B. Nevitt, Y. Golbuu, N. W. Oldiais, C. R. Groves, W. Kostka, and P. Houk2015
A new era for ecologists: Incorporating climate change into natural resource managementHall, K.R2015
Focal species and landscape ÒnaturalnessÓ corridor models offer complementary approaches for connectivity conservation planningLandscape EcologyKrosby, M., I. Breckheimer, D. J. Pierce, P. H. Singleton, S.A. Hall, K.C. Halupka, W.L. Gaines, R.A. Long, B.H. McRae, B.L. Cosentino, and J.P. Schuett-Hames2015
Can orchards help connect Mediterranean ecosystems? Animal movement data alter conservation prioritiesAmerican Midland NaturalistNogeire, T., E. Boydston, K. Crooks, B.H. McRae, L. Lyren, and F. Davis2015
Basics of landscape ecology: an introduction to landscapes and population processes for landscape geneticistsCushman, S.A., B.H. McRae, and K. McGarigal2015
Connecting the dots: Connectivity mapping for tigers in central IndiaRegional Environmental ChangeDutta, T., S. Sharma, R. DeFries, B.H. McRae, and P.S. Roy2015
Resistance surface modeling in landscape geneticsSpear, S.F., S.A. Cushman, and B.H. McRae2015
Landscape-level analysis of mountain goat population connectivity in Washington and southern British ColumbiaConservation GeneticsParks, L.C., D.O. Wallin, S.A. Cushman, and B.H. McRae2015
Restoring fire-prone Inland Pacific landscapes: seven coreprinciplesLandscape EcologyPaul F. Hessburg, Derek J. Churchill, Andrew J. Larson, Ryan D. Haugo, Carol Miller, Thomas A. Spies, Malcolm P. North, Nicholas A. Povak, R. Travis Belote, Peter H. Singleton, William L. Gaines, Robert E. Keane, Gregory H. Aplet, Scott L. Stephens, Penelope Morgan, Peter A. Bisson, Bruce E. Rieman, R. Brion Salter, Gordon H. Reeves2015
Risks of overharvesting seed from native tallgrass prairiesRestoration EcologyMeissen, J.C., S.M. Galatowitsch, and M.W. Cornett2015
Synergistic Patterns of Threat and the Challenges Facing Global Anguillid Eel ConservationGlobal Ecology and ConservationJacoby, David M.P., John M. Casselman, Vicki Crook, Mari-Beth DeLucia, Hyojin Ahn, Kenzo Kaifu, Tagried Kurwie, et al2015
Factors affecting broadleaf woody vegetation in upland pine forests managed for longleaf pine restorationForest Ecology and ManagementAddington RN, Knapp BO, Sorrell GG, Elmore ML, Wang GG, Walker JL2015
Land-use impacts on water resources and protected areas: applications of state-and-transition simulation modeling of future scenariosAIMS Environmental ScienceWilson, T.S., B.M. Sleeter, J. Sherba, D. Cameron2015
Who loses? Tracking ecosystem service redistribution from road development and mitigation in the Peruvian AmazonFront Ecol EnvironLisa Mandle, Heather Tallis, Leonardo Sotomayor, and Adrian L Vogl2015
Multiple Use ManagementAlavalapati, Janaki R. R. and Jensen R. Montambault2015
Relationships among wildfire, prescribed fire, and droughtin a fire-prone landscape in the south-eastern United StatesInternational Journal of Wildland FireAddington, Robert N.,Stephen J. Hudson, J. Kevin Hiers,Matthew D. Hurteau, Thomas F. Hutcherson, George Matusickand James M. Parker2015
Factors affecting broadleaf woody vegetation in upland pine forests managed for longleaf pine restorationForest Ecology and ManagementRobert N. Addington, Benjamin O. Knapp, Geoffrey G. Sorrell, Michele L. Elmore, G. Geoff Wang,Joan L. Walker2015
Reframing the sharing vs sparing debate for tropical forestry landscapesJournal of Tropical Forest ScienceBW Griscom & RC Goodman2015
Commodity production as restoration driver in the Brazilian Amazon? Pasture re-agro-forestation with cocoa (Theobroma cacao) in southern ParaSustainability ScienceGotz Schroth, Edenise Garcia, Bronson Winthrop Griscom, Wenceslau Geraldes Teixeira, Lucyana Pereira Barros2015
Lichenes Exsiccati Magnicamporum Fascicle 1, with comments on selected taxaOpuscula PhilolichenumDOUGLAS LADD & CALEB MORSE2015
Ecological checklist of the Missouri flora for Floristic Quality AssessmentPhytoneuronLadd, Douglas, Justin R Thomas2015
Lichenes Exsiccati Magnicamporum Fascicle 1, with comments on selected taxaOpuscula PhilolichenumDOUGLAS LADD & CALEB MORSE2015
High Time for Conservation: Adding the Environment to the Debate on Marijuana LiberalizationBioScienceCarah, J., Howard, J., Thompson, S., Short Gianotti, A., Bauer, S., et al.2015;id=RgAAAAADpsTlNydhT51yGLJ5aXbNBwBypA31h0LvQ4S%2fuOebHX4eAAAAyYcqAABypA31h0LvQ4S%2fuOebHX4eAAAAyoXGAAAJ&amp;attid0=BAAAAAAA&amp;attcnt=1
Risk assessment of alien species: comparisons across taxa, changes in risk associated with changes in the invasion stages, practicalities of implementationDowney, P.O., S. Brunel, A. Buckmaster, P.D. Champion, Dorjee, D.R. Gordon, J. HeikkilŠ, F. Koike, S. Kumschick, N.E. Mandrak, I.D. Paterson, S. Sathyapala, O.L.F. Weyl and S.B. Johnson2015
Integrating an uncertain future into conservation management and restoration: guidance for planners in land managing agencies and organizationsRestoration EcologySutter, R.D., J.K. Hiers, K.Kirkman, A. Barnett, D.R. Gordon.2015
Modeled sea level rise impacts on coastal ecosystems at six major estuaries on FloridaÕs Gulf Coast through use of the sea level affecting marshes model and implications for adaptation planningPLoS ONEGeselbracht, L.L., K. Freeman, J. Brenner, A.P. Birch, and D.R. Gordon.2015;doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0132079&amp;representation=PDF
Managing the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive plants in the Laurentian Great Lakes: a regional risk assessment approachManagement of Biological InvasionsGantz, C.A., D.R. Gordon, C.L. Jerde, R.P. Keller, W.L. Chadderton, P. Champion, and D.M. Lodge2015
Aligning natural resource conservation and flood hazard mitigation in CaliforniaPLoS ONEJ Calil, MW Beck, M Gleason, M Merrifield, K Klausmeyer, S Newkirk2015;doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0132651&amp;representation=PDF
Natural Shorelines Promote the Stability of Fish Communities in an Urbanized Coastal SystemPLoS ONESB Scyphers, TC Gouhier, JH Grabowski, MW Beck, J Mareska, S Powers2015;doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118580&amp;representation=PDF
Vulnerability and adaptation of US shellfisheries to ocean acidificationNature Climate ChangeEkstrom, J. A., Suatoni, L., Cooley, S. R., Pendleton, L. H., Waldbusser, G. G., Cinner, J. E., Ritter, J., Langdon, C., van Hooidonk, R., Gledhill, D., Wellman, K., Beck, M.W., Brander, L.M., Rittschof, D., Doherty, C., Edwards, P.E.T., and Portela, R.2015
The Effectiveness of Coral Reefs for Coastal Risk Reduction and Climate AdaptationMW Beck2015
Developing a marine conservation program in temperate Australia: determining priorities for actionAustralian Journal of Maritime & Ocean AffairsJA Fitzsimons, L Hale, B Hancock, MW Beck2015
Effects of Climate Change on Exposure to Coastal Flooding in Latin America and the CaribbeanPLoS ONEBG Reguero, IJ Losada, P D’az-Simal, FJ MŽndez, MW Beck2015;doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0133409&amp;representation=PDF
Social and environmental impacts of forest management certification in IndonesiaPLoS ONEMiteva, D.A., Loucks, C., Pattanayak, S.K.2015;doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0129675&amp;representation=PDF
Estimating the impacts of conservation on ecosystem services and poverty by integrating modeling and evaluationProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesFerraro, P.J., Hanauer, M.M., Miteva, D.A., Nelson, J.L., Pattanayak, S.K., Nolte, C., Sims, K.R.E.2015
Using ecosystem services valuation to measure the economic impacts of land-use changes on the Spanish Mediterranean coast (El Maresme, 1850-2010)Regional Environmental ChangeDupras, J., L. Parcerisas, and J. Brenner2015;token2=exp=1447182864~acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F653%2Fart%25253A10.1007%25252Fs10113
Evaluating the Role of Coastal Habitats and Sea-Level Rise in Hurricane Risk Mitigation: An ecological economic assessment method and application to a business decisionJournal of Integrated Environmental Assessment and ManagementReddy, S., G. Guannel, R. Griffin, J. Faries, T. Boucher, M. Thompson, J. Brenner, J. Bernhardt, G. Verutes, S. Wood, J. Silver, J. Toft, A. Rogers, A. Maas, A. Guerry, J. Molnar, J. DiMuro2015
Climate mediates hypoxic stress on fish diversity and nursery function at the land-sea interfacePNASHughes, B.B., M.D. Levey, M.C. Fountain, A.B. Carlisle, F.P. Chavez, and M.G. Gleason2015 services, El Ni–o, fisheries, hypoxia, resilience
Conservation for CitiesRobert I. McDonald2015ItÕs time to think differently about cities and nature. More people than ever live in urban areas, and all of this growth, along with challenges of adapting to climate change, will require a new approach to infrastructure in order to create liveable urbanurban, natural infrastructure
Conservation planning: informed decisions for a healthier planetGroves, Craig R.; Game, Edward T.2015
Constraints of philanthropy in determining the distribution of biodiversity conservation fundingConservation BiologyEric R. Larson, Stephen Howell, Peter Kareiva, Paul R. Armsworth2015land trust;prioritization;protected area;return on investment (ROI);systematic conservation planning;‡rea protegida;fideicomiso de tierras;planeaci—n sistem‡tica de la conservaci—n;priorizaci—n;retorno de la inversi—n (RDI)
Hurricane-induced sedimentation improves marsh resilience and vegetation vigor under high rates of relative sea level riseWetlandsBaustian, Joseph J.; Mendelssohn, Irving A.2015sea level rise, marsh resilience, hurricane sedimentation, coastal marsh
Integrating regional conservation priorities for multiple objectives into national policyNature CommunicationsBeger, Maria; McGowan, Jennifer; Treml, Eric A.; Green, Alison L.; White, Alan T.; Wolff, Nicholas H.; Klein, Carissa J.; Mumby, Peter J.; Possingham, Hugh P.2015
IntroductionMackey, B.; Figgis, P.; Fitzsimons, J.; Irving, J.; Clarke, P.2015
Key directions for valuing ecosystem services and protected areas in AustraliaMackey, B.; Figgis, P.; Fitzsimons, J.; Irving, J.; Clarke, P.2015
No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area NetworksPLoS ONESchill SR, Raber GT, Roberts JJ, Treml EA, Brenner J, Halpin PN2015;doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0144199&amp;representation=PDF
One step ahead of the plow: Using cropland conversion risk to guide Sprague's Pipit conservation in the northern Great PlainsBiological ConservationLipsey, M.K., K.E. Doherty, D.E. Naugle, S. Fields, J.S. Evans, S.K. Davis and N. Koper2015;acdnat=1453316059_9c1282788f61eb0a98dbcb357f91ec84Agricultural conversion; Conservation planning; Cropland; Grassland; Private lands; Sprague's Pipit
Payment for ecosystem services in practice Ð savanna burning and carbon abatement at Fish River, northern AustraliaWalton, N.; Fitzsimons, J.2015
Status of bottomland forests in the Albemarle Sound of North Carolina and Virginia, 1984-2012Lorber, Jean H.; Rose, Anita K.2015 hardwoods, FIA, forest inventory and analysis, growth, harvesting, removalse-Res. Pap. SRS-54
Sustainability: map the evidenceNatureMcKinnon, Madeleine C.; Cheng, Samantha H.; Garside, Ruth; Masuda, Yuta J.; Miller, Daniel C.2015!/menu/main/topColumns/topLeftColumn/pdf/528185a.pdf
Valuing nature: protected areas and ecosystem servicesFiggis, Penelope; Mackey, Brendan; Fitzsimons, James; Irving, Jason; Clarke, Pepe2015
Assessing relative resilience potential of coral reefs to inform managementBiological ConservationMaynard, J.A., S. McKagan, L. Raymundo, S. Johnson, G. Ahmadia, L. Johnston, P. Houk, G. Williams, M. Kendall, S. F. Heron, R. van Hooidonk, E. Mcleod, K. Anthony, S. Planes2015;acdnat=1469758296_d1fbe80ce81b500be4ef508de45f7333Ecological resilience assessments are an important part of resilience-based management (RBM) and can help prioritize and target management actions. Use of such assessments has been limited due to a lack of clear guidance on the assessment process. This study builds on the latest scientific advances in RBM to provide that guidance from a resilience assessment undertaken in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). We assessed spatial variation in ecological resilience potential at 78 forereef sites near the populated islands of the CNMI&#58; Saipan, Tinian/Aguijan, and Rota. The assessments are based on measuring indicators of resilience processes and are combined with information on anthropogenic stress and larval connectivity. We find great spatial variation in relative resilience potential with many high resilience sites near Saipan (5 of 7) and low resilience sites near Rota (7 of 9). Criteria were developed to identify priority sites for six types of management actions (e.g., conservation, land-based sources of pollution reduction, and fishery management and enforcement) and 51 of the 78 sites met at least one of the sets of criteria. The connectivity simulations developed indicate that Tinian and Aguijan are each roughly 10 _ the larvae source that Rota is and twice as frequent a destination. These results may explain the lower relative resilience potential of Rota reefs and indicates that actions in Saipan and Tinian/Aguijan will be important to maintaining supply of larvae. The process we describe for undertaking resilience assessments can be tailored for use in coral reef areas globally and applied to other ecosystems.
Notes from the field: Lessons learned from using ecosystem service approaches to inform real-world decisionsEcological EconomicsRuckelshaus, M., McKenzie, E., Tallis, H., Guerry, A., Daily, G., Kareiva, P., Polasky, S., Ricketts, T., Bhagabati, N., Wood, S.A. & Bernhardt, J.2015;acdnat=1469564477_daf41ff2f1cbb36076d02170172b8f18While there have been rapid advances in assessments of biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES), a critical remaining challenge is how to move from scientific knowledge to real-world decision making. We offer 6 lessons from our experiences applying new approaches and tools for quantifying BES in 20 pilot demonstrations&#58; (1) Applying a BES approach is most effective in leading to policy change as part of an iterative science-policy process; (2) simple ecological production function models have been useful in a diverse set of decision contexts, across a broad range of biophysical, social, and governance systems. Key limitations of simple models arise at very small scales, and in predicting specific future BES values; (3) training local experts in the approaches and tools is important for building local capacity, ownership, trust, and long-term success; (4) decision makers and stakeholders prefer to use a variety of BES value metrics, not only monetary values; (5) an important science gap exists in linking changes in BES to changes in livelihoods, health, cultural values, and other metrics of human wellbeing; and (6) communicating uncertainty in useful and transparent ways remains challenging.
Factors influencing local decisions to use habitats to protect coastal communities from hazardsOcean & Coastal ManagementKochnower, D., Reddy, S.M.W. & Flick, R.E.2015;acdnat=1469760503_50534f28af8b967bfb8ed5cd05337bcdCoastal hazard mitigation policy in the US has historically focused on construction of hardened, or gray, infrastructure. Recently, there is increased public interest and policy supporting the use of habitats, or natural infrastructure (NI), following decades of increasingly supportive ecological, engineering, and economic evidence. This trend suggests that behavioral and institutional factors may also be important for mainstreaming NI. To understand what factors affected decisions to use NI, we conducted semi-structured interviews with a total of 16 individuals associated with three NI cases&#58; Ferry Point Park Living Shoreline, Maryland (MD); Surfer's Point Managed Retreat, California (CA); and Durant's Point Living Shoreline, North Carolina (NC). Our grounded theory analysis of the interview transcripts revealed four common themes across the decisions&#58; 1) perception of benefits (N = 45) and costs (N = 31), 2) diffusion of innovation led by innovators (N = 34), 3) local champions (N = 46), and 4) social networks and norms (N = 30). This grounded theory suggests that the decisions to use NI were driven by innovators (citizens, local non-governmental organization (NGO) staff, and/or state government resource managers) who were influenced by seeing NI successes implemented by trusted experts and perceived NI benefits beyond protecting coastlines (e.g., maintaining coastal heritage and sense of place). Innovators also acted as local champions, getting others ÒcomfortableÓ with NI and connecting to local interests. In addition, our analysis shows the role of regulatory permitting requirements in perpetuating or controlling biases against innovations like NI. In 2008, MD passed a policy that helped address biases against NI by changing NI from a preferred option to the required option except in places where scientific analysis suggested that gray infrastructure would be needed, while in CA and NC gray infrastructure remains only a preferred option. These results suggest an opportunity to harness heuristics, such as visual demonstrations and messaging from trusted persons, in addition to policy tools to mainstream NI in places where there is evidence that it would be effective. These results also suggest that heuristics could result in biases that not only lead to underuse but also to inappropriate use of NI; and, policies, similar to the policy in Maryland, are needed to control these biases.
The IPBES Conceptual Framework - connecting nature and peopleCurrent Opinion in Environmental SustainabilityD’az, S., Demissew, S., Carabias, J., Joly, C. É Tallis, H. and 79 others2015;acdnat=1469567849_8a4b95ad779d4f4e0ce1c56607af7069The first public product of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) is its Conceptual Framework. This conceptual and analytical tool, presented here in detail, will underpin all IPBES functions and provide structure and comparability to the syntheses that IPBES will produce at different spatial scales, on different themes, and in different regions. Salient innovative aspects of the IPBES Conceptual Framework are its transparent and participatory construction process and its explicit consideration of diverse scientific disciplines, stakeholders, and knowledge systems, including indigenous and local knowledge. Because the focus on co-construction of integrative knowledge is shared by an increasing number of initiatives worldwide, this framework should be useful beyond IPBES, for the wider research and knowledge-policy communities working on the links between nature and people, such as natural, social and engineering scientists, policy-makers at different levels, and decision-makers in different sectors of society.
Finding solutions to water scarcity: Incorporating ecosystem service values into business planning at The Dow Chemical Company's Freeport, TX facilityEcosystem ServicesReddy, S.M.W., McDonald, R.I., S. Maas, A., Rogers, A., Girvetz, E.H., North, J., Molnar, J., Finley, T., Leathers, G. & L. DiMuro, J.2015;acdnat=1469598241_6fb5e9a237680e33e2a9dc8d27f88c89Water scarcity presents a major risk to businesses, but it can be hard to quantify. Ecosystem service valuation methods may help businesses better understand the financial impacts of water shortages and identify solutions. At The Dow Chemical CompanyÕs facility in Freeport, TX, we used natural capital asset valuation to assess the risk from future changes in industrial water supplies. We found that the value of industrial water rights may increase in the future with increased demand but that potential decreases in reliability of water rights due to demand growth and climate change could reduce their value. Using this information, experts identified 16 potential nature-based and collaborative (involving other water users) solutions to future water scarcity. We used multi-criteria analysis to select five of the 16 solutions for further analysis. Two solutions (marsh wastewater treatment, land management) were not cost-competitive and three solutions (reservoir flood pool reallocation/floodplain restoration, irrigation efficiency, municipal rebate program) were cost-competitive with the business-as-usual solution (expanding reservoir storage). However, these solutions have significant technical, legal, and political hurdles. We also found that these solutions provide substantial collective benefits to the public and biodiversity, suggesting that such solutions may be appropriate for implementation via multi-stakeholder collaboration.
Building Australia through citizen scienceOccasional Paper SeriesGretta Pecl, Chris Gillies, Carla Sbrocchi, Philip Roetman2015 science brings scientists and the wider community together to work on important scientific projects. It has played a central and celebrated role in the advancement of global knowledge. From amateur astronomers tracking the transit of Venus in 1874 to the Audubon SocietyÕs 114 year-old Christmas Bird Count, people with a passion for science have worked alongside scientists for the benefit of the community. Today, more than 130,000 Australians are active in over 90 citizen science projects, predominantly in environmental science fields. Many kinds of organisations are also involved, including universities, all levels of government, schools, industry groups, community groups and museums.
The Energy Footprint: How Oil, Natural Gas, and Wind Energy Affect Land for Biodiversity and the Flow of Ecosystem ServicesBioScienceJones, N.F., Pejchar, L. & Kiesecker, J.M.2015's growing demand for clean and abundant energy has repercussions for biodiversity and human well-being. Directives for renewable energy, energy security, and technological advancements such as horizontal drilling in conjunction with hydraulic fracturing have spurred a rapid increase in alternative and unconventional energy production over the last decade. Given the projected increases in oil, gas, and wind energy development, we synthesize and compare known impacts on wildlife mortality, habitat loss, fragmentation, noise and light pollution, invasive species, and changes in carbon stock and water resources. The literature on these impacts is unevenly distributed among energy types, geographic regions, and taxonomic groups. Therefore, we suggest priorities for research and practice, including using a landscape approach to predict and plan for the cumulative effects of development. Understanding the full consequences of energy production is necessary for meeting demand while also safeguarding the ecological systems on which we depend.
Lichen Community Response to Prescribed Burning and Thinning in Southern Pine Forests of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, USAFire EcologyRay, David G.; Barton, Jason W.; Lendemer, James C.2015 effects of prescribed burning and thinning on lichen communities is a poorly understood aspect of biodiversity conservation, despite the widespread use of these practices to achieve conservation-oriented land management goals. To address this knowledge gap we documented apparent changes in the diversity and abundance of lichens following 0 to 2 growing-season burns preceded by 0 to 1 commercial thinnings within nine southern pine dominated stands on the Delmarva Peninsula of Maryland, USA. Corticolous lichens growing on the stems and within the canopies of pines and co-occurring hardwoods were identified to species and fractional coverage was estimated; growth forms and reproductive modes were also determined. A total of 93 lichen taxa were recorded on the 19 tree species (4 pines, 15 hardwoods) represented in this study. Burning emerged as a strong driver of reductions in lichen diversity (P = 0.002), whereas thinning in the absence of burning did not (P = 0.279). In general, we found that lichens growing on tree bases and lower bole sections were more strongly impacted by burning, both in terms of diversity and cover, than those residing in the canopy. The apparent refugia represented by the canopy was qualified by the limited overlap in lichen species composition observed among the various sampling heights. This work calls attention to an understudied component of biodiversity that appears to be sensitive to fire management; however, we suggest that these results need to be interpreted in the context of altered disturbance regimes and the trajectory of community assembly resulting from long-term fire exclusion.
Combining a spatial model and demand forecasts to map future surface coal mining in AppalachiaPLoS ONEStrager, M.P., Strager, J.M., Evans, J.S., Dunscomb, J.K., Kreps, B.J. & Maxwell, A.E.2015 the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predicting future surface coal mining extents under changing economic and regulatory forecasts through the year 2035. This was accomplished by integrating a spatial model with production demand forecasts to predict (1 km2) gridded cell size land cover change. Combining these two inputs was possible with a ratio which linked coal extraction quantities to a unit area extent. The result was a spatial distribution of probabilities allocated over forecasted demand for the Appalachian region including northern, central, southern, and eastern Illinois coal regions. The results can be used to better plan for land use alterations and potential cumulative impacts.
Dynamic Disturbance Processes Create Dynamic Lek Site Selection in a Prairie GrousePLoS ONEHovick TJ, Allred BW, Elmore RD, Fuhlendorf SD, Hamilton RG, Breland A2015 is well understood that landscape processes can affect habitat selection patterns, movements, and species persistence. These selection patterns may be altered or even eliminated as a result of changes in disturbance regimes and a concomitant management focus on uniform, moderate disturbance across landscapes. To assess how restored landscape heterogeneity influences habitat selection patterns, we examined 21 years (1991, 1993Ð2012) of Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido) lek location data in tallgrass prairie with restored fire and grazing processes. Our study took place at The Nature ConservancyÕs Tallgrass Prairie Preserve located at the southern extent of Flint Hills in northeastern Oklahoma. We specifically addressed stability of lek locations in the context of the fire-grazing interaction, and the environmental factors influencing lek locations. We found that lek locations were dynamic in a landscape with interacting fire and grazing. While previous conservation efforts have treated leks as stable with high site fidelity in static landscapes, a majority of lek locations in our study (i.e., 65%) moved by nearly one kilometer on an annual basis in this dynamic setting. Lek sites were in elevated areas with low tree cover and low road density. Additionally, lek site selection was influenced by an interaction of fire and patch edge, indicating that in recently burned patches, leks were located near patch edges. These results suggest that dynamic and interactive processes such as fire and grazing that restore heterogeneity to grasslands do influence habitat selection patterns in prairie grouse, a phenomenon that is likely to apply throughout the Greater Prairie-ChickenÕs distribution when dynamic processes are restored. As conservation moves toward restoring dynamic historic disturbance patterns, it will be important that siting and planning of anthropogenic structures (e.g., wind energy, oil and gas) and management plans not view lek locations as static points, but rather as sites that shift around the landscape in response to shifting vegetation structure. Acknowledging shifting lek locations in these landscapes will help ensure conservation efforts are successful by targeting the appropriate areas for protection and management.
A World at Risk: Aggregating Development Trends to Forecast Global Habitat ConversionPLoS ONEOakleaf, J.R., Kennedy, C.M., Baruch-Mordo, S., West, P.C., Gerber, J.S., Jarvis, L. & Kiesecker, J.2015 growing and more affluent human population is expected to increase the demand for resources and to accelerate habitat modification, but by how much and where remains unknown. Here we project and aggregate global spatial patterns of expected urban and agricultural expansion, conventional and unconventional oil and gas, coal, solar, wind, biofuels and mining development. Cumulatively, these threats place at risk 20% of the remaining global natural lands (19.68 million km2) and could result in half of the worldÕs biomes becoming &gt;50% converted while doubling and tripling the extent of land converted in South America and Africa, respectively. Regionally, substantial shifts in land conversion could occur in Southern and Western South America, Central and Eastern Africa, and the Central Rocky Mountains of North America. With only 5% of the EarthÕs at-risk natural lands under strict legal protection, estimating and proactively mitigating multi-sector development risk is critical for curtailing the further substantial loss of nature.
Understanding the Groundwater Hydrology of a Geographically-Isolated Prairie Fen: Implications for ConservationPLoS ONEPrasanna Venkatesh Sampath, Hua-Sheng Liao, Zachary Kristopher Curtis, Patrick J. Doran, Matthew E. Herbert, Christopher A. May, Shu-Guang Li2015 sources of water and corresponding delivery mechanisms to groundwater-fed fens are not well understood due to the multi-scale geo-morphologic variability of the glacial landscape in which they occur. This lack of understanding limits the ability to effectively conserve these systems and the ecosystem services they provide, including biodiversity and water provisioning. While fens tend to occur in clusters around regional groundwater mounds, Ives Road Fen in southern Michigan is an example of a geographically-isolated fen. In this paper, we apply a multi-scale groundwater modeling approach to understand the groundwater sources for Ives Road fen. We apply Transition Probability geo-statistics on more than 3000 well logs from a state-wide water well database to characterize the complex geology using conditional simulations. We subsequently implement a 3-dimensional reverse particle tracking to delineate groundwater contribution areas to the fen. The fen receives water from multiple sources&#58; local recharge, regional recharge from an extensive till plain, a regional groundwater mound, and a nearby pond. The regional sources deliver water through a tortuous, 3-dimensional ÒpipelineÓ consisting of a confined aquifer lying beneath an extensive clay layer. Water in this pipeline reaches the fen by upwelling through openings in the clay layer. The pipeline connects the geographically-isolated fen to the same regional mound that provides water to other fen clusters in southern Michigan. The major implication of these findings is that fen conservation efforts must be expanded from focusing on individual fens and their immediate surroundings, to studying the much larger and inter-connected hydrologic network that sustains multiple fens.
Hydrologic Alterations from Climate Change Inform Assessment of Ecological Risk to Pacific Salmon in Bristol Bay, AlaskaPLOS ONECameron Wobus, Robert Prucha, David Albert, Christine Woll, Maria Loinaz, Russell Jones2015 developed an integrated hydrologic model of the upper Nushagak and Kvichak watersheds in the Bristol Bay region of southwestern Alaska, a region under substantial development pressure from large-scale copper mining. We incorporated climate change scenarios into this model to evaluate how hydrologic regimes and stream temperatures might change in a future climate, and to summarize indicators of hydrologic alteration that are relevant to salmon habitat ecology and life history. Model simulations project substantial changes in mean winter flow, peak flow dates, and water temperature by 2100. In particular, we find that annual hydrographs will no longer be dominated by a single spring thaw event, but will instead be characterized by numerous high flow events throughout the winter. Stream temperatures increase in all future scenarios, although these temperature increases are moderated relative to air temperatures by cool baseflow inputs during the summer months. Projected changes to flow and stream temperature could influence salmon through alterations in the suitability of spawning gravels, changes in the duration of incubation, increased growth during juvenile stages, and increased exposure to chronic and acute temperature stress. These climate-modulated changes represent a shifting baseline in salmon habitat quality and quantity in the future, and an important consideration to adequately assess the types and magnitude of risks associated with proposed large-scale mining in the region.
Shortfalls and solutions for meeting national and global conservation area targets.Conservation LettersButchart, S.H.M., M. Clarke, B. Smith, R. Sykes, J.P.W. Scharlemann, M. Harfoot, G.M. Buchanan, r. Angulo, A. Balmford, B. Bertzky, T.M. Brooks, K.E. Carpenter, M. Comeros, J. Cornell, N.K. Dulvy, G.F. Ficetola, L.D.C. Fishpool, H. Harwell, C. Hilton-Taylor, M. Hoffmann, A. Joolia, L. Joppa, N. Kingston, I. May, A. Milam, B. Polidoro, G. Ralph, N. Richman, C. Rondinini, B. Skolnik, M. Spalding, S.N. Stuart, A. Symes, J. Taylor, P. Visconti, J. Watson, N.D. Burgess2015 have committed to conserving _17% of terrestrial and _10% of marine environments globally, especially Òareas of particular importance for biodiversityÓ through Òecologically representativeÓ Protected Area (PA) sys- tems or other Òarea-based conservation measuresÓ, while individual countries have committed to conserve 3Ð50% of their land area. We estimate that PAs currently cover 14.6% of terrestrial and 2.8% of marine extent, but 59Ð68% of ecoregions, 77Ð78% of important sites for biodiversity, and 57% of 25,380 species have inadequate coverage. The existing 19.7 million km 2 terrestrial PA network needs only 3.3 million km 2 to be added to achieve 17% terres- trial coverage. However, it would require nearly doubling to achieve, cost- efÞciently, coverage targets for all countries, ecoregions, important sites, and species. Poorer countries have the largest relative shortfalls. Such extensive and rapid expansion of formal PAs is unlikely to be achievable. Greater fo- cus is therefore needed on alternative approaches, including community- and privately managed sites and other effective area-based conservation measures.
The IUCN Red List of Ecosystems: motivations, challenges and applications.Conservation LettersKeith, D.A., J.P. Rodr’guez, T.M. Brooks, M.A. Burgman, E.G. Barrow, L. Bland, P.J. Comer, J. Franklin, J. Link, M.A. McCarthy, R.M. Miller, N.J. Murray, J. Nel, E. Nicholson, M.A. Olivera-Miranda, T.J. Regan, K.M. Rodr’guez-Clark, M. Rouget, M.D. Spalding2015 response to growing demand for ecosystem-level risk assessment in biodiversity conservation, and rapid proliferation of locally tailored protocols, the IUCN recently endorsed new Red List criteria as a global standard for ecosystem risk assessment. Four qualities were sought in the design of the IUCN criteria&#58; generality; precision; realism; and simplicity. Drawing from extensive global consultation, we explore trade-offs among these qualities when dealing with key challenges, including ecosystem classification, measuring ecosystem dynamics, degradation and collapse, and setting decision thresholds to delimit ordinal categories of threat. Experience from countries with national lists of threatened ecosystems demonstrates well-balanced trade-offs in current and potential applications of Red Lists of Ecosystems in legislation, policy, environmental management and education. The IUCN Red List of Ecosystems should be judged by whether it achieves conservation ends and improves natural resource management, whether its limitations are outweighed by its benefits, and whether it performs better than alternative methods. Future development of the Red List of Ecosystems will benefit from the history of the Red List of Threatened Species which was trialed and adjusted iteratively over 50 years from rudimentary beginnings. We anticipate the Red List of Ecosystems will promote policy focus on conservation outcomes in situ across whole landscapes and seascapes.Ecosystems
Policy Relevant Conservation ScienceConservation LettersGame, E.T., Schwartz, M.W. & Knight, A.T.2015
Operationalizing resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental changeGlobal Change BiologyKenneth R.N. Anthony, Paul A. Marshall, Ameer Abdulla, Roger Beeden, Chris Bergh, Ryan Black, C. Mark Eakin, Edward T. Game, Margaret Gooch, Nicholas A.J. Graham, Alison Green, Scott F. Heron, Ruben van Hooidonk, Cheryl Knowland, Sangeeta Mangubhai, Nadine Marshall, Jeffrey A. Maynard, Peter McGinnity, Elizabeth McLeod, Peter. J. Mumby, Magnus Nystršm, David Obura, Jamie Oliver, Hugh P. Possingham, Robert L. Pressey, Gwilym P. Rowlands, Jerker Tamelander, David Wachenfeld, Stephanie Wear2015 pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to coral reef managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect coral reef vulnerability is critical for successful reef conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce coral reef vulnerability (risk of net decline) up to a point. Specifically, we propose an operational framework for identifying effective management levers to enhance resilience and support management decisions that reduce reef vulnerability. Building on a system understanding of biological and ecological processes that drive resilience of coral reefs in different environmental and socio-economic settings, we present an Adaptive Resilience-Based management (ARBM) framework and suggest a set of guidelines for how and where resilience can be enhanced via management interventions. We argue that press-type stressors (pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, ocean warming and acidification) are key threats to coral reef resilience by affecting processes underpinning resistance and recovery, while pulse-type (acute) stressors (e.g. storms, bleaching events, crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks) increase the demand for resilience. We apply the framework to a set of example problems for Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reefs. A combined strategy of active risk reduction and resilience support is needed, informed by key management objectives, knowledge of reef ecosystem processes and consideration of environmental and social drivers. As climate change and ocean acidification erode the resilience and increase the vulnerability of coral reefs globally, successful adaptive management of coral reefs will become increasingly difficult. Given limited resources, on-the-ground solutions are likely to focus increasingly on actions that support resilience at finer spatial scales, and that are tightly linked to ecosystem goods and services.
Short-term harvesting of biomass from conservation grasslands maintains plant diversityGCB BioenergyJungers, J.M., Sheaffer, C.C., Fargione, J. & Lehman, C.2015 yields are a priority in managing biomass for renewable energy, but the environmental impacts of various feedstocks and production systems should be equally considered. Mixed-species, perennial grasslands enrolled in conservation programs are being considered as a source of biomass for renewable energy. Conservation grasslands are crucial in sustaining native biodiversity throughout the US Upper Midwest, and the effects of biomass harvest on biodiversity are largely unknown. We measured the effect of late-season biomass harvest on plant community composition in conservation grasslands in three regions of Minnesota, USA from 2009 to 2012. Temporal trends in plant species composition within harvested grasslands were compared to unharvested grasslands using mixed effects models. A before-after control-impact approach using effect sizes was applied to focus on pre- and postharvest conditions. Production-scale biomass harvest did not affect plant species richness, species or functional group diversity, nor change the relative abundance of the main plant functional groups. Differences in the relative abundances of plant functional groups were observed across locations; and at some locations, changed through time. The proportion of non-native species remained constant, while the proportion of noxious weeds decreased through time in both harvested and unharvested grasslands at the central location. Ordination revealed patterns in species composition due to location, but not due to harvest treatment. Therefore, habitat and bioenergy characteristics related to grassland plant communities are not expected to change due to short-term or intermittent late-season biomass harvest.
Bioenergy and climate change mitigation: an assessmentGCB BioenergyCreutzig, F., Ravindranath, N.H., Berndes, G., Bolwig, S., Bright, R., Cherubini, F., Chum, H., Corbera, E., Delucchi, M., Faaij, A., Fargione, J., Haberl, H., Heath, G., Lucon, O., Plevin, R., Popp, A., Robledo-Abad, C., Rose, S., Smith, P., Stromman, A., Suh, S. & Masera, O.2015 deployment offers significant potential for climate change mitigation, but also carries considerable risks. In this review, we bring together perspectives of various communities involved in the research and regulation of bioenergy deployment in the context of climate change mitigation&#58; Land-use and energy experts, land-use and integrated assessment modelers, human geographers, ecosystem researchers, climate scientists and two different strands of life-cycle assessment experts. We summarize technological options, outline the state-of-the-art knowledge on various climate effects, provide an update on estimates of technical resource potential and comprehensively identify sustainability effects. Cellulosic feedstocks, increased end-use efficiency, improved land carbon-stock management and residue use, and, when fully developed, BECCS appear as the most promising options, depending on development costs, implementation, learning, and risk management. Combined heat and power, efficient biomass cookstoves and small-scale power generation for rural areas can help to promote energy access and sustainable development, along with reduced emissions. We estimate the sustainable technical potential as up to 100 EJ&#58; high agreement; 100Ð300 EJ&#58; medium agreement; above 300 EJ&#58; low agreement. Stabilization scenarios indicate that bioenergy may supply from 10 to 245 EJ yr_1 to global primary energy supply by 2050. Models indicate that, if technological and governance preconditions are met, large-scale deployment (&gt;200 EJ), together with BECCS, could help to keep global warming below 2¡ degrees of preindustrial levels; but such high deployment of land-intensive bioenergy feedstocks could also lead to detrimental climate effects, negatively impact ecosystems, biodiversity and livelihoods. The integration of bioenergy systems into agriculture and forest landscapes can improve land and water use efficiency and help address concerns about environmental impacts. We conclude that the high variability in pathways, uncertainties in technological development and ambiguity in political decision render forecasts on deployment levels and climate effects very difficult. However, uncertainty about projections should not preclude pursuing beneficial bioenergy options.
Sewage pollution: mitigation is key for coral reef stewardshipAnnals of the New York Academy of SciencesWear, S. L. and Thurber, R. V.2015 reefs are in decline worldwide, and land-derived sources of pollution, including sewage, are a major force driving that deterioration. This review presents evidence that sewage discharge occurs in waters surrounding at least 104 of 112 reef geographies. Studies often refer to sewage as a single stressor. However, we show that it is more accurately characterized as a multiple stressor. Many of the individual agents found within sewage, specifically freshwater, inorganic nutrients, pathogens, endocrine disrupters, suspended solids, sediments, and heavy metals, can severely impair coral growth and/or reproduction. These components of sewage may interact with each other to create as-yet poorly understood synergisms (e.g., nutrients facilitate pathogen growth), and escalate impacts of other, non-sewageÐbased stressors. Surprisingly few published studies have examined impacts of sewage in the field, but those that have suggest negative effects on coral reefs. Because sewage discharge proximal to sensitive coral reefs is widespread across the tropics, it is imperative for coral reefÐfocused institutions to increase investment in threat-abatement strategies for mitigating sewage pollution.
Influence of soil properties on coastal sandplain grassland establishment on former agricultural fieldsRestoration EcologyChristopher Neill, Megan M. Wheeler, Elizabeth Loucks, Annalisa Weiler, Betsy Von Holle, Matthew Pelikan andTom Chase2015 decline in species-rich grasslands across the United States has increased the importance of conservation and restoration efforts to preserve the biodiversity supported by these habitats. Abandoned agricultural fields often provide practical locations for the reestablishment of species-rich grasslands. However, these fields often retain legacies of agriculture both in their soils, which may have higher pH and nitrogen (N) contents than soils that were never farmed, and in their plant communities, which are dominated by non-native species and poor in native seed stock. We considered methods of reversing these legacies to create native-species-rich grassland on former agricultural land. We tested seeding and tilling combined with additions of sulfur (S), carbon (C), N or water to establish diverse sandplain grassland vegetation on an old field on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. We measured soil pH, extractable nitrate and ammonium, and total and native species richness and native species cover for 5 years after treatment. S additions lowered pH to values typical of never-tilled sandplain ecosystems and increased native species cover, but had no effect on species richness. C, N, and water additions had no significant effects on the soil or vegetation. Seeding and tilling were more effective at restoring native species richness than any soil amendments and indicated a greater importance of biotic factors compared with soil conditions in promoting sandplain vegetation establishment. S amendment accelerated establishment of native species cover for several years but the effect of S additions compared with seeding and tilling alone declined over time.
An evaluation of rapid methods for monitoring vegetation characteristics of wetland bird habitatWetlands Ecology and ManagementBrian G. Tavernia, James E. Lyons, Brian W. Loges, Andrew Wilson, Jaime A. Collazo, Michael C. Runge2015 managers benefit from monitoring data of sufficient precision and accuracy to assess wildlife habitat conditions and to evaluate and learn from past management decisions. For large-scale monitoring programs focused on waterbirds (waterfowl, wading birds, secretive marsh birds, and shorebirds), precision and accuracy of habitat measurements must be balanced with fiscal and logistic constraints. We evaluated a set of protocols for rapid, visual estimates of key waterbird habitat characteristics made from the wetland perimeter against estimates from (1) plots sampled within wetlands, and (2) cover maps made from aerial photographs. Estimated percent cover of annuals and perennials using a perimeter-based protocol fell within 10 percent of plot-based estimates, and percent cover estimates for seven vegetation height classes were within 20 % of plot-based estimates. Perimeter-based estimates of total emergent vegetation cover did not differ significantly from cover map estimates. Post-hoc analyses revealed evidence for observer effects in estimates of annual and perennial covers and vegetation height. Median time required to complete perimeter-based methods was less than 7 percent of the time needed for intensive plot-based methods. Our results show that rapid, perimeter-based assessments, which increase sample size and efficiency, provide vegetation estimates comparable to more intensive methods.Habitat management, Monitoring, Observer effects, Visual estimates, Wetland management
A practical guide to the application of the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems criteria.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological SciencesRodriguez, J.P., D.A. Keith, K.M. Rodriguez-Clark, N.J. Murray, E. Nicholson, T.J. Regan, R.M. Miller, E.G. Barrow, L.M. Bland, K. Boe, T.M. Brooks, M.A. Oliveira-Miranda, M. Spalding, P. Wit2015 newly developed IUCN Red List of Ecosystems is part of a growing toolbox for assessing risks to biodiversity, which addresses ecosystems and their functioning. The Red List of Ecosystems standard allows systematic assessment of all freshwater, marine, terrestrial and subterranean ecosystem types in terms of their global risk of collapse. In addition, the Red List of Ecosystems categories and criteria provide a technical base for assessments of ecosystem status at the regional, national, or subnational level. While the Red List of Ecosystems criteria were designed to be widely applicable by scientists and practitioners, guidelines are needed to ensure they are implemented in a standardized manner to reduce epistemic uncertainties and allow robust comparisons among ecosystems and over time. We review the intended application of the Red List of Ecosystems assessment process, summarize Ôbest-practiceÕ methods for ecosystem assessments and outline approaches to ensure operational rigour of assessments. The Red List of Ecosystems will inform priority setting for ecosystem types worldwide, and strengthen capacity to report on progress towards the Aichi Targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. When integrated with other IUCN knowledge products, such as the World Database of Protected Areas/Protected Planet, Key Biodiversity Areas and the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the Red List of Ecosystems will contribute to providing the most complete global measure of the status of biodiversity yet achieved.Ecosystems
Evaluating predictors of local dabbling duck abundance during migration: Managing the spectrum of conditions faced by migrants.WildfowlKevin Aagaard, Shawn M. Crimmins, Wayne E. Thogmartin, Brian G. Tavernia, James E. Lyons2015 development of robust modelling techniques to derive inferences from largescale migratory bird monitoring data at appropriate scales has direct relevance to their management. The Integrated Waterbird Management and Monitoring programme (IWMM) represents one of the few attempts to monitor migrating waterbirds across entire flyways using targeted local surveys. This dataset included 13,208,785 waterfowl (eight Anas species) counted during 28,000 surveys at nearly 1,000 locations across the eastern United States between autumn 2010 and spring 2013 and was used to evaluate potential predictors of waterfowl abundance at the wetland scale. Mixed-effects, loglinear models of local abundance were built for the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways during spring and autumn migration to identify factors relating to habitat structure, forage availability, and migration timing that influence target dabbling duck species abundance. Results indicated that migrating dabbling ducks responded differently to environmental factors. While the factors identified demonstrated a high degree of importance, they were inconsistent across species, flyways and seasons. Furthermore, the direction and magnitude of the importance of each covariate group considered here varied across species. Given our results, actionable policy recommendations are likely to be most effective if they consider species-level variation within targeted taxonomic units and across management areas. The methods implemented here can easily be applied to other contexts, and serve as a novel investigation into local-level population patterns using data from broad-scale monitoring programmes.ducks, migrationPrint ISSN: 0954-6324, Electronic ISSN: 2052-6458
A state-and-transition modeling approach for estimating the historical range of variabilityAIMS Environmental ScienceKori Blankenship, Corresponding author, , Leonardo Frid, James L. Smith2015 ecological conditions offer important context for land managers as they assess the condition of their landscapes and provide benchmarks for desired future conditions. State-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) are commonly used to estimate reference conditions that can be used to evaluate current ecosystem conditions and to guide land management decisions and activities. The LANDFIRE program created more than 1,000 STSMs and used them to assess departure from a mean reference value for ecosystems in the United States. While the mean provides a useful benchmark, land managers and researchers are often interested in the range of variability around the mean. This range, frequently referred to as the historical range of variability (HRV), offers model users improved understanding of ecosystem function, more information with which to evaluate ecosystem change and potentially greater flexibility in management options. We developed a method for using LANDFIRE STSMs to estimate the HRV around the mean reference condition for each model state in ecosystems by varying the fire probabilities. The approach is flexible and can be adapted for use in a variety of ecosystems. HRV analysis can be combined with other information to help guide complex land management decisions.
State-and-transition simulation modeling to compare outcomes of alternative management scenarios under two natural disturbance regimes in a forested landscape in northeastern Wisconsin, USAAIMS Environmental ScienceAmanda Swearingen, Jessica Price, Janet Silbernagel, Randy Swaty, Nicholas Miller2015 of the potential outcomes of multiple land management strategies and an understanding of the influence of potential increases in climate-related disturbances on these outcomes are essential for long term land management and conservation planning. To provide these insights, we developed an approach that uses collaborative scenario development and state-and-transition simulation modeling to provide land managers and conservation practitioners with a comparison of potential landscapes resulting from alternative management scenarios and climate conditions, and we have applied this approach in the Wild Rivers Legacy Forest (WRLF) area in northeastern Wisconsin. Three management scenarios were developed with input from local land managers, scientists, and conservation practitioners&#58; 1) continuation of current management, 2) expanded working forest conservation easements, and 3) cooperative ecological forestry. Scenarios were modeled under current climate with contemporary probabilities of natural disturbance and under increased probability of windthrow and wildfire that may result from climate change in this region. All scenarios were modeled for 100 years using the VDDT/TELSA modeling suite. Results showed that landscape composition and configuration were relatively similar among scenarios, and that management had a stronger effect than increased probability of windthrow and wildfire. These findings suggest that the scale of the landscape analysis used here and the lack of differences in predominant management strategies between ownerships in this region play significant roles in scenario outcomes. The approach used here does not rely on complex mechanistic modeling of uncertain dynamics and can therefore be used as starting point for planning and further analysis.
A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2015.Trends in Ecology and EvolutionSutherland, W.J., M. Clout, M. Depledge, L.V. Dicks, J. Dinsdale, A.C. Entwistle, E. Fleishman, D.W. Gibbons, B. Keim, F.A. Lickorish, K.A. Monk, N. Ockendon, L.S. Peck, J. Pretty, J. Rockstršm, M.D. Spalding, F.H. Tonneijck, B.C. Wintle2015 paper presents the results of our sixth annual horizon scan, which aims to identify phenomena that may have substantial effects on the global environment, but are not widely known or well understood. A group of professional horizon scanners, researchers, practitioners, and a journalist identified 15 topics via an iterative, Delphi-like process. The topics include a novel class of insecticide compounds, legalisation of recreational drugs, and the emergence of a new ecosystem associated with ice retreat in the Antarctic.environment; public health; priority setting; future; drugs; Antarctica; trade
Shellfish reef habitats: a synopsis to underpin the repair and conservation of AustraliaÕs environmentally, socially and economically important bays and estuariesC. Gillies, C. Creighton, I. McLeod2015 report describes the historic extent and current knowledge of Australian shellfish reefs and identifies knowledge gaps and future research priorities with the aim of supporting restoration efforts. Shellfish reefs are complex, three-dimensional living structures, which provide food, shelter and protection for a range of other invertebrate and fish species. They occur in bays, estuaries and nearshore coastal waters in both tropical and temperate regions across every state within Australia. Shellfish reefs largely occur in the intertidal and upper subtidal regions of bays, estuaries and nearshore waters with the exception of the native flat oyster (Ostrea angasi) which can form reefs at depths of up to 30 m. There are more than 2000 bivalve species likely to occur in Australian coastal waters, yet only eight oyster and mussel species are known to form clearly defined reef structures across multiple locations and at scale. Prior to the 20th century, shellfish reefs were common features of estuarine and coastal systems and were of importance as a food source for Indigenous Australians, with considerable quantities of reef-forming species occurring in coastal food middens. Early maritime explorers such as Cook, Flinders, Eyre and Vancouver regularly referred to extensive shellfish reefs in voyage reports and journals. From early European settlement of Australia, vast quantities of oysters and mussels were harvested for food and as a source of lime for mortar used in the early construction of roads and buildings. Throughout the 1800s and early 1900s, dredge and hand-harvest oyster fisheries were likely to have occurred in over 150 locations across eastern and southern Australia, including major coastal embayments such as Moreton Bay, Sydney Harbour, Port Phillip Bay, Gulf St Vincent, Derwent River and Princess Royal Harbour. As shellfish resources closest to AustraliaÕs first settlements rapidly became depleted, shellfish fisheries expanded to include more distant bays and estuaries. Whilst the total State or or Australia-wide catch for any one year is unknown, records from single estuaries (e.g. 10 tonnes per week for Western Port, Victoria; 22 million oysters per year from 5 estuaries in Tasmania) indicate oyster fishing constituted some of the largest and most valuable fisheries, and indeed one of the most valuable marine industries, of the 1800s. From historical fishery reports and media articles it is clear that early harvesting efforts were unsustainable, which led to the regulation of shellfish fisheries from as early as 1853 in Tasmania and South Australia. The oyster industry was the first (of any) fishery to be regulated by legislation in South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria, with New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia to follow within 30 years. Yet the regulation of shellfish harvesting did little to halt the destruction of shellfish reefs and by the late 20th century, shellfish reefs had all but disappeared, with all major oyster fisheries closed by 1960. Today, only a fraction of natural shellfish reefs still survive, notably in Hinchinbrook Channel (Queensland) Sandon River (NSW) and Georges Bay (Tasmania). Poor water quality and sedimentation as a result of catchment clearance, urbanisation and industrial pollution and diseases such as Queensland Unknown (QX) and Bonamia likely exacerbated the loss of historic shellfish reefs and may hinder their natural revival. Examples from the United States and elsewhere have demonstrated that when restoration occurs at large scales, ecological function can be repaired and ecosystem services can be restored. The process of restoring shellfish reefs can provide both short- and long-term employment opportunities and established reefs can provide long-term economic gains for coastal communities, particularly in fishing tourism and coastal protection. The benefits provided by shellfish reefs include food provision, water filtration, fish production, coastal protection and habitat for other species. Several projects (in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia) have recently begun the process of restoring shellfish reefs for the purpose of recovering a near extinct habitat and to improve fish habitat, water quality and coastal protection. Momentum is continuing to build, with a number of other shellfish reef restoration projects expected to begin across Australia within the next 12-24 months.Report to the National Environmental Science Programme, Marine Biodiversity Hub
Operationalizing the social-ecological systems framework to assess sustainabilityPNASLeslie, H.M., Basurto, X., Nenadovic, M., Sievanen, L., Cavanaugh, K.C., Cota-Nieto, J.J., Erisman, B.E., Finkbeiner, E., Hinojosa-Arango, G., Moreno-B‡ez, M., Nagavarapu, S., Reddy, S.M.W., S‡nchez-Rodr’guez, A., Siegel, K., Ulibarria-Valenzuela, J.J., Weaver, A.H. & Aburto-Oropeza, O.2015http:/// human needs while sustaining ecosystems and the benefits they provide is a global challenge. Coastal marine systems present a particularly important case, given that &gt;50% of the world's population lives within 100 km of the coast and fisheries are the primary source of protein for &gt;1 billion people worldwide. Our integrative analysis here yields an understanding of the sustainability of coupled social-ecological systems that is quite distinct from that provided by either the biophysical or the social sciences alone and that illustrates the feasibility and value of operationalizing the social-ecological systems framework for comparative analyses of coupled systems, particularly in data-poor and developing nation settings.
New opportunities for conservation of a threatened biogenic habitat: a worldwide assessment of knowledge on bivalve reef representation in marine and coastal Ramsar Sites.Marine & Freshwater ResearchKasoar, T., P.S.E.z. Ermgassen, A. Carranza, B. Hancock, M. Spalding2015;file_id=MF14306.pdfThe present study draws attention to the current state of knowledge of bivalve reef, an important but historically overlooked habitat type. Recent interest has led to the explicit recognition of this habitat type under the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (the Ramsar Convention), an international treaty that has widespread governmental and scientific involvement. To assess the state of knowledge, the Information Sheet on Ramsar Wetlands (RIS) for marine and coastal Sites was searched for evidence that bivalve-reef habitat is present in the site. We then examined the quality of this information using alternative data sources. These were public databases of geolocated species records at three spatial scales, local and regional experts, and a general web search. It was found that of the 893 marine and coastal Ramsar Sites considered, the RIS for 16 Sites provided strong evidence of bivalve-reef habitat and 99 had confirmed presence of reef-forming bivalves, a strikingly high number, given that it is not yet compulsory to include bivalve reef in RISs. However, the alternative information sources identified bivalve reefs or reef-forming bivalves in 142 further Sites. No one information source provided comprehensive information, highlighting the overall poor state of knowledge of this habitat type.coastal habitats, marine habitats, mussel beds, oyster reefs, shellfish
New partnerships for managing large desert landscapes: experiences from the Martu Living Deserts ProjectThe Rangeland JournalTony Jupp, James Fitzsimons, Ben Carr, Peter See2015;file_id=RJ15047.pdfNative fauna in Australia's arid zone has declined significantly since European settlement; however, Martu country in the Western Desert of Western Australia retains a diversity of iconic and threatened species that were once more widespread. An innovative partnership between The Nature Conservancy, BHP Billiton and the Martu people (represented by Kanyirninpa Jukurrpa Ð KJ) is achieving positive social, cultural, economic and environmental outcomes, which builds on funding from the Australian Government for land management on Martu country. The partners support Martu people in fulfilling their desire to conserve the cultural and natural values of their 13.7 million ha native title determination area. Through KJ as the local delivery partner, Martu people are returning to work on country to clean and protect waterholes; improve fire management; control feral herbivores and predators; manage cultural heritage; and actively manage priority threatened species (such as the Greater Bilby and the Black-flanked Rock-wallaby). The project provides significant employment opportunities for Martu men and women in ranger teams working throughout their country. It is also generating measurable social, cultural and economic benefits for Martu people and environmental benefits for part of the most intact arid ecosystem anywhere on Earth.
Mitigation for one & all: An integrated framework for mitigation of development impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem servicesEnvironmental Impact Assessment ReviewTallis, H., Kennedy, C.M., Ruckelshaus, M., Goldstein, J. & Kiesecker, J.M.2015;pid=1-s2.0-S0195925515000566-main.pdfEmerging development policies and lending standards call for consideration of ecosystem services when mitigating impacts from development, yet little guidance exists to inform this process. Here we propose a comprehensive framework for advancing both biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation. We have clarified a means for choosing representative ecosystem service targets alongside biodiversity targets, identified servicesheds as a useful spatial unit for assessing ecosystem service avoidance, impact, and offset options, and discuss methods for consistent calculation of biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation ratios. We emphasize the need to move away from area- and habitat-based assessment methods for both biodiversity and ecosystem services towards functional assessments at landscape or seascape scales. Such comprehensive assessments more accurately reflect cumulative impacts and variation in environmental quality, social needs and value preferences. The integrated framework builds on the experience of biodiversity mitigation while addressing the unique opportunities and challenges presented by ecosystem service mitigation. These advances contribute to growing potential for economic development planning and execution that will minimize impacts on nature and maximize human wellbeing.
Industrialized watersheds have elevated risk and limited opportunities to mitigate risk through water tradingWater Resources and IndustryReddy, S.M.W., McDonald, R.I., Maas, A.S., Rogers, A., Girvetz, E.H., Molnar, J., Finley, T., Leathers, G. & DiMuro, J.L.2015;pid=1-s2.0-S2212371715000499-main.pdfBusinesses are increasingly concerned about water scarcity and its financial impacts, as well as competing needs of other stakeholders and ecosystems. Industrialized watersheds may be at more serious risk from water scarcity than previously understood because industrial and municipal users have inelastic demand and a high value for water. Previous water risk assessments have failed to sufficiently capture these economic aspects of water risk. We illustrate how hydro-economic modeling can be used to improve water risk assessments at a basin scale and we apply the methodology to the industrialized Brazos River Basin (85% municipal and industrial withdrawals) and consider implications for The Dow Chemical Company_s Freeport Operations in Texas, US. Brazos water right holders pay only operating and maintenance costs for water during normal periods; however, when shortages occur, leasing stored water or reducing production may be the only mitigation option in the short-run. Modeling of water shortages and the theoretical cost of leasing water under nine combined scenarios of demand growth and climate change suggests that water lease prices to industry could increase by 9Ð13X. At best, a more developed water rights and storage lease market could result in lower lease prices (2Ð3X); however, given that transactions would be limited it is more likely that prices would still increase by 4Ð13X. These results suggest that markets are unlikely to be a robust solution for the Brazos because, in contrast to other watersheds in the Western US, there is little reliable water to trade from low value users (agricultural) to high value users (industry and municipalities). Looking at demand trends across the contiguous US as an indicator of water risk, 2% of watersheds have municipal and industrial demands that outstrip total surface and ground water supplies and in these watersheds industry has historically paid higher lease prices for water. This study provides new ways for businesses to characterize water risk and forecast water prices that uncovers hidden water risk and highlights the positive but diminished mitigating effects of water markets in a highly industrialized basin.
Bright spots for estuary management in temperate Southern AustraliaAustralian Journal of Maritime & Ocean Affairs Rebecca Koss, Geoff Wescott, James Fitzsimons, Lynne Hale2015 are a transition zone for fresh and saline water and sediments, providing a range of ecosystem services for the local population, infrastructure and industries located in their environs. They are also governance transition zones where jurisdictions often overlap and focused attention is often lacking. As Australia's population continues to expand, particularly in the south, estuaries are increasingly becoming popular locations for settlement due to their picturesque surrounds and accessibility for water-based activities. This results in expanding human and industry activities and pressures along estuaries and adjacent coastal settings impacting ecosystem service delivery. The absence of dedicated national and state estuary legislation in addition to decades of poor land and waterway management decisions paints a Ôdoom and gloomÕ picture for temperate southern Australian estuaries. Against this backdrop, there are number of estuary Ôbright spotsÕ where natural resource management bodies in strong partnership with local actors are moving forward in overcoming challenges to estuary conservation. Using case studies, this paper describes the key elements for effective estuary management that can lead to improved estuary health.
Warm-water coral reefs and climate change.ScienceSpalding, M.D., B.E. Brown2015 reefs are highly dynamic ecosystems that are regularly exposed to natural perturbations. Human activities have increased the range, intensity, and frequency of disturbance to reefs. Threats such as overfishing and pollution are being compounded by climate change, notably warming and ocean acidification. Elevated temperatures are driving increasingly frequent bleaching events that can lead to the loss of both coral cover and reef structural complexity. There remains considerable variability in the distribution of threats and in the ability of reefs to survive or recover from such disturbances. Without significant emissions reductions, however, the future of coral reefs is increasingly bleak.water, coral reefs, climate change
The current state of knowledge on mangrove fishery values.Hutchison, J., P. zu Ermgassen, M. Spalding2015 are widely understood to be important habitats for fisheries, supporting resident fish, crustacean, and mollusk populations as well as acting as nursery grounds for species that are targeted by offshore fisheries. There is, however, a lack of quantitative data on fisheries that operate in and around mangroves. We carried out a systematic search to gather data on mangrove fisheries from the scientific literature. We filtered the 4,358 studies returned by the search based on their title and abstract and extracted data from 169 of these. Despite the abundance of literature on mangrove fisheries, we were unable to build a data set of comparable, quantitative data of sufficient size to support numerical modeling approaches. In part, this is due to the variety of mangrove fisheries, which range from small-scale subsistence fishing for mollusks and crabs to large-scale industrialized prawn trawling. This is compounded by the broad range of reporting methods and metrics encountered in the literature. We make a number of recommendations to guide the future reporting of mangrove fisheries to allow for better quantification and comparison of fisheries values at large spatial scales.range of reporting methods and metrics encountered in the literature. We make a number of recommendations to guide the future reporting of mangrove fisheries to allow for better quantification and comparison of fisheries values at large spatial scales.mangrove
Conservation chemistryChemistry & IndustryMolnar, J.L. & Kareiva, P.2015
Integrated cross-realm planning: A decision-makers' perspectiveBiological Conservationçlvarez-Romero, J.G., V.M. Adams, R.L. Pressey, M. Douglas, A.P. Dale, A.A. AugŽ, D. Ball, J. Childs, M. Digby, R. Dobbs, N. Gobius, D. Hinchley, I. Lancaster, M. Maughan, I. Perdrisat2015Pursuing development and conservation goals often requires thinking and planning across terrestrial, freshwater and marine realms because many threats and socialÐecological processes transcend realm boundaries. Consequently, effective conservation planning must consider the social and ecological links between realms and follow a cross-realm approach to allocate land/water uses and conservation actions to mitigate cross-realm threats and maintain cross-realm ecological processes. Cross-realm planning requires integrating multiple objectives for conservation and development, and assessing the potential co-benefits and trade-offs between them under alternative development scenarios. Despite progress in cross-realm planning theory, few fully-integrated and applied cross-realm plans exist. The gaps between research and implementation are not unique to cross-realm planning, but are accentuated by the complexity of spatial decision-making entailed. Based on a collaborative process including scientists, resource managers and policy-makers, we developed an operational framework for cross-realm planning based on up-to-date thinking in conservation science, but offering practical guidance to operationalise real-world planning. Our approach has a strong theoretical basis while addressing the visions and needs of decision-makers. We discuss the foundations and limitations of current approaches in cross-realm planning, describe key requirements to undertake this approach, and present a real-world application of our framework.Integrated cross-realm planning; Integrated land-sea conservation planning; Cross-system threat; Cross-system ecological process; Multi-objective planning; Marxan
Towards integrated socialÐecological sustainability indicators: Exploring the contribution and gaps in existing global dataEcological EconomicsSelomane, O., Reyers, B., Biggs, R., Tallis, H. & Polasky, S.2015Sustainable development goals (SDGs), which recognise the interconnections between social, economic and ecological systems, have ignited new interest in indicators able to integrate trends in Ð and interactions between Ð nature and socio-economic development. We explore whether existing global data can be used to measure nature's contribution to development targets and explore limitations in these data. Using Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1Ð eradicate extreme hunger and poverty. We develop two indicators to assess the contribution of nature to progress in this goal. The indicators (based on income and employment data from nature-based sectors (NBS) represented by agriculture, forestry and fisheries) show large but declining contributions of nature to MDG 1&#58; NBS contributed to lifting 18% of people out of poverty and provided 37% of global employment between 1991 and 2010. For low income countries, the contributions were 20% and 55% respectively. In exploring data gaps the study highlighted low reporting rates especially in low income countries, as well as lack of other measures of poverty alleviation beyond income and employment. If we are to move beyond target setting to implementation of sustainable development goals at national scales, these shortcomings require as much attention as the elaboration and agreement on the post-2015 development goals.
Length based SPR assessment of eleven Indo-Pacific coral reef fish populations in PalauFisheries ResearchJeremy Princea, Steven Victor, Valentino Kloulchad, Adrian Hordyk2015The theoretical basis of a new approach to data poor fisheries assessment, length-based assessment of spawning potential ratio, has been recently published. This paper describes its first application over two years to assess 12 of the 15 most numerous species of Indo-Pacific coral reef fish in Palau. This study demonstrates the techniques applicability to small-scale data-poor fisheries and illustrates the type of data required, and the assessment's outputs. A methodology is developed for extending the principles of BevertonÐHolt Life History Invariants to use the literature on related species within the Indo-Pacific reef fish assemblage to ÔborrowÕ the information needed to parameterize assessments for Palau's poorly studied stocks. While the assessments will continue to be improved through the collection of more size and maturity data, and through further synthesis of the literature, a consistent and coherent picture emerges of a heavily fished assemblage with most assessed species having SPR &lt; 20% and manyData poor assessment; Spawning potential ratio; Length based SPR; Indo-Pacific reef fish
National indicators for observing ecosystem service changeGlobal Environmental ChangeKarp, D.S., Tallis, H., Sachse, R., Halpern, B., Thonicke, K., Cramer, W., Mooney, H., Polasky, S., Tietjen, B., Waha, K., Walz, A. & Wolny, S2015EarthÕs life-support systems are in rapid decline, yet we have few metrics or indicators with which to track these changes. The worldÕs governments are calling for biodiversity and ecosystem-service monitoring to guide and evaluate international conservation policy as well as to incorporate natural capital into their national accounts. The Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) has been tasked with setting up this monitoring system. Here we explore the immediate feasibility of creating a global ecosystem-service monitoring platform under the GEO BON framework through combining data from national statistics, global vegetation models, and production function models. We found that nine ecosystem services could be annually reported at a national scale in the short term&#58; carbon sequestration, water supply for hydropower, and non-fisheries marine products, crop, livestock, game meat, fisheries, mariculture, and timber production. Reported changes in service delivery over time reflected ecological shocks (e.g., droughts and disease outbreaks), highlighting the immediate utility of this monitoring system. Our work also identified three opportunities for creating a more comprehensive monitoring system. First, investing in input data for ecological process models (e.g., global land-use maps) would allow many more regulating services to be monitored. Currently, only 1 of 9 services that can be reported is a regulating service. Second, household surveys and censuses could help evaluate how nature affects people and provides non-monetary benefits. Finally, to forecast the sustainability of service delivery, research efforts could focus on calculating the total remaining biophysical stocks of provisioning services. Regardless, we demonstrated that a preliminary ecosystem-service monitoring platform is immediately feasible. With sufficient international investment, the platform could evolve further into a much-needed system to track changes in our planet's life-support systems.
Hydropower within the climate, energy and water nexusJeffrey J. Opperman, Joerg Hartmann and David Harrison2015
Harnessing values to save the rhinoceros: insights from NamibiaOryxMuntifering, J.R., W.L. Linklater, S.G. Clark, S. !Uri-­Khob, J.K. Kasaona, K. /Uiseb, P. Du Preez, K. Kasaona, P. Beytell, J. Ketji, B. Hambo, M. A. Brown, C. Thouless, S. Jacobs, and A.T. Knight2015The rate at which the poaching of rhinoceroses has escalated since 2010 poses a threat to the long-term persistence of extant rhinoceros populations. The policy response has primarily called for increased investment in military-style enforcement strategies largely based upon simple economic models of rational crime. However, effective solutions will probably require a context-specific, stakeholder-driven mix of top-down and bottom-up mechanisms grounded in theory that represents human behaviour more realistically. Using a problem-oriented approach we illustrate in theory and practice how community-based strategies that explicitly incorporate local values and institutions are a foundation for combating rhinoceros poaching effectively in specific contexts. A case study from Namibia demonstrates how coupling a locally devised rhinoceros monitoring regime with joint-venture tourism partnerships as a legitimate land use can reconcile individual values represented within a diverse stakeholder group and manifests as both formal and informal community enforcement. We suggest a social learning approach as a means by which international, national and regional governance can recognize and promote solutions that may help empower local communities to implement rhinoceros management strategies that align individual values with the long-term health of rhinoceros populations.
Why conservation needs religionCoastal ManagementMcleod, E. and M. Palmer2015Conservationists have been criticized for failing to protect nature in the face of mounting threats including overexploitation, species loss, habitat destruction, and climate change. Resource managers and scientists have yet to fully engage a major segment of the global population in their outreach efforts to protect the environment&#58; religious communities. The world's religions have been recognized as a surprising driver of support for conservation of biological diversity, and numerous examples demonstrate religious and conservation groups working together to achieve conservation outcomes. However, many conservation organizations do not effectively engage religious groups. When conservation organizations do engage religious groups, efforts to do so are often ad hoc and such partnerships may wane over time. A more systematic approach is needed that directly engages religious communities, develops effective partnerships, supports and sustains dialogue aimed at finding common ground despite potentially divergent worldviews, and establishes supporting mechanisms to maintain the partnerships that are developed. Effective partnerships between religious and conservation groups represent significant untapped potential which can directly support conservation outcomes; such partnerships are likely to become increasingly important with dwindling support for conservation.
Using expert knowledge to develop a vulnerability and adaptation framework and methodology for application in tropical island communitiesCoastal ManagementMcleod, E., B. Szuster, E.L. Tompkins, N. Marshall, T. Downing, S. Wongbusarakum, A. Patwardhan, M. Hamza, C. Anderson, S. Bharwani, L. Hansen, P. Rubinoff2015Climate change threatens tropical coastal communities and ecosystems. Governments, resource managers, and communities recognize the value of assessing the social and ecological impacts of climate change, but there is little consensus on the most effective framework to support vulnerability and adaptation assessments. The framework presented in this research is based on a gap analysis developed from the recommendations of climate and adaptation experts. The article highlights social and ecological factors that affect vulnerability to climate change; adaptive capacity and adaptation options informing policy and conservation management decisions; and a methodology including criteria to assess current and future vulnerability to climate change. The framework is intended for conservation practitioners working in developing countries, small island nations, and traditional communities. It identifies core components that assess climate change impacts on coastal communities and environments at the local scale, and supports the identification of locally relevant adaptation strategies. Although the literature supporting vulnerability adaptation assessments is extensive, little emphasis has been placed on the systematic validation of these tools. To address this, we validate the framework using the Delphi technique, a group facilitation technique used to achieve convergence of expert opinion, and address gaps in previous vulnerability assessments.
Community-based climate vulnerability and adaptation tools: A review of tools and their applicationsCoastal ManagementMcleod, E., S. Margles, S. Wongbusarakum, M. Gombos, A. DazŽ, A. Otzelberger, A. Hammill, V. Agostini, D.U. Cot, and M. Wiggins2015Conservation and development organizations conduct vulnerability and adaptation assessments to assess the vulnerability of coastal communities and ecosystems to climate change and to identify adaptation strategies to address these impacts. Local assessments are needed to provide this information at the scale of communities and critical habitats. Over the last decade, there has been a proliferation of tools developed to assess climate vulnerability and adaptation at the community level. However, there has been limited synthesis of the available tools across disciplines in the peer-reviewed literature and limited guidance provided to help conservation practitioners and development planners select which tool is most appropriate for a given application. This article reviews a number of tools designed for community-level climate vulnerability and adaptation assessments and highlights their advantages and limitations to help managers make informed decisions about tool selection. Selection of tools will involve tradeoffs in terms of the capacity and resources needed to apply the tools and the aspects of social and ecological vulnerability that they address.
Cats are rare where coyotes roamJournal of MammalogyRoland Kays, Robert Costello, Tavis Forrester, Megan C. Baker, Arielle W. Parsons, Elizabeth L. Kalies, George Hess, Joshua J. Millspaugh, William McShea2015Domestic cats (Felis catus) have caused the extinction of many island species and are thought to kill many billions of birds and mammals in the continental United States each year. However, the spatial distribution and abundance of cats and their risk to our protected areas remains unknown. We worked with citizen scientists to survey the mammals at 2,117 sites in 32 protected areas and one urban area across 6 states in the eastern United States using camera traps. We found that most protected areas had high levels of coyote (Canis latrans) activity, but few or no domestic cats. The relative abundance of domestic cats in residential yards, where coyotes were rare, was 300 times higher than in the protected areas. Our spatial models of cat distribution show the amount of coyote activity and housing density are the best predictors of cat activity, and that coyotes and cats overlap the most in small urban forests. Coyotes were nocturnal at all sites, while cats were nocturnal in protected areas, but significantly more diurnal in urban sites. We suggest that the ecological impact of free-ranging cats in the region is concentrated in urban areas or other sites, such as islands, with few coyotes. Our study also shows the value of citizen science for conducting broadscale mammal surveys using photo-vouchered locations that ensure high data quality. Key words&#58;camera trapCanis latrans citizen scienceFelis catus invasive speciesprotected areas
The face of conservation responding to a dynamically changing worldIntegrative ZoologySchmitz, O.J., Lawler, J.J., Beier, P., Groves, C., Knight, G., Boyce, D.A., Bulluck, J., Johnston, K.M., Klein, M.L., Muller, K., Pierce, D.J., Singleton, W.R., Strittholt, J.R., Theobald, D.M., Trombulak, S.C. & Trainor, A.2015In its 40-year history, the science of conservation has faced unprecedented challenges in terms of environmental damage and rapid global change, and environmental problems are only increasing as greater demands are placed on limited natural resources. Conservation science has been adapting to keep pace with these changes. Here, we highlight contemporary and emerging trends and innovations in conservation science that we believe represent the most effective responses to biodiversity threats. We focus on specific areas where conservation science has had to adjust its approach to address emerging threats to biodiversity, including habitat destruction and degradation, climate change, declining populations and invasive species. We also document changes in attitudes, norms and practices among conservation scientists. A key component to success is engaging and maintaining public support for conservation, which can be facilitated through the use of technology. These recent trends in conservation and management are innovative and will assist in optimizing conservation strategies, increasing our leverage with the general public and tackling our current environmental challenges.
The impact of ENSO on coral heat stress in the western equatorial PacificGlobal Change BiologyKleypas J.A., F.S. Castruccio, E.N. Curchitser, E. Mcleod2015The Coral Triangle encompasses an extensive region of coral reefs in the western tropical Pacific with marine resources that support millions of people. As in all other reef regions, coral reefs in the Coral Triangle have been impacted by anomalously high ocean temperature. The vast majority of bleaching observations to date have been associated with the 1998 La Ni–a phase of ENSO. To understand the significance of ENSO and other climatic oscillations to heat stress in the Coral Triangle, we use a 5-km resolution Regional Ocean Model System for the Coral Triangle (CT-ROMS) to study ocean temperature thresholds and variability for the 1960Ð2007 historical period. Heat-stress events are more frequent during La Ni–a events, but occur under all climatic conditions, reflecting an overall warming trend since the 1970s. Mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the region increased an average of ~ 0.1 ¡C per decade over the time period, but with considerable spatial variability. The spatial patterns of SST and heat stress across the Coral Triangle reflect the complex bathymetry and oceanography. The patterns did not change significantly over time or with shifts in ENSO. Several regions experienced little to no heat stress over the entire period. Of particular interest to marine conservation are regions where there are few records of coral bleaching despite the presence of significant heat stress, such as in the Banda Sea. Although this may be due to under-reporting of bleaching events, it may also be due to physical factors such as mixing and cloudiness, or biological factors that reduce sensitivity to heat stress.
The effectiveness of conservation interventions to overcome the urbanÐenvironmental paradoxAnnals of the New York Academy of SciencesRobert I. McDonald2015Globally, urbanization is rapidly growing cities and towns at a historically unprecedented rate, and this rapid urban growth is influencing many facets of the environment. This paper reviews the effectiveness of conservation interventions that are designed to increase urban sustainability. It presents evidence for an apparent urbanÐenvironmental paradox&#58; while the process of urban growth converts natural habitat to other land covers and degrades natural resources and ecosystem function, the increase in human population can increase demand for natural resources and ecosystem services. The fundamental problem that many conservation interventions try to address is that most facets of the environment are common or public goods, and are hence undervalued in decision making (market failure). The paper presents a threefold classification of conservation interventions in cities&#58; conservation in the city (protecting biodiversity), conservation by the city (reducing per capita resource and energy use), and conservation for cities (projects that maintain or enhance ecosystem services). It ends by discussing methods for spatially targeting conservation interventions of all three types and for quantifying the effectiveness of interventions retrospectively.
Productivity and fishing pressure drive variability in fish parasite assemblages of the Line Islands, equatorial PacificEcologyWood, C.L., Baum, J.K., Reddy, S.M.W., Trebilco, R., Sandin, S.A., Zgliczynski, B.J., Briggs, A.A. & Micheli, F.2015Variability in primary productivity and fishing pressure can shape the abundance, species composition, and diversity of marine life. Though parasites comprise nearly half of marine species, their responses to these important forces remain little explored. We quantified parasite assemblages at two spatial scales, across a gradient in productivity and fishing pressure that spans six coral islands of the Line Islands archipelago and within the largest Line Island, Kiritimati, which experiences a west-to-east gradient in fishing pressure and upwelling-driven productivity. In the across-islands data set, we found that increasing productivity was correlated with increased parasite abundance overall, but that the effects of productivity differed among parasite groups. Trophically transmitted parasites increased in abundance with increasing productivity, but directly transmitted parasites did not exhibit significant changes. This probably arises because productivity has stronger effects on the abundance of the planktonic crustaceans and herbivorous snails that serve as the intermediate hosts of trophically transmitted parasites than on the higher-trophic level fishes that are the sole hosts of directly transmitted parasites. We also found that specialist parasites increased in response to increasing productivity, while generalists did not, possibly because specialist parasites tend to be more strongly limited by host availability than are generalist parasites. After the effect of productivity was controlled for, fishing was correlated with decreases in the abundance of trophically transmitted parasites, while directly transmitted parasites appeared to track host density; we observed increases in the abundance of parasites using hosts that experienced fishing-driven compensatory increases in abundance. The within-island data set confirmed these patterns for the combined effects of productivity and fishing on parasite abundance, suggesting that our conclusions are robust across a span of spatial scales. Overall, these results indicate that there are strong and variable effects of anthropogenic and natural drivers on parasite abundance and taxonomic richness. These effects are likely to be mediated by parasite traits, particularly by parasite transmission strategies.
Abundance models improve spatial and temporal prioritization of conservation resourcesEcological ApplicationsAlison Johnston, Daniel Fink, Mark D. Reynolds, Wesley M. Hochachka, Brian L. Sullivan, Nicholas E. Bruns, Eric Hallstein, Matt S. Merrifield, Sandi Matsumoto, Steve Kelling2015Conservation prioritization requires knowledge about organism distribution and density. This information is often inferred from models that estimate the probability of species occurrence rather than from models that estimate species abundance, because abundance data are harder to obtain and model. However, occurrence and abundance may not display similar patterns and therefore development of robust, scalable, abundance models is critical to ensuring that scarce conservation resources are applied where they can have the greatest benefits. Motivated by a dynamic land conservation program, we develop and assess a general method for modeling relative abundance using citizen science monitoring data. Weekly estimates of relative abundance and occurrence were compared for prioritizing times and locations of conservation actions for migratory waterbird species in California, USA. We found that abundance estimates consistently provided better rankings of observed counts than occurrence estimates. Additionally, the relationship between abundance and occurrence was nonlinear and varied by species and season. Across species, locations prioritized by occurrence models had only 10Ð58% overlap with locations prioritized by abundance models, highlighting that occurrence models will not typically identify the locations of highest abundance that are vital for conservation of populations.
Implications of Diameter Caps on Multiple Forest Resource Responses in the Context of the Four Forests Restoration Initiative: Results from the Forest Vegetation SimulatorJournal of ForestryS‡nchez Meador, Andrew J.; Waring, Kristen M.; Kalies, Elizabeth L.2015Meeting multiple resource objectives, such as increasing resilience to climate change, while simultaneously increasing watershed health, conserving biodiversity, protecting old-growth, reducing the risk of catastrophic wildfire, and promoting ecosystem health, is paramount to landscape restoration. Central to public land management efforts in the West is the widespread adoption of size-prohibited cutting of ÒlargeÓ trees, a limitation referred to as a Òdiameter cap.Ó In this study, we used the most commonly proposed prescription for the Four Forest Restoration Initiative in northern Arizona to explore the implications of diameter caps for multiple resource responses through the use of model simulations. We found that implementing progressively smaller caps in southwestern ponderosa pine may result in relatively similar live tree densities, canopy cover, and large snag densities but higher basal areas, mean tree size, torching indices, and scenic beauty with lower water yield and herbaceous production. When diameter cap scenarios are compared, tradeoffs exist, and no single metric is suited for overall scenario evaluation.forest management; ponderosa pine; restoration; size limits; treatment scenarios
Nonmaternal Infant Handling in Wild White-Headed Langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus)International Journal of PrimatologyTong Jin, Dezhi Wang, Wenshi Pan, Meng Yao2015Infants of many primate species have extensive interactions with group members other than their mothers, which can affect an infantÕs fitness. Patterns of nonmaternal infant handling vary according to the motherÕs response as well as the number, sex, age, and dominance ranks of social partners. The primary goal of this study was to identify the basic pattern and explore the function of nonmaternal infant handling behavior in wild white-headed langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) at the Nongguan Hills in Guangxi, Southwest China. We report nonmaternal interactions in the first 3 mo after birth for 15 infants born during six birth seasons in a 67-mo field study. The nonmaternal infant handling we observed was generally in the form of caregiving, and mothers permitted most handling attempts. Infants were handled by nonmothers from the first day after birth. Infants spent 20Ð30% of the daytime associated with nonmothers during the first month of life, and time in contact with nonmothers decreased with infant age. Rates of nonmaternal infant handling varied significantly with the sex and age of handlers. Juvenile and subadult females handled infants significantly more than expected from their proportional representations in the group, whereas adult females did so less frequently than expected. Older male infants and juvenile males rarely handled infants, and adult males never did so. Infant handling behavior showed no correlation with the dominance rank of handlers relative to the mothers. Our data, although limited in some analyses, are in line with the predictions of the learning-to-mother hypothesis, but do not support the female competition or alliance formation hypotheses.Allomaternal care Allomothering Infant care Leaf monkeys Learning-to-mother Primates
Scaling-up marine restoration efforts in AustraliaEcological Management & RestorationChris L. Gillies, James A. Fitzsimons, Simon Branigan, Lynne Hale, Boze Hancock, Colin Creighton, Heidi Alleway, Melanie J. Bishop, Simon Brown, Dean Chamberlain, Ben Cleveland, Christine Crawford, Matthew Crawford, Ben Diggles, John R. Ford, Paul Hamer, Anthony Hart, Emma Johnston, Tein McDonald, Ian McLeod, Breanna Pinner, Kylie Russell, Ross Winstanley2015
A quantitative framework for demographic trends in size-structured populations: analysis of threats to floodplain forestsEcosphereChristian O. Marks, Charles D. Canham2015Studies of population dynamics are continually seeking to develop quantitative approaches that can be easily applied to widely available data in ways that can guide management decisions. We present a method for quantifying demographic trends in size-structured populations that we applied to forest tree species and changes in forest structure associated with different threats to help identify forest health priorities. Strengths of the approach are that tree size and growth rate can be controlled for to separate mortality impacts of particular threats from background rates associated with stand self-thinning. We illustrate the method with tree census data from Connecticut River floodplain forests. We found that these floodplain forests are currently declining demographically across all sizes, with floodplain pioneer tree species particularly affected. Cutting by a large beaver population is contributing to this decline. Specifically, beavers are cutting 11.4% of the Salix nigra and 1.6% of the Populus deltoides trees annually. We also showed quantitatively that Dutch elm disease and invasive lianas are important threats to the health of these forests. We estimated that Dutch elm disease caused at least 9.5% of all tree mortality. Invasive Celastrus orbiculatus lianas were implicated in 9.8% of the mortality of large floodplain trees (i.e., DBH = 60 cm) on the Lower Connecticut River (i.e., GDD &gt; 3463, base 0¡C). Overall, we found that the method is flexible and could be applied to a wide range of forest types and threats.
Biodiversity in a changing climate: linking science and management in conservation2015Oakland CA
Offsets: Factor failure into protected areasNatureKiesecker, J.M., McKenney, B. & Kareiva, P.2015
Mangroves, tropical cyclones and coastal hazard risk reduction.McIvor, A., T. Spencer, M. Spalding, C. Lacambra, I. Mšller2015Risks from coastal hazards to people and property are expected to increase with near-future sea level rise, changes in storminess, and increasing coastal populations. Evidence from empirical and modeling studies suggests that mangrove forest vegetation can reduce storm surge peak waters levels where mangroves are present over sufficiently large areas. Mangroves are best used alongside other risk reduction measures (embankments, early warning systems) to ensure the lowest possible level of residual risk. Forest density; Inundation extent; Mangrove loss; Mangrove restoration; Natural coastal protection; Numerical modeling; Storm surge; Tropical cyclone
The Future of Global Urbanization and the EnvironmentSolutionsRobert McDonald, Burak Guneralp, W. Zipperer, Peter Marcotullio2015Using findings of the Cities and Biodiversity Outlook (CBO), we propose three specific solutions to mitigate the loss of ecosystem services and biodiversity in our urban and urbanizing landscapes. The CBO identified continued loss of critical habitats for biodiversity conservation and degradation of many important ecosystem services due to urbanization. The fact that most ecosystem services and biodiversity itself are common goods facilitates this loss and degradation. To address this issue, a fundamental solution can be giving value to ecosystem services and biodiversity in the marketplace and firmly incorporating them in urban planning processes. This solution can be achieved with a three-pronged approach&#58; (1) ecosystem services can be conceived as a utility similar to the provision of electricity and water, and cities can structure their governance and urban planning processes to ensure adequate ecosystem service provision; (2) the local level solutions, especially in places where urban expansion encroaches upon biodiversity hotspots, can go a long way in the conservation of biodiversity at the global level; and (3) the well-being of biodiversity and the sustainability of ecosystem services in the face of humanityÕs massive urbanization require coordination by governments at all levels. Thus, as the world becomes ever more urban, urban decision-makers and citizens will need to not only re-connect to nature, but also adopt policies to integrate nature into our daily lives.
Monitoring the Impact of Grazing on Rangeland Conservation Easements Using MODIS Vegetation IndicesRangeland Ecology & ManagementMiriam Tsalyuk, Maggi Kelly, Kevin Koy, Wayne M. Getz, H. Scott Butterfield2015Monitoring the effects of grazing on rangelands is crucial for ensuring sustainable rangeland ecosystem function and maintaining its conservation values. Residual dry matter (RDM), the dry grass biomass left on the ground at the end of the grazing season, is a commonly used proxy for rangeland condition in Mediterranean climates. Moderate levels of RDM are correlated with soil stability, forage production, wildlife habitat, and diversity of native plants. Therefore RDM is widely monitored on rangeland conservation properties. Current ground-based methods for RDM monitoring are expensive, are labor intensive, and provide information in the fall, after the effects of grazing have already occurred. In this paper we present a cost-effective, rapid, and robust methodology to monitor and predict RDM using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data. We performed a time series analysis of three MODIS-based vegetation indices (VIs) measured over the period 2000Ð2012&#58; Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Leaf Area Index (LAI), and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR). We examined the correlation between the four VIs and fall RDM measured at The Nature ConservancyÕs Simon Newman Ranch in central California. We found strong and significant correlations between maximum VI values in late spring and RDM in the fall. Among the VIs, LAI values had the most significant correlation with fall RDM. MODIS-based multivariate models predicted up to 63% of fall RDM. Importantly, maximum and sum VIs values were significantly higher in management units with RDM levels in compliance with RDM conservation easement terms compared with units out of compliance. On the basis of these results, we propose a management model that uses time series analysis of MODIS VIs to predict forage quantities, manage stocking rates, and monitor rangeland easement compliance. This model can be used to improve monitoring of rangeland conservation by providing information on range conditions throughout the year.
Burning Controls Barb Goatgrass (Aegilops triuncialis) in California Grasslands for at Least 7 YearsInvasive Plant Science and ManagementJaymee T. Marty, Sara B. Sweet, Jennifer J. Buck-Diaz2015Barb goatgrass is an invasive annual grass from the Mediterranean region that negatively affects both native plant biodiversity and the forage quality of grasslands. Prescribed burning may be the best landscape-level tool available to manage invasive species like barb goatgrass while also enhancing biodiversity, but few studies have quantified the long-term effects of fire on goatgrass and the rest of the plant community. We assessed the effects of fire on an invading front of barb goatgrass on a private ranch in Sacramento County, CA. We established burned and unburned treatment plots within the goatgrass-infested area and used prescribed fire to burn the treatment plots in June 2005. We monitored plant-community composition before burning and for 7 consecutive yr following the burn. Additionally, we tested the viability of goatgrass seeds in both burned and unburned plots. One year after the burn, goatgrass cover in burned plots was 3% compared with 21% in unburned plots. This reduction in goatgrass cover was still strong 2 yr after the burn (burned, 6%; unburned, 27%) and weaker but still statistically significant for 4 of the next 5 yr. The burn also reduced germination of goatgrass seed by 99% as indicated by seed-viability tests conducted in the laboratory. The native plant community responded positively to the burn treatment in the first year following the burn with an increase in native diversity in burned plots vs. unburned plots, but the effect was not detectable in subsequent years. Nonnative annual forb species cover also increased in the first year following the burn. Our study shows that a single springtime burn can result in a short-term boost in native species diversity, reduced seed germination of barb goatgrass to near zero, and reduced cover of barb goatgrass for at least 7 yr after the burn.
Vegetation removal and seed addition contribute to coastal sandplain grassland establishment on former agricultural fieldsRestoration EcologyMegan M. Wheeler, Christopher Neill, Elizabeth Loucks, Annalisa Weiler, Betsy Von Holle, Matthew Pelikan, Tom Chase2015Creating native-species-rich grasslands to replace agricultural grasslands can be an important strategy for supplementing the area of grasslands, which are in decline in many regions. In the northeastern United States, sandplain grasslands support a diverse plant community and rare plant and animal species that are declining because of reductions in historical disturbances such as fire and grazing. We designed an experiment on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, to test methods of establishing native-species-rich coastal sandplain grassland on former agricultural land. We tested the efficacy of&#58; (1) tilling, herbicide, hot foam, and plastic cover in removing initial nonnative vegetation, and (2) combinations of tilling and seeding for establishing native species. We measured native and nonnative species richness and percent cover before and for 5 years after treatment. Herbicide, plastic cover, and spring, summer, and fall tilling were about equally effective in reducing nonnative species cover and promoting native species cover. Tilling and seeding each increased native species richness and percent cover, and seeding and tilling together increased native species richness and cover more than either treatment alone. Combined seeding and disturbance also reduced the cover of nonnative species, but nonnative species cover remained higher than in adjacent reference sandplain grassland. Results indicated that native species establishment was enhanced by the availability of seeds and by reduction of initial nonnative plant cover. The most efficient method of converting coastal agricultural grasslands to sandplain grassland with a higher number and proportion of native species is a single season of plant removal and seeding.
Considering the impact of climate change on human communities significantly alters the outcome of species and site-based vulnerability assessmentsDiversity and DistributionsDaniel B. Segan, David G. Hole, Camila I. Donatti, Chris Zganjar, Shaun Martin, Stuart H. M. Butchart, James E. M. Watson2015Aim Human activities are largely responsible for the processes that threaten biodiversity, yet potential changes in human behaviour as a response to climate change are ignored in most species and site-based vulnerability assessments (VAs). Here we assess how incorporation of the potential impact of climate change on humans alters our view of vulnerability when using well-established site and species VA methodologies. Location Southern Africa. Methods Our baseline was two published studies that used accepted VA methodologies aimed at examining the direct impacts of climate changes on species and sites. The first identified potential shifts in the distributions of 164 restricted-range avian species, the second forecasted species turnover in 331 Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs). We used a published spatially explicit assessment of potential climate change impacts on people to evaluate which species and sites overlap with human populations most likely to be impacted. By doing this, we were able to assess how the integration of potential climate impacts on human populations changes our perception of which species and sites are most vulnerable to climate change. Results We found no correlation between species and sites most likely to be impacted directly by climate change and those where the potential response of human populations could drive major indirect impacts. The relative vulnerability of individual species and sites shifted when potential impacts of climate change on human communities were considered, with more than one-fifth of species and one-tenth of sites moving from ÔlowÕ to ÔhighÕ risk. Main conclusions Standard VA methodologies that fail to consider how people are likely to respond to climate change will result in systematically biased assessments. This may lead to the implementation of inappropriate management actions, and a failure to address those species or sites that may be uniquely, or additionally, imperilled by the impacts of human responses to climate change.
Building an expert-judgment-based model of mangrove fisheriesAmerican Fisheries Society SymposiumHutchison, J., D.P. Philipp, J.E. Claussen, O. Aburto_Oropeza, M. Carrasquilla_Henao, G.A. Castellanos_Galindo, M.T. Costa, P.D. Daneshgar, H.J. Hartmann, F. Juanes, M.N. Khan, L. Knowles, E. Knudsen, S.Y. Lee, K.J. Murchie, J. Tiedemann, P. zu Ermgassen, M. Spalding2015
Integrated cross-realm planning: A decision-makers' perspectiveBiological ConservationJorge G. çlvarez-Romeroa, b, , , Vanessa M. Adams, Robert L. Pressey, Michael Douglas, Allan P. Dale, AmŽlie A. AugŽ, Derek Ball, John Childs, Michael Digby, Rebecca Dobbs, Niilo Gobius, David Hinchley, Ian Lancaster, Mirjam Maughan, Ian Perdrisat2015Pursuing development and conservation goals often requires thinking and planning across terrestrial, freshwater and marine realms because many threats and socialÐecological processes transcend realm boundaries. Consequently, effective conservation planning must consider the social and ecological links between realms and follow a cross-realm approach to allocate land/water uses and conservation actions to mitigate cross-realm threats and maintain cross-realm ecological processes. Cross-realm planning requires integrating multiple objectives for conservation and development, and assessing the potential co-benefits and trade-offs between them under alternative development scenarios. Despite progress in cross-realm planning theory, few fully-integrated and applied cross-realm plans exist. The gaps between research and implementation are not unique to cross-realm planning, but are accentuated by the complexity of spatial decision-making entailed. Based on a collaborative process including scientists, resource managers and policy-makers, we developed an operational framework for cross-realm planning based on up-to-date thinking in conservation science, but offering practical guidance to operationalise real-world planning. Our approach has a strong theoretical basis while addressing the visions and needs of decision-makers. We discuss the foundations and limitations of current approaches in cross-realm planning, describe key requirements to undertake this approach, and present a real-world application of our framework.
A Measure Whose Time has Come: Formalizing Time PovertySocial Indicators ResearchWilliams, J.R., Masuda, Y.J. & Tallis, H.2015Poverty remains a primary public policy issue, and a large literature has discussed the limitations of an income poverty measure. Using income as an indicator of poverty is a helpful simplification designed to capture ability to meet consumption needs. We argue that time is a basic economic resource allocated to create well-being along with income. Time is a scarce resource that individuals and households must allocate to produce goods, obtain services, and pursue rest and relaxation. Time poverty has been proposed as a complement to income poverty, yet it remains a relatively unknown measure in both policy and research spheres. The many ways time poverty is conceptualized and measured across studies has limited its adoption. To help familiarize readers with time poverty, we apply basic tenets of income poverty measurement to time. We conduct a survey of the theoretical and empirical literature discussing similarities, differences, and the pros and cons of different approaches to time poverty. In particular, inconsistent definition and categorization of necessary and discretionary time has been a barrier to the transparent application of time poverty in the literature, and we outline guidance on defining necessary and discretionary time for future studies. Finally, we outline future research directions for time poverty.
A new era for ecologists: incorporating climate change into natural resource managementHall, K.R.2015Rapid climate change is one of the most pressing challenges facing resource managers and conservation practitioners in California and around the globe. Since the 1880s, the linear trend in average global surface temperature suggests an increase of approximately 0.85¡C in the Northern Hemisphere, and the last 30 years were likely the warmest period in the last 1400 years (IPCC 2013). It is critical that we accelerate efforts to reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere (mitigate the causes of climate change).Oakland CA
Multiple-use managementAlavalapati, J.R.R. & Montambault, J.R.2015Detroit
Knowing the territory: landscape ecosystem classification and mapping.Michigan BotanistAlbert, D.A., M. Lapin, and D.R. Pearsall.2015;zoom=75Burton V. Barnes was a pioneer of ecological land classification in North America. Since he first introduced integrated, multi-scale, multifactor landscape ecosystem theory and methodology at the University of Michigan in the early 1980s (e.g., Barnes et al. 1982), ecological classification and mapping has become widely accepted as a “best practice” in ecosystem and biodiversity conservation and sustainable resource management. Numerous other systems have been developed and are in use (e.g., state natural community classifications), but the methodology that Burt honed and taught likely remains the one that is most true to nature in describing and documenting the hierarchically nested, volumetric ecosystems of specific locales and regions. In the Barnes method, each classification is discerned from the ground up, based on the combination of climate, landform, geology, soils, and hydrology.
Quantitative estimate of commercial fish enhancement by seagrass habitat in souther AustraliaEstuarine, Coastal and Shelf ScienceBlandon, A. and P.S.E. zu Ermgassen2014
Development by Design in Western Australia: Overcoming offset obstaclesLandFitzsimons, J., M. Heiner, B. McKenney, K. Sochi, and J. Kiesecker2014
Successful Community Engagement and Implementation of a Conservation Plan in the Solomon Islands: A Local PerspectiveParksKereseka, J2014
A bird in our hand: Weighing uncertainty about the past against uncertainty about the future in Channel Islands National ParkGeorge Wright ForumMorrison, S.A2014
Fishery enhancement and coastal protection services provided by two restored Gulf of Mexico oyster reefsValuing Ecosystem Services- Methodological Issues and Case StudiesKroeger, T. and G. Guannel2014
The Nature Conservancy in Shangrila: Transnational conservation and its critiquesMoseley, R.K., and R.B. Mullen2014
Oyster habitat restoration monitoring and assessment handbookBaggett, L.P., S.P. Powers, R. Brumbaugh, L.D. Coen, B. DeAngelis, J. Greene, B. Hancock, and S. Morlock2014
Climate change effects on northern Great Lake (USA) forests: A case for preserving diversityEcosphereDuveneck, M. J., R. M. Scheller, M. A. White, S. D. Handler, and C. Ravenscroft2014
Egrets, ducks and... Brown Treecreepers? The importance of flooding and healthy floodplains for woodland birdsBirds of the Murray-Darling BasinFitzsimons, J., C. Tzaros, J. OÍConnor, G. Ehmke, and K. Herman2014
The breeding diet of Wedge-tailed Eagles Aquila audax in the absence of rabbits: Kangaroo Island, South AustraliaCorellaFitzsimons, J.A., K. Carlyon, J.L. Thomas, A.B. Rose2014
Dissecting indices of aridity for assessing the impacts of global climate changeClimatic ChangeGirvetz, E.H., and C. Zganjar2014
Ecoregions of Arizona (poster): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014-1141, with map, scale 1:1,325,000Griffith, G.E., J.M. Omernik, C.B. Johnson, and D.S. Turner2014
Diet selection is related to breeding status in two frugivorous hornbill species of Central AfricaJournal of Tropical EcologyLamperti, A.M. A.R. French, E.S. Dierenfeld, M.K. Fogiel, K.D. Whitney, D.J. Stauffer, K.M. Holbrook, B.D. Hardesty, C.J. Clark, J.R. Poulsen, B.C. Wang, T.B. Smith, and V.T. Parker2014
Quantifying flooding regime in floodplain forests to guide river restorationElementaMarks, C.O., K. H. Nislow, and F. J. Magilligan2014
Restoring conservation nodes to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem function along the Santa Clara RiverEcological RestorationParker, S.S., Remson, E.J., and Verdone, L.N2014
Bioenergy feedstocks at low risk for invasion in the U.S.: A "white list" approachBioEnergy ResearchQuinn, L.D., D.R. Gordon, A. Glaser, D. Lieurance, and S. L. Flory2014
Development of a Shared Vision for Groundwater Management to Protect and Sustain Baseflows of the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, USAWaterRichter, H.E., B. Gungle, L.J. Lacher, D.S. Turner, and B.M. Bushman2014
The State of the Birds 2014 Watch ListRosenberg, K.V., D. Pashley, B. Andres, P. J. Blancher, G.S. Butcher, W.C. Hunter, D. Mehlman, A.O. Panjabi, M. Parr, G. Wallace, and D. Wiedenfeld2014
Modeling economic and carbon consequences of a shift to wood-based energy in a rural 'cluster'; a network analysis in southeast AlaskaEcological EconomicsSaah, D., T. Patterson, T. Buchholz, D. Ganz, D. Albert and K. Rush2014
Integrating societal perspectives and values for improved stewardship of a coastal ecosystem engineerEcology and SocietyScyphers, S. B., J. S. Picou, R. D. Brumbaugh, and S. P. Powers2014
Climate change sensitivity index for Pacific Salmon habitat in Southeast AlaskaPLoS ONEShanley, C.S. and D.M. Albert2014
Refined bomb radiocarbon dating of two iconic fishes of the Great Barrier ReefMarine and Freshwater ResearchAndrews, A.H., A.H., Choat, J.H.,æHamilton, R.J.æand DeMartini, E.D2014
Ecological connectivity or Barrier Fence? Critical choices on the agricultural margins of Western AustraliaEcological Management and RestorationBradby, K.,æJ.A. Fitzsimons, A. Del Marco, D.A. Driscoll, E.G. Ritchie, J. Lau, C.J.A. Bradshaw & R.J. Hobbs2014
Conserving migratory mule deer through the umbrella of sage-grouseEcosphereCopeland, H. E., H. Sawyer, K. L. Monteith, D. E. Naugle,æA. Pocewicz, N. Graf, and M. J. Kauffman2014
Australia.Fitzsimons, J2014
Notes on the distribution and breeding of the Manus Friarbird Philemon albitorques and other birds of small islands of the Admiralties Group, Papua New GuineaAustralian Field OrnithologyFitzsimons, J.A2014
Conservation of urban biodiversity under climate change: Climate-informed management for Chicago green spacesLewis, A.D.,æR.K. Moseley, K.R. Hall, and J.J. Hellmann2014
Isolation and characterization of 29 microsatellite markers for the bumphead parrotfish, Bolbometopon muricatum, and cross amplification in 12 related speciesMarine BiodiversityPriest, M.A., G.R.. Almany, C.D. Braun,æR.J. Hamilton, D.F. Lozano-Cort_s, P. Saenz-Agudelo, and M.L. Berumen M.L2014
Building Nature's Safety Net 2014: A decade of protected area achievements in AustraliaTaylor, M.F.J., J. Fitzsimons & P. Sattler2014
Javan (White-vented) Myna Acridotheres javanicus and Palebellied Myna A. cinereus in North SulawesiKukilaTasirin, J.S. &æJ.A. Fitzsimons2014
A cultural landscape approach to community-based conservation in Solomon IslandsEcology and SocietyWalter, R. K., andæR. J. Hamilton2014
Effects of Habitat Alterations on Bog Turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii): A Comparison of Two PopulationsJournal Of HerpetologySirois, Angela Marie; Gibbs, James P.; Whitlock, Alison L.; Erb, Lori A.2014
Filling Gaps In Life-History Data: Clutch Sizes For 21 Species Of North American AnuransHerpetological Conservation And BiologyMitchell, Joseph C.; Pague, Christopher A.2014
Integrating CBM into Land-Use Based Mitigation Actions Implemented by Local CommunitiesForestsBalderas Torres, Arturo; Santos Acuna, Lucio Andres; Canto Vergara, Jose Manuel2014
Secondary extinctions of biodiversityTrends in Ecology and EvolutionBrodie, Jedediah F.; Aslan, Clare E.; Rogers, Haldre S.; Redford, Kent H.; Maron, John L.; Bronsteire, Judith L.; Groves, Craig R.2014
Updating conservation priorities over 111 years of species observationsJournal of Applied EcologyMilt, Austin W.; Palmer, Sally R.; Armsworth, Paul R.2014
A Multidisciplinary Conceptualization of Conservation OpportunityConservation BiologyMoon, Katie; Adams, Vanessa M.; Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R.; Polyakov, Maksym; Mills, Morena; Biggs, Duan; Knight, Andrew T.; Game, Edward T.; Raymond, Christopher M.2014
Conserving the World's Finest Grassland Amidst Ambitious National DevelopmentConservation BiologyBatsaikhan, Nyamsuren; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Chimed, Bazaar; Enkhtuya, Oidov; Galbrakh, Davaa; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Lkhagvasuren, Badamjav; Nandintsetseg, Dejid; Berger, Joel; Calabrese, Justin M.; Edwards, Ann E.; Fagan, William F.; Fuller, Todd2014
Infusing considerations of trophic dependencies into species distribution modellingEcology LettersTrainor, Anne M.; Schmitz, Oswald J.2014
A Framework to Integrate Habitat Monitoring and Restoration with Endangered Insect RecoveryEnvironmental ManagementBried, Jason; Tear, Tim; Shirer, Rebecca; Zimmerman, Chris; Gifford, Neil; Campbell, Steve; O'Brien, Kathy2014
The intrinsic vulnerability to fishing of coral reef fishes and their differential recovery in fishery closuresReviews in Fish Biology and FisheriesAbesamis, Rene A.; Green, Alison L.; Russ, Garry R.; Jadloc, Claro Renato L.2014
Recruitment dynamics and first year growth of the coral reef surgeonfish Ctenochaetus striatus, with implications for acanthurid growth modelsCoral ReefsTrip, Elizabeth D. L.; Craig, Peter; Green, Alison; Choat, J. Howard2014
Predicting road culvert passability for migratory fishesDiversity and DistributionsJanuchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R.; Diebel, Matthew; Doran, Patrick J.; McIntyre, Peter B.2014
Agricultural wetland restorations on the USA Atlantic Coastal Plain achieve diverse native wetland plant communities but differ from natural wetlandsAgriculture Ecosystems and EnvironmentYepsen, Metthea; Baldwin, Andrew H.; Whigham, Dennis F.; McFarland, Eliza; LaForgia, Marina; Lang, Megan2014agriculture
Long-term seafloor monitoring at an open ocean aquaculture site in the western Gulf of Maine, USA: Development of an adaptive protocolMarine Pollution BulletinGrizzle, R. E.; Ward, L. G.; Fredriksson, D. W.; Irish, J. D.; Langan, R.; Heinig, C. S.; Greene, J. K.; Abeels, H. A.; Peter, C. R.; Eberhardt, A. L.2014
Fauna in decline: A big leap to slaveryScienceMasuda, Yuta J.; Scharks, Tim2014
A call for inclusive conservationNatureTallis, Heather; Lubchenco, Jane2014
Application of Hydrologic Tools and Monitoring to Support Managed Aquifer Recharge Decision Making in the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, USAWaterLacher, Laurel J.; Turner, Dale S.; Gungle, Bruce; Bushman, Brooke M.; Richter, Holly E.2014
Connecting MPAs - eight challenges for science and managementAquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater EcosystemsLagabrielle, Erwann; Crochelet, Estelle; Andrello, Marco; Schill, Steven R.; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Alloncle, Neil; Ponge, Benjamin2014
Predator exclosures, predator removal, and habitat improvement increase nest success of Snowy Plovers in Oregon, USACondorDinsmore, Stephen J.; Lauten, David J.; Castelein, Kathleen A.; Gaines, Eleanor P.; Stern, Mark A.2014
Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Frugivorous Hornbill Movements in Central Africa and their Implications for Rain Forest ConservationBiotropicaChasar, Anthony; Harrigan, Ryan J.; Holbrook, Kimberly M.; Dietsch, Thomas V.; Fuller, Trevon L.; Wikelski, Martin; Smith, Thomas B.2014
Getting the most connectivity per conservation dollarFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentTorrubia, Sara; McRae, Brad H.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Hall, Sonia A.; Halabisky, Meghan; Langdon, Jesse; Case, Michael2014
Passive Recovery of Vegetation after Herbivore Eradication on Santa Cruz Island, CaliforniaRestoration EcologyBeltran, Roxanne S.; Kreidler, Nissa; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Morrison, Scott A.; Zavaleta, Erika S.; Newton, Kelly; Tershy, Bernie R.; Croll, Donald A.2014
Fish Assemblage Response to a Small Dam Removal in the Eightmile River System, Connecticut, USAEnvironmental ManagementPoulos, Helen M.; Miller, Kate E.; Kraczkowski, Michelle L.; Welchel, Adam W.; Heineman, Ross; Chernoff, Barry2014
Modeling residential development in California from 2000 to 2050: Integrating wildfire risk, wildland and agricultural encroachmentLand Use PolicyMann, Michael L.; Berck, Peter; Moritz, Max A.; Batllori, Enric; Baldwin, James G.; Gately, Conor K.; Cameron, D. Richard2014agriculture
Better integration of sectoral planning and management approaches for the interlinked ecology of the open oceansMarine PolicyBan, Natalie C.; Maxwell, Sara M.; Dunn, Daniel C.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Bax, Nicholas J.; Ardron, Jeff; Gjerde, Kristina M.; Game, Edward T.; Devillers, Rodolphe; Kaplan, David M.; Dunstan, Piers K.; Halpin, Patrick N.; Pressey, Robert L.2014
Fractured Genetic Connectivity Threatens a Southern California Puma (Puma concolor) PopulationPLoS ONEErnest, Holly B.; Vickers, T. Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Buchalski, Michael R.; Boyce, Walter M.2014
Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozoneProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesKroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J.; Hernandez, Jose L.; Varela, Sebastian; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R. B.; Waldron, Janice2014
Where now for protected areas? Setting the stage for the 2014 World Parks CongressOryxDudley, Nigel; Groves, Craig; Redford, Kent H.; Stolton, Sue2014
Restoring Early successional Shrubland Habitat for Black-capped Vireos Using Mechanical MasticationNatural Areas JournalReemts, Charlotte M.; Cimprich, David A.2014
The evolving linkage between conservation science and practice at The Nature ConservancyJournal of Applied EcologyKareiva, Peter; Groves, Craig; Marvier, Michelle2014
Increasing forest loss worldwide from invasive pests requires new trade regulationsFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentRoy, Bitty A.; Alexander, Helen M.; Davidson, Jennifer; Campbell, Faith T.; Burdon, Jeremy J.; Sniezko, Richard; Brasier, Clive2014
The Potential for Double-Loop Learning to Enable Landscape Conservation EffortsEnvironmental ManagementPetersen, Brian; Montambault, Jensen; Koopman, Marni2014
Topography influences the distribution of autumn frost damage on trees in a Mediterranean-type Eucalyptus forestTrees-Structure And FunctionMatusick, George; Ruthrof, Katinka X.; Brouwers, Niels C.; Hardy, Giles St. J.2014
A Multi-Scale Distribution Model for Non-Equilibrium Populations Suggests Resource Limitation in an Endangered RodentPLoS ONEBean, William T.; Stafford, Robert; Butterfield, H. Scott; Brashares, Justin S.2014
Loss of avian phylogenetic diversity in neotropical agricultural systemsScienceFrishkoff, Luke O.; Karp, Daniel S.; M'Gonigle, Leithen K.; Mendenhall, Chase D.; Zook, Jim; Kremen, Claire; Hadly, Elizabeth A.; Daily, Gretchen C.2014agriculture
Policy Development for Environmental Licensing and Biodiversity Offsets in Latin AmericaPLoS ONEVillarroya, Ana; Barros, Ana Cristina; Kiesecker, Joseph2014
Forest structure and species composition along a successional gradient of Lowland Atlantic Forest in Southern BrazilBiota NeotropicaMarques, Marcia C. M.; Zwiener, Victor P.; Ramos, Fernando M.; Borgo, Marilia; Marques, Renato2014
Governing and Delivering a Biome-Wide Restoration Initiative: The Case of Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact in BrazilForestsPinto, Severino R.; Melo, Felipe; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Padovesi, Aurelio; Mesquita, Carlos A.; de Mattos Scaramuzza, Carlos Alberto; Castro, Pedro; Carrascosa, Helena; Calmon, Miguel; Rodrigues, Ricardo; Cesar, Ricardo Gomes; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.2014
Moro Big Pine: Conservation and Collaboration in the Pine Flatwoods of ArkansasJournal of ForestryBragg, Don C.; O'Neill, Ricky; Holimon, William; Fox, Joe; Thornton, Gary; Mangham, Roger2014
Predicting Habitat Response To Flow Using Generalized Habitat Models For Trout In Rocky Mountain StreamsRiver Research And ApplicationsWilding, T. K.; Bledsoe, B.; Poff, N. L.; Sanderson, J.2014
Bark in the Park: A Review of Domestic Dogs in ParksEnvironmental ManagementWeston, Michael A.; Fitzsimons, James A.; Wescott, Geoffrey; Miller, Kelly K.; Ekanayake, Kasun B.; Schneider, Thomas2014
Conservation Covenants on Private Land: Issues with Measuring and Achieving Biodiversity Outcomes in AustraliaEnvironmental ManagementFitzsimons, James A.; Ben Carr, C.2014
Global agriculture and carbon trade-offsProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesJohnson, Justin Andrew; Runge, Carlisle Ford; Senauer, Benjamin; Foley, Jonathan; Polasky, Stephen2014agriculture
Fauna in decline: Global assessmentsScienceMooney, Harold; Tallis, Heather2014
Whither the Rangeland?: Protection and Conversion in California's Rangeland EcosystemsPLoS ONECameron, D. Richard; Marty, Jaymee; Holland, Robert F.2014
Species distribution models of an endangered rodent offer conflicting measures of habitat quality at multiple scalesJournal of Applied EcologyBean, William T.; Prugh, Laura R.; Stafford, Robert; Butterfield, H. Scott; Westphal, Michael; Brashares, Justin S.2014
Synthesis and review: delivering on conservation promises: the challenges of managing and measuring conservation outcomesEnvironmental Research LettersAdams, Vanessa M.; Game, Edward T.; Bode, Michael2014
Incorporating expert knowledge for development spatial modeling in assessing ecosystem services provided by coral reefs: A tool for decision-makingRevista De Biologia Marina Y OceanografiaReyna-Gonzalez, Pedro C.; Bello-Pineda, Javier; Ortiz-Lozano, Leonardo; Perez-Espana, Horacio; Arceo, Patricia; Brenner, Jorge2014
Freshwater Mussel Population Status And Habitat Quality In The Clinch River, Virginia And Tennessee, Usa: A Featured CollectionJournal of the American Water Resources AssociationZipper, Carl E.; Beaty, Braven; Johnson, Gregory C.; Jones, Jess W.; Krstolic, Jennifer Lynn; Ostby, Brett J. K.; Wolfe, William J.; Donovan, Patricia2014
Clinch River Freshwater Mussels Upstream Of Norris Reservoir, Tennessee And Virginia: A Quantitative Assessment From 2004 To 2009Journal of the American Water Resources AssociationJones, Jess; Ahlstedt, Steven; Ostby, Brett; Beaty, Braven; Pinder, Michael; Eckert, Nathan; Butler, Robert; Hubbs, Don; Walker, Craig; Hanlon, Shane; Schmerfeld, John; Neves, Richard2014
Interacting Regional-Scale Regime Shifts for Biodiversity and Ecosystem ServicesBioScienceLeadley, Paul; Proenca, Vania; Fernandez-Manjarres, Juan; Pereira, Henrique Miguel; Alkemade, Rob; Biggs, Reinette; Bruley, Enora; Cheung, William; Cooper, David; Figueiredo, Joana; Gilman, Eric; Guenette, Sylvie; Hurtt, George; Mbow, Cheikh; Oberdorff, T2014
Ecological Change on California's Channel Islands from the Pleistocene to the AnthropoceneBioScienceRick, Torben C.; Sillett, T. Scott; Ghalambor, Cameron K.; Hofman, Courtney A.; Ralls, Katherine; Anderson, R. Scott; Boser, Christina L.; Braje, Todd J.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Chesser, R. Terry; Collins, Paul W.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Faulkner, Kate R.; Fleisch2014
Springsnails: A New Conservation Focus in Western North AmericaBioScienceHershler, Robert; Liu, Hsiu-Ping; Howard, Jeanette2014
Estimating Climate Resilience for Conservation across Geophysical SettingsConservation BiologyAnderson, Mark G.; Clark, Melissa; Sheldon, Arlene Olivero2014
Habitat availability for multiple avian species under modeled alternative conservation scenarios in the Two Hearted River watershed in Michigan, USAJournal for Nature ConservationNixon, Kristina; Silbernagel, Janet; Price, Jessica; Miller, Nicholas; Swaty, Randy2014
An assessment of chemical contaminants in sediments from the St. Thomas East End Reserves, St. Thomas, USVIEnvironmental Monitoring And AssessmentPait, Anthony S.; Hartwell, S. Ian; Mason, Andrew L.; Warner, Robert A.; Jeffrey, Christopher F. G.; Hoffman, Anne M.; Apeti, Dennis A.; Pittman, Simon J.2014
Hypolimnetic oxygenation in Twin Lakes, WA. Part I: Distribution and movement of troutLake And Reservoir ManagementMoore, Barry C.; Cross, Benjamin K.; Clegg, Emily M.; Lanouette, Brian P.; Skinner, Megan; Preece, Ellen; Child, Andrew; Gantzer, Paul; Shallenberger, Ed; Christensen, David; Nine, Bret2014
Demography linked to climate change projections in an ecoregional case study: integrating forecasts and field dataEcosphereMclaughlin, B. C.; Morozumi, C. N.; MacKenzie, J.; Cole, A.; Gennet, S.2014
Early Detection Of New Plant Invaders In New England: Your Help Is Needed!RhodoraLombard, Karen; Boettner, Cynthia2014
River Fork Ranch Thermal WetlandNatural Areas JournalBaugh, Tom; Schmidt, Larry J.; Petite, Duane2014
Water on an urban planet: Urbanization and the reach of urban water infrastructureGlobal Environmental Change-Human And Policy DimensionsMcDonald, Robert I.; Weber, Katherine; Padowski, Julie; Floerke, Martina; Schneider, Christof; Green, Pamela A.; Gleeson, Thomas; Eckman, Stephanie; Lehner, Bernhard; Balk, Deborah; Boucher, Timothy; Grill, Guenther; Montgomery, Mark2014
Partitioning the sources of demographic variation reveals density-dependent nest predation in an island bird populationEcology and EvolutionSofaer, Helen R.; Sillett, T. Scott; Langin, Kathryn M.; Morrison, Scott A.; Ghalambor, Cameron K.2014
Survival and Horizontal Movement of the Freshwater Mussel Potamilus capax (Green, 1832) Following Relocation within a Mississippi Delta Stream SystemAmerican Midland NaturalistPeck, Andrew J.; Harris, John L.; Farris, Jerry L.; Christian, Alan D.2014
Grass carp in the Great Lakes region: establishment potential, expert perceptions, and re-evaluation of experimental evidence of ecological impactCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic SciencesWittmann, Marion E.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Howeth, Jennifer G.; Maher, Sean P.; Deines, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Burbank, Sarah R.; Chadderton, William L.; Mahon, Andrew R.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Keller, Reuben P2014
Effects of alternative forest management on biomass and species diversity in the face of climate change in the northern Great Lakes region (USA)Canadian Journal of Forest ResearchDuveneck, Matthew J.; Scheller, Robert M.; White, Mark A.2014
Of Grouse and Golden Eggs: Can Ecosystems Be Managed Within a Species-Based Regulatory Framework?Rangeland Ecology & ManagementBoyd, Chad S.; Johnson, Dustin D.; Kerby, Jay D.; Svejcar, Tony J.; Davies, Kirk W.2014
Capping Water Extractions: A Key Strategy for a Water-Secure FutureJournal American Water Works AssociationRichter, Brian2014
An Accuracy Assessment of Tree Detection Algorithms in Juniper WoodlandsPhotogrammetric Engineering And Remote SensingPoznanovic, Aaron J.; Falkowski, Michael J.; Maclean, Ann L.; Smith, Alistair M. S.; Evans, Jeffrey S.2014
Long-term change in coral cover and the effectiveness of marine protected areas in the Philippines: a meta-analysisHydrobiologiaMagdaong, Evangeline T.; Fujii, Masahiko; Yamano, Hiroya; Licuanan, Wilfredo Y.; Maypa, Aileen; Campos, Wilfredo L.; Alcala, Angel C.; White, Alan T.; Apistar, Dean; Martinez, Rafael2014
Monitoring in the Western Pacific region shows evidence of seagrass decline in line with global trendsMarine Pollution BulletinShort, Frederick T.; Coles, Robert; Fortes, Miguel D.; Victor, Steven; Salik, Maxwell; Isnain, Irwan; Andrew, Jay; Seno, Aganto2014
The Coral Triangle Atlas: An Integrated Online Spatial Database System for Improving Coral Reef ManagementPLoS ONECros, Annick; Fatan, Nurulhuda Ahamad; White, Alan; Teoh, Shwu Jiau; Tan, Stanley; Handayani, Christian; Huang, Charles; Peterson, Nate; Li, Ruben Venegas; Siry, Hendra Yusran; Fitriana, Ria; Gove, Jamison; Acoba, Tomoko; Knight, Maurice; Acosta, Renerio;2014
Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: A case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)Scientific ReportsMoray, C.; Game, E. T.; Maxted, N.2014
Increasing CO2 threatens human nutritionNatureMyers, Samuel S.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Kloog, Itai; Huybers, Peter; Leakey, Andrew D. B.; Bloom, Arnold J.; Carlisle, Eli; Dietterich, Lee H.; Fitzgerald, Glenn; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Holbrook, N. Michele; Nelson, Randall L.; Ottman, Michael J.; Raboy, Vi2014
The use of regional advance mitigation planning (RAMP) to integrate transportation infrastructure impacts with sustainability; a perspective from the USAEnvironmental Research LettersThorne, James H.; Huber, Patrick R.; O'Donoghue, Elizabeth; Santos, Maria J.2014
Geographic selection bias of occurrence data influences transferability of invasive Hydrilla verticillata distribution modelsEcology and EvolutionBarnes, Matthew A.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Wittmann, Marion E.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Ding, Jianqing; Zhang, Jialiang; Purcell, Matthew; Budhathoki, Milan; Lodge, David M.2014
New Conservation: Setting the Record Straight and Finding Common GroundConservation BiologyKareiva, Peter2014
Contemporary evolution of an invasive grass in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 at a Mojave Desert FACE siteEcology LettersGrossman, Judah D.; Rice, Kevin J.2014
Bridging climate science to adaptation action in data sparse TanzaniaEnvironmental ConservationGirvetz, Evan H.; Gray, Elizabeth; Tear, Timothy H.; Brown, Matthew A.2014
Effects of overstory retention, herbicides, and fertilization on sub-canopy vegetation structure and functional group composition in loblolly pine forests restored to longleaf pineForest Ecology and ManagementKnapp, Benjamin O.; Walker, Joan L.; Wang, G. Geoff; Hu, Huifeng; Addington, Robert N.2014
Consequences of a Government-Controlled Agricultural Price Increase on Fishing and the Coral Reef Ecosystem in the Republic of KiribatiPLoS ONEReddy, Sheila M. W.; Groves, Theodore; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh2014agriculture
Predicting biodiversity change and averting collapse in agricultural landscapesNatureMendenhall, Chase D.; Karp, Daniel S.; Meyer, Christoph F. J.; Hadly, Elizabeth A.; Daily, Gretchen C.2014
Terrain and vegetation structural influences on local avian species richness in two mixed-conifer forestsRemote Sensing Of EnvironmentVogeler, Jody C.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Vierling, Lee A.; Evans, Jeffrey; Green, Patricia; Vierling, Kern I. T.2014
2000 years of sustainable use of watersheds and coral reefs in Pacific Islands: A review for PalauEstuarine, Coastal and Shelf ScienceKoshiba, Shirley; Besebes, Meked; Soaladaob, Kiblas; Ngiraingas, Madelsar; Isechal, Adelle Lukes; Victor, Steven; Golbuu, Yimnang2014
Predicting Global Patterns in Mangrove Forest BiomassConservation LettersHutchison, James; Manica, Andrea; Swetnam, Ruth; Balmford, Andrew; Spalding, Mark2014
Conservation in a Wicked Complex World; Challenges and SolutionsConservation LettersGame, Edward T.; Meijaard, Erik; Sheil, Douglas; McDonald-Madden, Eve2014
Coastal Ecosystems: A Critical Element of Risk ReductionConservation LettersSpalding, Mark D.; McIvor, Anna L.; Beck, Michael W.; Koch, Evamaria W.; Moeller, Iris; Reed, Denise J.; Rubinoff, Pamela; Spencer, Thomas; Tolhurst, Trevor J.; Wamsley, Ty V.; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje K.; Wolanski, Eric; Woodroffe, Colin D.2014
A return-on-investment framework to identify conservation priorities in AfricaBiological ConservationTear, Timothy H.; Stratton, Bradford N.; Game, Edward T.; Brown, Matthew A.; Apse, Colin D.; Shirer, Rebecca R.2014
Insect Visitors and Pollination Ecology of Spalding's Catchfly (Silene spaldingii) in the Zumwalt Prairie of Northeastern OregonNatural Areas JournalTubbesing, Carmen; Strohm, Christopher; DeBano, Sandra J.; Gonzalez, Natalie; Kimoto, Chiho; Taylor, Robert V.2014
Estimating plant biomass in early-successional subtropical vegetation using a visual obstruction techniqueApplied Vegetation ScienceFleming, Genie M.; Wunderle, Joseph M.; Ewert, David N.; O'Brien, Joseph J.2014
A new population of Darwin's fox (Lycalopex fulvipes) in the Valdivian Coastal RangeRevista Chilena De Historia NaturalFarias, Ariel A.; Sepulveda, Maximiliano A.; Silva-Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Eguren, Antonieta; Gonzalez, Danilo; Jordan, Natalia I.; Ovando, Erwin; Stowhas, Paulina; Svensson, Gabriella L.2014
IntroductionCoastal ManagementWhite, Alan T.; Green, Alison L.2014
Marine Protected Areas in the Coral Triangle: Progress, Issues, and OptionsCoastal ManagementWhite, Alan T.; Alino, Porfirio M.; Cros, Annick; Fatan, Nurulhuda Ahmad; Green, Alison L.; Teoh, Shwu Jiau; Laroya, Lynette; Peterson, Nate; Tan, Stanley; Tighe, Stacey; Venegas-Li, Ruben; Walton, Anne; Wen, Wen2014
Establishing a Functional Region-Wide Coral Triangle Marine Protected Area SystemCoastal ManagementWalton, Anne; White, Alan T.; Tighe, Stacey; Alino, Porfirio M.; Laroya, Lynette; Dermawan, Agus; Kasasiah, Ahsanal; Hamid, Shahima Abdul; Vave-Karamui, Agnetha; Genia, Viniu; Martins, Lino De Jesus; Green, Alison L.2014
Spatial Data Quality Control for the Coral Triangle AtlasCoastal ManagementCros, Annick; Venegas-Li, Ruben; Teoh, Shwu Jiau; Peterson, Nate; Wen, Wen; Fatan, Nurulhuda Ahmad2014
Designing Marine Reserves for Fisheries Management, Biodiversity Conservation, and Climate Change AdaptationCoastal ManagementGreen, Alison L.; Fernandes, Leanne; Almany, Glenn; Abesamis, Rene; McLeod, Elizabeth; Alino, Porfirio M.; White, Alan T.; Salm, Rod; Tanzer, John; Pressey, Robert L.2014
Developing Marine Protected Area Networks in the Coral Triangle: Good Practices for Expanding the Coral Triangle Marine Protected Area SystemCoastal ManagementWeeks, Rebecca; Alino, Porfirio M.; Atkinson, Scott; Beldia, Pacifico, II; Binson, Augustine; Campos, Wilfredo L.; Djohani, Rili; Green, Alison L.; Hamilton, Richard; Horigue, Vera; Jumin, Robecca; Kalim, Kay; Kasasiah, Ahsanal; Kereseka, Jimmy; Klein, Ca2014
Effects of Restoration Techniques on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Florida Longleaf Pine ( Pinus palustris) Sandhill ForestsForestsLavoie, Martin; Mack, Michelle C.; Hiers, John K.; Pokswinski, Scott; Barnett, Analie; Provencher, Louis2014
Towards a comprehensive strategy to recover river herring on the Atlantic seaboard: lessons from Pacific salmonIces Journal Of Marine ScienceBowden, Alison A.2014
From mountains to sound: modelling the sensitivity of Dungeness crab and Pacific oyster to landsea interactions in Hood Canal, WAIces Journal Of Marine ScienceToft, J. E.; Burke, J. L.; Carey, M. P.; Kim, C. K.; Marsik, M.; Sutherland, D. A.; Arkema, K. K.; Guerry, A. D.; Levin, P. S.; Minello, T. J.; Plummer, M.; Ruckelshaus, M. H.; Townsend, H. M.2014
An empirical evaluation of workshop versus survey PPGIS methodsApplied GeographyBrown, Greg; Donovan, Shannon; Pullar, David; Pocewicz, Amy; Toohey, Ryan; Ballesteros-Lopez, Renata2014
Modeling ecohydrological impacts of land management and water use in the Silver Creek basin, IdahoJournal Of Geophysical Research-BiogeosciencesLoinaz, Maria C.; Gross, Dayna; Unnasch, Robert; Butts, Michael; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter2014
Climate-Smart Landscapes: Opportunities and Challenges for Integrating Adaptation and Mitigation in Tropical AgricultureConservation LettersHarvey, Celia A.; Chacon, Mario; Donatti, Camila I.; Garen, Eva; Hannah, Lee; Andrade, Angela; Bede, Lucio; Brown, Douglas; Calle, Alicia; Chara, Julian; Clement, Christopher; Gray, Elizabeth; Minh Ha Hoang; Minang, Peter; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Seeberg-El2014
A More Realistic Portrayal of Tropical Forestry: Response to Kormos and ZimmermanConservation LettersPutz, Francis E.; Zuidema, Pieter A.; Synnott, Timothy; Pena-Claros, Marielos; Pinard, Michelle A.; Sheil, Douglas; Vanclay, Jerome K.; Sist, Plinio; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Palmer, John; Zagt, Roderick; Griscom, Bronson2014
The evidence and values underlying 'new conservation'Trends in Ecology and EvolutionMarvier, Michelle; Kareiva, Peter2014
Vegetation Responses to Pinyon-Juniper Treatments in Eastern NevadaRangeland Ecology & ManagementProvencher, Louis; Thompson, Julie2014
Water Markets: A New Tool for Securing Urban Water Supplies?Journal American Water Works AssociationRichter, Brian2014
Copperheads Are Common When Kingsnakes Are Not: Relationships Between The Abundances Of A Predator And One Of Their PreyHerpetologicaSteen, David A.; McClure, Christopher J. W.; Sutton, William B.; Rudolph, D. Craig; Pierce, Josh B.; Lee, James R.; Smith, Lora L.; Gregory, Beau B.; Baxley, Danna L.; Stevenson, Dirk J.; Guyer, Craig2014
Riverine Threat Indices to Assess Watershed Condition and Identify Primary Management Capacity of Agriculture Natural Resource Management AgenciesEnvironmental ManagementFore, Jeffrey D.; Sowa, Scott P.; Galat, David L.; Annis, Gust M.; Diamond, David D.; Rewa, Charles2014
Oyster reef restoration in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Extent, methods and outcomesOcean and Coastal ManagementLa Peyre, Megan; Furlong, Jessica; Brown, Laura A.; Piazza, Bryan P.; Brown, Ken2014
Carbon emissions performance of commercial logging in East Kalimantan, IndonesiaGlobal Change BiologyGriscom, Bronson; Ellis, Peter; Putz, Francis E.2014
Environmental, geographic and trophic influences on methylmercury concentrations in macroinvertebrates from lakes and wetlands across CanadaEcotoxicologyClayden, Meredith G.; Kidd, Karen A.; Chetelat, John; Hall, Britt D.; Garcia, Edenise2014
Survival Of Planted Star Cactus, Astrophytum Asterias, In Southern TexasSouthwestern NaturalistReemts, Charlotte M.; Conner, Patrick; Janssen, Gena K.; Wahl, Kimberly2014
Shale Gas, Wind and Water: Assessing the Potential Cumulative Impacts of Energy Development on Ecosystem Services within the Marcellus PlayPLoS ONEEvans, Jeffrey S.; Kiesecker, Joseph M.2014
Flood Effects on Road-Stream Crossing Infrastructure: Economic and Ecological Benefits of Stream Simulation DesignsFisheriesGillespie, Nathaniel; Unthank, Amy; Campbell, Lauren; Anderson, Paul; Gubernick, Robert; Weinhold, Mark; Cenderelli, Daniel; Austin, Brian; McKinley, Daniel; Wells, Susan; Rowan, Janice; Orvis, Curt; Hudy, Mark; Bowden, Alison; Singler, Amy; Fretz, Eileen2014
Deglacial delta O-18 and hydrologic variability in the tropical Pacific and Indian OceansEarth And Planetary Science LettersGibbons, Fern T.; Oppo, Delia W.; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Rosenthal, Yair; Cheng, Jun; Liu, Zhengyu; Linsley, Braddock K.2014
Optimism and Challenge for Science-Based Conservation of Migratory Species in and out of U.S. National ParksConservation BiologyBerger, Joel; Cain, Steven L.; Cheng, Ellen; Dratch, Peter; Ellison, Kevin; Francis, John; Frost, Herbert C.; Gende, Scott; Groves, Craig; Karesh, William A.; Leslie, Elaine; Machlis, Gary; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Noss, Reed F.; Redford, Kent H.; Soukup, Mi2014
Applying Circuit Theory for Corridor Expansion and Management at Regional Scales: Tiling, Pinch Points, and Omnidirectional ConnectivityPLoS ONEPelletier, David; Clark, Melissa; Anderson, Mark G.; Rayfield, Bronwyn; Wulder, Michael A.; Cardille, Jeffrey A.2014
High-Resolution Satellite Imagery Is an Important yet Underutilized Resource in Conservation BiologyPLoS ONEBoyle, Sarah A.; Kennedy, Christina M.; Torres, Julio; Colman, Karen; Perez-Estigarribia, Pastor E.; de la Sancha, Noe U.2014
Responses of predatory invertebrates to seeding density and plant species richness in experimental tallgrass prairie restorationsAgriculture Ecosystems and EnvironmentNemec, Kristine T.; Allen, Craig R.; Danielson, Stephen D.; Helzer, Christopher J.2014
Stochasticity in Natural Forage Production Affects Use of Urban Areas by Black Bears: Implications to Management of Human-Bear ConflictsPLoS ONEBaruch-Mordo, Sharon; Wilson, Kenneth R.; Lewis, David L.; Broderick, John; Mao, Julie S.; Breck, Stewart W.2014
Global assessment of the status of coral reef herbivorous fishes: evidence for fishing effectsProceedings Of The Royal Society B-Biological SciencesEdwards, C. B.; Friedlander, A. M.; Green, A. G.; Hardt, M. J.; Sala, E.; Sweatman, H. P.; Williams, I. D.; Zgliczynski, B.; Sandin, S. A.; Smith, J. E.2014
Fire Synchrony and the Influence of Pacific Climate Variability on Wildfires in the Florida Keys, United StatesAnnals of the Association Of American GeographersHarley, Grant L.; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.; Horn, Sally P.; Bergh, Chris2014
More than the Fish. Environmental Flows for Good Policy and Governance, Poverty Alleviation and Climate AdaptationMatthews, J. H.; Forslund, A.; McClain, M. E.; Tharmee, R. E.2014
Making A World Of Difference In Fire And Climate ChangeFire EcologyHuffman, Mary R.2014
Low-Cost Restoration Techniques for Rapidly Increasing Wood Cover in Coastal Coho Salmon StreamsNorth American Journal Of Fisheries ManagementCarah, Jennifer K.; Blencowe, Christopher C.; Wright, David W.; Bolton, Lisa A.2014
Water markets as a response to scarcityWater PolicyDebaere, Peter; Richter, Brian D.; Davis, Kyle Frankel; Duvall, Melissa S.; Gephart, Jessica Ann; O'Bannon, Clark E.; Pelnik, Carolyn; Powell, Emily Maynard; Smith, Tyler William2014
Spatial Dynamics of Canopy Trees in an Old Growth Eastern Hemlock Forest in the Central Appalachian HighlandsNatural Areas JournalGriscom, H. P.; Griscom, B. G.; Siderhurst, L.2014
The changing role of ecohydrological science in guiding environmental flowsHydrological Sciences Journal-Journal Des Sciences HydrologiquesAcreman, M. C.; Overton, I. C.; King, J.; Wood, P. J.; Cowx, I. G.; Dunbar, M. J.; Kendy, E.; Young, W. J.2014
Hydro-ecology of groundwater-dependent ecosystems: applying basic science to groundwater managementHydrological Sciences Journal-Journal Des Sciences HydrologiquesAldous, Allison R.; Bach, Leslie B.2014
Restoring environmental flows through adaptive reservoir management: planning, science, and implementation through the Sustainable Rivers ProjectHydrological Sciences Journal-Journal Des Sciences HydrologiquesWarner, Andrew T.; Bach, Leslie B.; Hickey, John T.2014
Sex And Age Differences In Site Fidelity, Food Resource Tracking, And Body Condition Of Wintering Kirtland'S Warblers (Setophaga Kirtlandii) In The BahamasOrnithological MonographsWunderle, Joseph M., Jr.; Lebow, Patricia K.; White, Jennifer D.; Currie, Dave; Ewert, David N.2014
The eBird enterprise: An integrated approach to development and application of citizen scienceBiological ConservationSullivan, Brian L.; Aycrigg, Jocelyn L.; Barry, Jessie H.; Bonney, Rick E.; Bruns, Nicholas; Cooper, Caren B.; Damoulas, Theo; Dhondt, Andre A.; Dietterich, Tom; Farnsworth, Andrew; Fink, Daniel; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Fredericks, Thomas; Gerbracht, Jeff;2014
Systematic Conservation Planning: A Better Recipe for Managing the High Seas for Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable UseConservation LettersBan, Natalie C.; Bax, Nicholas J.; Gjerde, Kristina M.; Devillers, Rodolphe; Dunn, Daniel C.; Dunstan, Piers K.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Maxwell, Sara M.; Kaplan, David M.; Pressey, Robert L.; Ardron, Jeff A.; Game, Edward T.; Halpin, Patrick N.2014
An Estuarine Habitat Classification for a Complex Fjordal Island ArchipelagoEstuaries And CoastsSchoch, G. Carl; Albert, David M.; Shanley, Colin S.2014
Snake co-occurrence patterns are best explained by habitat and hypothesized effects of interspecific interactionsJournal Of Animal EcologySteen, David A.; McClure, Christopher J. W.; Brock, Jean C.; Rudolph, D. Craig; Pierce, Josh B.; Lee, James R.; Humphries, W. Jeffrey; Gregory, Beau B.; Sutton, William B.; Smith, Lora L.; Baxley, Danna L.; Stevenson, Dirk J.; Guyer, Craig2014
A model-based meta-analysis for estimating species-specific wood density and identifying potential sources of variationJournal Of EcologyOgle, Kiona; Pathikonda, Sharmila; Sartor, Karla; Lichstein, Jeremy W.; Osnas, Jeanne L. D.; Pacala, Stephen W.2014
Effectiveness of low-grade weirs for nutrient removal in an agricultural landscape in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial ValleyAgricultural Water ManagementLittlejohn, K. A.; Poganski, B. H.; Kroeger, R.; Ramirez-Avila, J. J.2014agriculture
Point counts surveys of land birds at the Four Canyon Preserve, Ellis County, OklahomaHise, C.M.2014
Landbird stopover in the Great Lakes region: Integrating habitat use and climate in conservationEwert, D.N., K.R. Hall, R.J. Smith, and P.J. Rodewald2014
Understanding climate change impacts and vulnerabilityGross, J. K. Johnson, P. Glick, and K. Hall2014
Choosing your path: Evaluating and selecting adaptation optionsHoffman, J. B. Stein, and K. Hall2014
Adopting a Learning Network Approach for Growing Fire Adapted CommunitiesFire Management Today (FMT)Goulette, N., Decker, L., Medley-Daniel, M., & Goldstein, B. E2014
Ten Ways Remote Sensing Can Contribute to ConservationConservation BiologyRose, R.A, et al2014http&#58;//
Connecting MPAs Ð eight challenges for science and managementAquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater EcosystemsLagabrielle E., Crochelet E., Andrello M., Schill S. R., Arnaud-Haond S., Alloncle N., and Ponge B2014http&#58;//
The changing role of eco-hydrological science in guiding environmental flowsHydrological Sciences Journal-Journal Des Sciences HydrologiquesAcreman MC, Overton IC, King J, Wood PJ, Cowx IG, Dunbar MJ, Kendy E, Young WJ2014
Minnesota forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework projectGen. Tech. RepHandler, Stephen; Duveneck, Matthew J.; Iverson, Louis; Peters, Emily; Scheller, Robert M.; Wythers, Kirk R.; Brandt, Leslie; Butler, Patricia; Janowiak, Maria; Shannon, P. Danielle; Swanston, Chris; Barrett, Kelly; Kolka, Randy; McQuiston, Casey; Palik, Brian; Reich, Peter B.; Turner, Clarence; White, Mark; Adams, Cheryl; D'Amato, Anthony; Hagell, Suzanne; Johnson, Patricia; Johnson, Rosemary; Larson, Mike; Matthews, Stephen; Montgomery, Rebecca; Olson, Steve; Peters, Matthew; Prasad, Anantha; Rajala, Jack; Daley, Jad; Davenport, Mae; Emery, Marla R.; Fehringer, David; Hoving, Christopher L.; Johnson, Gary; Johnson, Lucinda; Neitzel, David; Rissman, Adena; Rittenhouse, Chadwick; Ziel, Robert2014
Landbird stopover in the Great Lakes region: Integrating habitat use and climate in conservationStudies in Avian BiologyEwert, D.N., K.R. Hall, R.J. Smith, and P.J. Rodewald2014
Understanding climate change impacts and vulnerabilityGross, J. K. Johnson, P. Glick, and K. Hall2014
Choosing your path: Evaluating and selecting adaptation optionsHoffman, J. B. Stein, and K. Hall2014
Getting the most connectivity per conservation dollarFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentTorrubia, S., B.H. McRae, J.J. Lawler, S.A Hall, M. Halabisky, J. Langdon, and M. Case2014
Effects of overstory retention, herbicides, and fertilization on sub-canopy vegetation structure and functional group composition in loblolly pine forests restored to longleaf pineKnapp BO, Walker JL, Wang GG, Hu H, Addington RN2014
Carbon emissions performance of commercial logging inEast Kalimantan, IndonesiaGlobal Change BiologyBRONSON GRISCOM, PETER ELLIS and FRANCIS E. PUTZ2014
Ecological effects of bottom trawling onthe structural attributes of fish habitat inunconsolidated sediments along the centralCalifornia outer continental shelfFisheries BulletinJames Lindholm, Mary Gleason, Donna Kline, Larissa Clary, Steve Rienecke, Alli Cramer, Marc Los Huertos2014
Removing Dams: Benefits for People and NatureSolutionsBozek, Cathy2014
The role of benefit transfer in ecosystem service valuationEcological EconomicsRichardson L, J Loomis, T Kroeger and F Casey2014
Bioenergy feedstocks at low risk for invasion in the U.S.: A 'white list' approach.BioEnergy ResearchQuinn, L.D., D.R. Gordon, A. Glaser, Deah Lieurance, and S. Luke Flory.2014
The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptationNature CommunicationsF Ferrario, MW Beck, CD Storlazzi, F Micheli, CC Shepard, L Airoldi2014
The role of ecosystems in coastal protection: Adapting to climate change and coastal hazardsOcean and Coastal ManagementSpalding, M. D., Ruffo, S., Lacambra, C., Meliane, I., Hale, L. Z., Shepard, C. C., & Beck, M. W.2014
Informing conservation planning using future sea-level rise and storm surge modeling impact scenarios in the Northern Gulf of MexicoOcean and Coastal ManagementThompson, M., J. Brenner, and B. Gilmer2014
How Do We Know an Agricultural System is Sustainable?Fisher, J.R.B., Boucher, T.M., Attwood, S.K., Kareiva, P.2014, metrics
Modeling Hawaiian ecosystem degradation due to invasive plants under current and future climatesPLoS ONEVorsino, Adam E.; Fortini, Lucas B.; Amidon, Fred A.; Miller, Stephen E.; Jacobi, James D.; Price, Jonathan P.; Gon III, Sam 'Ohukani'ohi'a; Koob, Gregory A.2014 of native ecosystems by invasive plant species alters their structure and/or function. In Hawaii, a subset of introduced plants is regarded as extremely harmful due to competitive ability, ecosystem modification, and biogeochemical habitat degradation. By controlling this subset of highly invasive ecosystem modifiers, conservation managers could significantly reduce native ecosystem degradation. To assess the invasibility of vulnerable native ecosystems, we selected a proxy subset of these invasive plants and developed robust ensemble species distribution models to define their respective potential distributions. The combinations of all species models using both binary and continuous habitat suitability projections resulted in estimates of species richness and diversity that were subsequently used to define an invasibility metric. The invasibility metric was defined from species distribution models with 0.8; True Skill Statistic &gt;0.75) as evaluated per species. Invasibility was further projected onto a 2100 Hawaii regional climate change scenario to assess the change in potential habitat degradation. The distribution defined by the invasibility metric delineates areas of known and potential invasibility under current climate conditions and, when projected into the future, estimates potential reductions in native ecosystem extent due to climate-driven invasive incursion. We have provided the code used to develop these metrics to facilitate their wider use (Code S1). This work will help determine the vulnerability of native-dominated ecosystems to the combined threats of climate change and invasive species, and thus help prioritize ecosystem and species management actions.
Solution scanning as a key policy tool: identifying management interventions to help maintain and enhance regulating ecosystem services.Ecology and SocietySutherland, W.J., T. Gardner, T.L. Bogich, R.B. Bradbury, B. Clothier, M. Jonsson, V. Kapos, S.N. Lane, I. Mšller, M. Schroeder, M. Spalding, T. Spencer, P.C.L. White, L.V. Dicks2014 major task of policy makers and practitioners when confronted with a resource management problem is to decide on the potential solution(s) to adopt from a range of available options. However, this process is unlikely to be successful and cost effective without access to an independently verified and comprehensive available list of options. There is currently burgeoning interest in ecosystem services and quantitative assessments of their importance and value. Recognition of the value of ecosystem services to human well-being represents an increasingly important argument for protecting and restoring the natural environment, alongside the moral and ethical justifications for conservation. As well as understanding the benefits of ecosystem services, it is also important to synthesize the practical interventions that are capable of maintaining and/or enhancing these services. Apart from pest regulation, pollination, and global climate regulation, this type of exercise has attracted relatively little attention. Through a systematic consultation exercise, we identify a candidate list of 296 possible interventions across the main regulating services of air quality regulation, climate regulation, water flow regulation, erosion regulation, water purification and waste treatment, disease regulation, pest regulation, pollination and natural hazard regulation. The range of interventions differs greatly between habitats and services depending upon the ease of manipulation and the level of research intensity. Some interventions have the potential to deliver benefits across a range of regulating services, especially those that reduce soil loss and maintain forest cover. Synthesis and applications&#58; Solution scanning is important for questioning existing knowledge and identifying the range of options available to researchers and practitioners, as well as serving as the necessary basis for assessing cost effectiveness and guiding implementation strategies. We recommend that it become a routine part of decision making in all environmental policy areas.water management
Michigan forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework projectHandler, Stephen Duveneck, Matthew J. Iverson, Louis Peters, Emily Scheller, Robert M. Wythers, Kirk R. Brandt, Leslie Butler, Patricia Janowiak, Maria Shannon, P. Danielle Swanston, Chris Eagle, Amy Clark Cohen, Joshua G. Corner, Rich Reich, Peter B. Baker, Tim Chhin, Sophan Clark, Eric Fehringer, David Fosgitt, Jon Gries, James Hall, Christine Hall, Kimberly R. Heyd, Robert Hoving, Christopher L. Ib‡–ez, Ines Kuhr, Don Matthews, Stephen Muladore, Jennifer Nadelhoffer, Knute Neumann, David Peters, Matthew Prasad, Anantha Sands, Matt Swaty, Randy Wonch, Leiloni Daley, Jad Davenport, Mae Emery, Marla R. Johnson, Gary Johnson, Lucinda Neitzel, David Rissman, Adena Rittenhouse, Chadwick Ziel, Robert2014 in northern Michigan will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate during the next 100 years. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in Michigan's eastern Upper Peninsula and northern Lower Peninsula to a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate trends, projected climate changes, and impacts to forest ecosystems was considered in order to draw conclusions on climate change vulnerability. Upland spruce-fir forests were determined to be the most vulnerable, whereas oak associations and barrens were determined to be less vulnerable to projected changes in climate. Projected changes in climate and the associated ecosystem impacts and vulnerabilities will have important implications for economically valuable timber species, forest-dependent wildlife and plants, recreation, and long-range planning.Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-129
Estimates of historical ecosystem service provision can guide restoration effortsZu Ermgassen, M.D. Spalding, R. Brumbaugh2014;lr=&amp;id=GRa0BQAAQBAJ&amp;oi=fnd&amp;pg=PA187&amp;dq=Estimates+of+historic+ecosystem+service+provision+can+guide+restoration+efforts&amp;ots=YJ18goo3qK&amp;sig=7ZK1aiOUFMi4rLNqie6sikTHFQc#v=onepage&amp;q=EstiRestoration is undertaken not only to reverse habitat losses but also to recover the many valuable ecosystem services associated with coastal habitats. While ecosystem services are increasingly being used to define restoration objectives for a number of marine and terrestrial habitats, historical estimates of ecosystem service delivery are rare, in part due to the difficulty of making such estimates. However, by combining historical data with an understanding of the habitat characteristics (e.g., density or habitat complexity) and environmental conditions (e.g., salinity, location relative to other habitats) that influence service provision, historical estimates of ecosystem services can be used to target restoration efforts and management practices toward the desired outcomes. Oyster reefs have suffered an estimated 85 percent decline globally over the past 150 years, and there are growing efforts to restore oyster reefs at a large scale to recover oyster fishery, fish production, water quality, and other ecosystem services. In this chapter, Philine zu Ermgassen, Mark D. Spalding, and Robert D. Brumbaugh explore the estimation of historical provision of ecosystem services in oyster reefs as a case study to understand the ecological and socially relevant reference points that these estimates provide for restoration goals.ecosystem services, habitat, historical ecology, restoration ecology, estuaries
Riparian responses to reduced flood flows: comparing and contrasting narrowleaf and broadleaf cottonwoodsHydrological Sciences JournalThomas K. Wilding; John S. Sanderson; David M. Merritt; Stewart B. Rood; N. LeRoy Poff2014To enable assessment of risks of water management to riparian ecosystems at a regional scale, we developed a quantile-regression model of abundance of broadleaf cottonwoods (Populus deltoides and P. fremontii) as a function of flood flow attenuation. To test whether this model was transferrable to narrowleaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia), we measured narrowleaf abundance along 39 river reaches in northwestern Colorado, USA. The model performed well for narrowleaf in all 32 reaches where reservoir storage was 90% of mean annual flow. In these four reaches, narrowleaf was abundant despite peak flow attenuation of 45Ð61%. Poor model performance in these four reaches may be explained in part by a pulse of narrowleaf cottonwood expansion as a response to channel narrowing and in part by differences between narrowleaf and broadleaf cottonwood response to floods and drought.
Spatial heterogeneity stabilizes livestock productivity in a changing climateAgriculture, Ecosystems & EnvironmentAllred, B.W., J.D. Scasta, T.J. Hovick, S.D. Fuhlendorf, R.G. Hamilton2014Sustaining livestock agriculture is important for global food security. Livestock productivity, however, can fluctuate due to many environmental factors, including climate variability. Current predictions of continued warming, decreased precipitation, and increased climate variability worldwide raise serious questions for scientists and producers alike. Foremost is understanding how to mitigate livestock production losses attributed to climate extremes and variability. We investigated the influence of spatial heterogeneity on livestock production over six years in tallgrass prairie of the southern Great Plains, USA. We manipulated heterogeneity by allowing fire and grazing to interact spatially and temporally at broad scales across pastures ranging from 430 to 900 ha. We found that the influence of precipitation on livestock productivity was contingent upon heterogeneity. When heterogeneity was absent, livestock productivity decreased with reduced rainfall. In contrast, when heterogeneity was present, there was no relationship with rainfall and livestock productivity, resulting in heterogeneity stabilizing livestock productivity through time. With predicted increases in climate variability and uncertainty, managing for heterogeneity may assist livestock producers in adapting to climate change and in mitigating livestock productivity loss caused by climatic variability.Cattle; Climatic extremes; Drought; Fire-grazing interaction; Great Plains; Weight gain
Joint analysis of stressors and ecosystems services to enhance restoration effectivenessProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesAllan, J.D., P.B. McIntyre, S.D.P. Smith, B.S. Halpern, G.L. Boyer, A. Buchsbaum, G.A. Burton Jr., L.M. Campbell, W.L. Chadderton, J.J.H. Ciborowski, P.J. Doran, T. Eder, D.M. Infante, L.B. Johnson, C.A. Joseph, A.L. Marino, A. Prusevich, J. Read, J.B. Ro2013
Rails following snakes: Predator-response behaviour, potential prey, prey-flushing or curiosity? Australian Field OrnithologyCutten, D., G. Goodyear, T. Tarrant, J. Fitzsimons, and G. Palmer2013
Securing natural capital and human well-being: Innovation and impact in ChinaActa Ecologica SinicaDaily, G.C., Z. Ouyang, H. Zheng, S. Li, Y. Wang, M. Feldman, P. Kareiva, S. Polasky, and M. Ruckelshaus2013
Presence and management of the invasive plant Gypsophila paniculata (baby's breath) on sand dunes alters arthropod abundance and community structureBiological ConservationEmery, S.M., and P.J. Doran2013
Lessons from large-scale conservation networks in AustraliaParksFitzsimons, J., I. Pulsford, and G. Wescott2013
FireScape: A Program for Whole-Mountain Fire Management in the Sky Island RegionGebow, B., C. Stetson, D.A. Falk, and C. Dolan2013
Retrospective analysis and sea level rise modeling of coastal habitat change in Charlotte Harbor to identify restoration and adaptation prioritiesFlorida ScientistGeselbracht, L., K. Freeman, E. Kelly, D. Gordon, and A. Birch2013
Key areas for conserving United StatesÍ biodiversity likely threatened by future land use changeEcosphereMartinuzzi, S., V.C. Radeloff, J. Higgins, D. Helmers, A.J. Plantinga, and D.J. Lewis2013
Think before you plan: Introducing preplanning considerations in conservationJournal of Indonesian Natural HistoryMeijaard, E., C. Leisher, E.T. Game, and C. Groves2013
Paleoenvironmental Framework for Understanding the Development, Stability, and State-Changes of Cienegas in the American DesertsMinckley, T.A., A. Brunelle, and D. Turner2013
Encouraging a Watershed-Based Approach to Mitigation Planning in the Etowah River WatershedNational Wetlands NewsletterOwens, Katie and Sara Gottlieb2013
Linking Conservation Priorities to Wetland and Stream Mitigation Decisions: A Watershed Planning Approach for the Stones River Watershed, TennesseeNational Wetlands NewsletterPalmer, Sally2013
Make no little plans: developing biodiversity conservation strategies for the Great LakesEnvironmental PracticePearsall, D.R., M.L. Khoury, J. Paskus, D. Kraus, P.J. Doran, S.P. Sowa, R. Franks Taylor, and L.K. Elbing2013
Preferences of Wyoming residents for siting of energy and residential developmentApplied GeographyPocewicz, A., M. Nielsen-Pincus2013
Allometric Equations for Ashe Juniper (Juniperus ashei) of Small DiameterThe Southwestern NaturalistReemts, C. M2013
Squaretail coralgrouper Plectropomus areolatus reproduction in Pohnpei, Micronesia, using age-based techniquesJournal of Fish BiologyRhodes K.L., B.M. Taylor, C.B. Wichilmel, E. Joseph, R.J. Hamilton, G. Almany2013
A more effective means of delivering conservation management: a ïNew Integrated ConservationÍ model for Australian rangelandsThe Rangeland JournalSalmon, M., and R. Gerritsen2013
Marine birds of Yakutat Bay, Alaska: evaluating summer distribution, abundance, and threats at seaMarine OrnithologySchoen, S.K., M.L. Kissling, N.R. Hatch, C.S. Shanley, S.W. Stephensen, J.K. Jansen, N.T. Catterson, and S.A. Oehlers2013
Can a combination of grazing, herbicides, and seeding facilitate succession in old fields?Ecological RestorationTaylor, R.V., M.L. Pokorny, J. Mangold, and N. Rudd2013agriculture, ranching
The watershed approach: Lessons learned through a collaborative effortNational Wetlands NewsletterWilkinson, Jessica, Mark P. Smith, and Nicholas Miller2013
Sacaton Riparian Grasslands of the Sky Islands: Mapping Distribution and Ecological Condition Using State-and-Transition Models in Upper Cienega Creek WatershedTiller, R., M. Hughes, and G. Bodner2013
Conference Summary: Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago III: Closing Remarks and Notes From the Concluding SessionTurner D.S., and A. Castellanos2013
Comparison of Preliminary Herpetofaunas of the Sierras la Madera (Oposura) and Bacadehuachi with the Mainland Sierra Madre Occidental in Sonora, MexicoVan Devender, T.R., E.F. Enderson, D.S. Turner, R.A. Villa, S.F. Hale, G.M. Ferguson, and C. Hedgcock2013
Biodiversity in the Madrean Archipelago of Sonora, MexicoVan Devender, T.R., S. Avila-Villegas, M. Emerson, D. Turner, A.D. Flesch, and N.S. Deyo2013
Conservation outside of protected areas and the effect of human-dominated landscapes on stress hormones in savannah elephantsConservation BiologyAhlering, M.A., J.E. Maldonado, L.S. Eggert, R.C. Fleischer, D. Western, and J.L. Brown2013
Sustaining the Grassland Sea: Regional Perspectives on Identifying, Protecting and Restoring the Sky Island Region's Most Intact Grassland Valley LandscapesBodner, G.S., P. Warren, D. Gori, K. Sartor, and S. Bassett2013
Marine spatial planning in practiceEstuarine, Coastal and Shelf ScienceCollie, J., V. Adamowicz, M.W. Beck, B. Craig, T. Essington, D. Fluharty, J. Rice, J. Sanchirico2013
ïNetworking the networksÍ: coordinating Conservation Management Networks in VictoriaLinking Australia's Landscapes: Lessons and Opportunities from Large-scale Conservation NetworksCrosthwaite, J., J. Fitzsimons, J. Stanley, and J. Greacen2013
Aboveground and belowground impacts following removal of the invasive species babyÍs breath (Gypsophila paniculata) on Lake Michigan sand dunesRestoration EcologyEmery, S.M., P.J. Doran, J.T. Legge, M. Kleitch, and S. Howard2013
Linking AustraliaÍs Landscapes: Lessons and Opportunities for Large-scale Conservation NetworksFitzsimons, J., I. Pulsford, and G. Wescott (eds)2013
Water funds: A new ecosystem service and biodiversity conservation strategyEncyclopedia of Biodiversity, second editionGoldman-Benner, R.L., S. Benitez, A. Calvache, A. Ramos, and F. Veiga2013
Merging science and management in a rapidly changing world: Biodiversity and management of the Madrean Archipelago III and 7th Conference on Research and Resource Management in the Southwestern Deserts; 2012 May 1-5; Tucson, AZGottfried, G.J., P.F. Ffolliott, B.S. Gebow, L.G. Eskew, and L.C. Collins, compilers2013
Modeling marine ecosystem servicesGuerry, A.D., M.H. Ruckelshaus, M.L. Plummer, and D. Holland.2013
A Primer for Monitoring Water FundsHiggins, J.V., and A. Zimmerling (eds.2013
Development by Design: Using a revisionist history to guide a sustainable futureEncyclopedia of Biodiversity, second editionKiesecker, J., K. Sochi, M. Heiner, B. McKenney, J. Evans, and H. Copeland2013
Marine protected areas: Static boundaries in a changing worldEncyclopedia of Biodiversity, second editionMcleod, E2013
Biofuels and biodiversity: the implications of energy sprawlEncyclopedia of Biodiversity, second editionRobertson B.A., and P.J. Doran2013
Ecosystem servicesEncyclopedia of Biodiversity, second editionTallis, H., A. Guerry, and G.C. Daily2013
Biodiversity, human well-being and marketsBinder, S., and S. Polasky. Biodiversity, human well-being and markets2013
Human Dimensions of State-and-Transition Simulation Model Applications to Support Decisions in Wildland Fire ManagementBlankenship, K. L. Provencher, L. Frid, C. Daniel and J. Smith2013
Role and trends of protected areas in conservationEncyclopedia of Biodiversity, second editionBoucher, T., M. Spalding, and C. Revenga2013
Sustainability and biodiversityEncyclopedia of Biodiversity, second editionCavender-Bares, J., J. Heffernan, E. King, S. Polasky, P. Balvanera, and W.C. Clark. Sustainability and biodiversity2013
Conservation biology, discipline ofEncyclopedia of Biodiversity, second editionDobson, A.P., K. Nowak, and J.P. RodrÕguez. Conservation biology, discipline of2013
Successes, Failures and Suggested Future Directions for Ecosystem Restoration of the Middle Sacramento River, CaliforniaSan Francisco Estuary and Watershed ScienceGolet, Gregory H.; Brown, David L.; Carlson, Melinda; Gardali, Thomas; Henderson, Adam; Holl, Karen D.; et al.2013
Understanding the contribution of habitats and regional variation to long-term population trends in tricolored blackbirdsEcology and EvolutionGraves, E.E., M. Holyoak, T. Rodd Kelsey, and R.J. Meese2013
Restoring aquatic ecosystem connectivity requires expanding inventories of both dams and road crossingsFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentJanuchowski-Hartley, S.R., P.B. McIntyre, M. Diebel, P.J. Doran, D. Infante, C. Joseph, and J.D. Allan2013
Prioritizing locations for implementing agricultural best management practices in a Midwestern watershedJournal of Soil and Water ConservationLegge, J., P.J. Doran, M. Herbert, J. Asher, G. OÍNeil, S. Mysorekar, S. Sowa and K. Hall2013agriculture
Focal areas for measuring the human well-being impacts of a conservation initiativeSustainabilityLeisher, C., Samberg, L.H., Van Buekering, P., and M. Sanjayan2013
Does conserving biodiversity work to reduce poverty? A state of knowledge reviewLeisher, C., Sanjayan, M., Blockhus, J., Larsen, N. and Kontoleon, A2013
Two challenges for U.S. irrigation due to climate change: increasing irrigated area in wet states and increasing irrigation rates in dry statesPLoS ONEMcDonald, R. and E. Girvetz2013
Development by Design in Colombia: Making Mitigation Decisions Consistent with Conservation OutcomesPLoS ONESaenz, S., T. Walschburger, J.C. GonzaÇlez, J. LeoÇn, B. McKenney, and J. Kiesecker2013
A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2014Trends in Ecology and EvolutionSutherland, W. J., R. Aveling, T. M. Brooks, M. Clout, L. V. Dicks, L. Fellman, E. Fleishman, D. W. Gibbons, B. Keim, F. Lickorish, K. A. Monk, D. Mortimer, L. S. Peck, J. Pretty, J. RockstroÂm, J. P. RodriÇguez, R. K. Smith, M. D. Spalding, F. H. Tonneij2013
Models of Regional Habitat Quality and Connectivity for Pumas (Puma concolor) in the Southwestern United StatesPLoS ONEDickson, Brett G.; Roemer, Gary W.; McRae, Brad H.; Rundall, Jill M.2013
Managing waterIssues In Science And TechnologyRichter, Brian2013
The quest for the optimal payment for environmental services program: Ambition meets reality, with useful lessonsForest Policy And EconomicsKroeger, Timm2013
A Framework for Implementing and Valuing Biodiversity Offsets in Colombia: A Landscape Scale PerspectiveSustainabilitySaenz, Shirley; Walschburger, Tomas; Carlos Gonzalez, Juan; Leon, Jorge; McKenney, Bruce; Kiesecker, Joseph2013
Male attacks on infants and infant death during male takeovers in wild white-headed langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus)Integrative ZoologyYin, Lijie; Jin, Tong; Watanabe, Kunio; Qin, Dagong; Wang, Dezhi; Pan, Wenshi2013
Comparison of population genetic patterns in two widespread freshwater mussels with contrasting life histories in western North AmericaMolecular EcologyMock, K. E.; Box, J. C. Brim; Chong, J. P.; Furnish, J.; Howard, J. K.2013
Obligate Brood Parasites Show More Functionally Effective Innate Immune Responses: An Eco-immunological HypothesisEvolutionary BiologyHahn, D. Caldwell; Summers, Scott G.; Genovese, Kenneth J.; He, Haiqi; Kogut, Michael H.2013
Conservation in the Context of Climate Change: Practical Guidelines for Land Protection at Local ScalesPLoS ONERuddock, Kevin; August, Peter V.; Damon, Christopher; LaBash, Charles; Rubinoff, Pamela; Robadue, Donald2013
Acting Optimally for Biodiversity in a World Obsessed with REDDConservation LettersVenter, Oscar; Hovani, Lex; Bode, Michael; Possingham, Hugh P.2013
The Ecological Footprint Remains a Misleading Metric of Global SustainabilityPlos BiologyBlomqvist, Linus; Brook, Barry W.; Ellis, Erle C.; Kareiva, Peter M.; Nordhaus, Ted; Shellenberger, Michael2013
Does the Shoe Fit? Real versus Imagined Ecological FootprintsPlos BiologyBlomqvist, Linus; Brook, Barry W.; Ellis, Erle C.; Kareiva, Peter M.; Nordhaus, Ted; Shellenberger, Michael2013
A Long-Term Comparison of Hydrology and Plant Community Composition in Constructed Versus Naturally Occurring Vernal PoolsRestoration EcologyCollinge, Sharon K.; Ray, Chris; Marty, Jaymee T.2013
Saving sage-grouse from the trees: A proactive solution to reducing a key threat to a candidate speciesBiological ConservationBaruch-Mordo, Sharon; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Severson, John P.; Naugle, David E.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Kiesecker, Joseph M.; Falkowski, Michael J.; Hagen, Christian A.; Reese, Kerry P.2013
Outplanting Wyoming Big Sagebrush Following Wildfire: Stock Performance and EconomicsRangeland Ecology & ManagementDettweiler-Robinson, Eva; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Evans, James R.; Newsome, Heidi; Davies, G. Matt; Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.; Easterly, Richard T.; Salstrom, Debra; Dunwiddie, Peter W.2013
Climate-change impacts on ecological systems: introduction to a US assessmentFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentGrimm, Nancy B.; Staudinger, Michelle D.; Staudt, Amanda; Carter, Shawn L.; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; Kareiva, Peter; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Stein, Bruce A.2013
Biodiversity in a changing climate: a synthesis of current and projected trends in the USFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentStaudinger, Michelle D.; Carter, Shawn L.; Cross, Molly S.; Dubois, Natalie S.; Duffy, J. Emmett; Enquist, Carolyn; Griffis, Roger; Hellmann, Jessica J.; Lawler, Joshua J.; O'Leary, John; Morrison, Scott A.; Sneddon, Lesley; Stein, Bruce A.; Thompson, Lau2013
Climate change's impact on key ecosystem services and the human well-being they support in the USFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentNelson, Erik J.; Kareiva, Peter; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Arkema, Katie; Geller, Gary; Girvetz, Evan; Goodrich, Dave; Matzek, Virginia; Pinsky, Malin; Reid, Walt; Saunders, Martin; Semmens, Darius; Tallis, Heather2013
Geomorphology within the interdisciplinary science of environmental flowsGeomorphologyMeitzen, Kimberly M.; Doyle, Martin W.; Thoms, Martin C.; Burns, Catherine E.2013
Modeling the Distribution of Migratory Bird Stopovers to Inform Landscape-Scale Siting of Wind DevelopmentPLoS ONEPocewicz, Amy; Estes-Zumpf, Wendy A.; Andersen, Mark D.; Copeland, Holly E.; Keinath, Douglas A.; Griscom, Hannah R.2013
Subjective risk assessment for planning conservation projectsEnvironmental Research LettersGame, Edward T.; Fitzsimons, James A.; Lipsett-Moore, Geoff; McDonald-Madden, Eve2013
Tailoring Global Data to Guide Corporate Investments in Biodiversity, Environmental Assessments and SustainabilitySustainabilityOakleaf, James R.; Kennedy, Christina M.; Boucher, Timothy; Kiesecker, Joseph2013
Coastal habitats shield people and property from sea-level rise and stormsNature Climate ChangeArkema, Katie K.; Guannel, Greg; Verutes, Gregory; Wood, Spencer A.; Guerry, Anne; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Kareiva, Peter; Lacayo, Martin; Silver, Jessica M.2013
Assessing Natural and Anthropogenic Variability in Wetland Structure for Two Hydrogeomorphic Riverine Wetland SubclassesEnvironmental ManagementDvorett, Daniel; Bidwell, Joseph; Davis, Craig; DuBois, Chris2013
A dynamic reference model: a framework for assessing biodiversity restoration goals in a fire-dependent ecosystemEcological ApplicationsKirkman, L. Katherine; Barnett, Analie; Williams, Brett W.; Hiers, J. Kevin; Pokswinski, Scott M.; Mitchell, Robert J.2013
Niche Divergence Among Sex and Age Classes in Black-and-White Snub-nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti)International Journal Of PrimatologyWan, Yi; Quan, Rui-Chang; Ren, Guo-Peng; Wang, Lin; Long, Yong-Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Hu; Zhu, Jian-Guo2013
Male's return rate, rather than territory fidelity and breeding dispersal, explains geographic variation in song sharing in two populations of an oscine passerine (Oreothlypis celata)Behavioral Ecology And SociobiologyYoon, Jongmin; Sillett, T. Scott; Morrison, Scott A.; Ghalambor, Cameron K.2013
Native Bees Associated With Isolated Aspen Stands in Pacific Northwest Bunchgrass PrairieNatural Areas JournalGonzalez, Natalie; DeBano, Sandra J.; Kimoto, Chiho; Taylor, Robert V.; Tubbesing, Carmen; Strohm, Christopher2013
Vinecology: pairing wine with natureConservation LettersViers, Joshua H.; Williams, John N.; Nicholas, Kimberly A.; Barbosa, Olga; Kotze, Inge; Spence, Liz; Webb, Leanne B.; Merenlender, Adina; Reynolds, Mark2013
The Elusive Pursuit of Interdisciplinarity at the Human-Environment InterfaceBioScienceRoy, Eric D.; Morzillo, Anita T.; Seijo, Francisco; Reddy, Sheila M. W.; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M.; Milder, Jeffrey C.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Martin, Sherry L.2013
Is reduced benthic flux related to the Diporeia decline? Analysis of spring blooms and whiting events in Lake OntarioJournal Of Great Lakes ResearchWatkins, J. M.; Rudstam, L. G.; Crabtree, D. L.; Walsh, M. G.2013
Terrigenous sediment impact on coral recruitment and growth affects the use of coral habitat by recruit parrotfishes (F. Scaridae)Journal Of Coastal ConservationDeMartini, E.; Jokiel, P.; Beets, J.; Stender, Y.; Storlazzi, C.; Minton, D.; Conklin, E.2013
Combining precision conservation technologies into a flexible framework to facilitate agricultural watershed planningJournal of Soil and Water ConservationTomer, Mark D.; Porter, Sarah A.; James, David E.; Boomer, Kathleen M. B.; Kostel, Jill A.; McLellan, Eileen2013agriculture, nutrients, water quality
Overwater Movement of Raccoons (Procyon lotor) in a Naturally Fragmented Coastal LandscapeNortheastern NaturalistDueser, Raymond D.; Moncrief, Nancy D.; Keiss, Oskars; Martin, Joel D.; Porter, John H.; Truitt, Barry R.2013
Cities of the Future: Where Will the Water Come From?Journal American Water Works AssociationRichter, Brian2013
Trans-boundary infrastructure and land cover change: Highway paving and community-level deforestation in a tri-national frontier in the AmazonLand Use PolicyPerz, Stephen G.; Qiu, Youliang; Xia, Yibin; Southworth, Jane; Sun, Jing; Marsik, Matthew; Rocha, Karla; Passos, Veronica; Rojas, Daniel; Alarcon, Gabriel; Barnes, Grenville; Baraloto, Christopher2013
Achieving MPA effectiveness through application of responsive governance incentives in the Tubbataha reefsMarine PolicyDygico, Marivel; Songco, Angelique; White, Alan T.; Green, Stuart J.2013
Seed source has variable effects on species, communities, and ecosystem properties in grassland restorationsEcosphereCarter, Daniel L.; Blair, John M.2013
Reproductive Ecology Of The Island Scrub-JayCondorCaldwell, Luke; Bakker, Victoria J.; Sillett, T. Scott; Desrosiers, Michelle A.; Morrison, Scott A.; Angeloni, Lisa M.2013
Discovering Ecologically Relevant Knowledge from Published Studies through Geosemantic SearchingBioScienceKarl, Jason W.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Unnasch, Robert S.; Gillan, Jeffrey K.; Ellis, Erle C.; Lutters, Wayne G.; Martin, Laura J.2013
How to sell ecosystem services: a guide for designing new marketsFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentBanerjee, Simanti; Secchi, Silvia; Fargione, Joseph; Polasky, Stephen; Kraft, Steven2013
Use of Historical Logging Patterns to Identify Disproportionately Logged Ecosystems within Temperate Rainforests of Southeastern AlaskaConservation BiologyAlbert, David M.; Schoen, John W.2013
Phenological matching across hemispheres in a long-distance migratory birdDiversity and DistributionsRenfrew, Rosalind B.; Kim, Daniel; Perlut, Noah; Smith, Joseph; Fox, James; Marra, Peter P.2013
Projected climate-driven faunal movement routesEcology LettersLawler, J. J.; Ruesch, A. S.; Olden, J. D.; McRae, B. H.2013
The vulnerability of Amazon freshwater ecosystemsConservation LettersCastello, Leandro; McGrath, David G.; Hess, Laura L.; Coe, Michael T.; Lefebvre, Paul A.; Petry, Paulo; Macedo, Marcia N.; Reno, Vivian F.; Arantes, Caroline C.2013
Soil Morphologic Properties and Cattle Stocking Rate Affect Dynamic Soil PropertiesRangeland Ecology & ManagementSchmalz, Heidi J.; Taylor, Robert V.; Johnson, Tracey N.; Kennedy, Patricia L.; DeBano, Sandra J.; Newingham, Beth A.; McDaniel, Paul A.2013agriculture, ranching
Balancing the conservation of wildlife habitat with subsistence hunting access: A geospatial-scenario planning frameworkLandscape and Urban PlanningShanley, Colin S.; Kofinas, Gary P.; Pyare, Sanjay2013
Prairie Restorations can Protect Remnant Tallgrass Prairie Plant CommunitiesAmerican Midland NaturalistRowe, Helen I.; Fargione, Joseph; Holland, Jeffrey D.2013
Measuring the Effectiveness of Conservation: A Novel Framework to Quantify the Benefits of Sage-Grouse Conservation Policy and Easements in WyomingPLoS ONECopeland, Holly E.; Pocewicz, Amy; Naugle, David E.; Griffiths, Tim; Keinath, Doug; Evans, Jeffrey; Platt, James2013
A social and ecological assessment of tropical land uses at multiple scales: the Sustainable Amazon NetworkPhilosophical Transactions Of The Royal Society B-Biological SciencesGardner, Toby A.; Ferreira, Joice; Barlow, Jos; Lees, Alexander C.; Parry, Luke; Guimaraes Vieira, Ima Celia; Berenguer, Erika; Abramovay, Ricardo; Aleixo, Alexandre; Andretti, Christian; Aragao, Luiz E. O. C.; Araujo, Ivanei; de Avila, Williams Souza; Ba2013
Enhanced Innate Immune Responses in a Brood Parasitic Cowbird Species: Degranulation and Oxidative BurstAvian DiseasesHahn, D. Caldwell; Summers, Scott G.; Genovese, Kenneth J.; He, Haiqi; Kogut, Michael H.2013
Nesting of the Rufous-tailed Hawk Buteo ventralis on a rocky wall in southern ChileRevista Brasileira De OrnitologiaNorambuena, Heraldo V.; Zamorano, Solange; Munoz-Pedreros, Andres2013
Community Participation and Benefits in REDD plus : A Review of Initial Outcomes and LessonsForestsLawlor, Kathleen; Madeira, Erin Myers; Blockhus, Jill; Ganz, David J.2013
The interrelationship of hydrology and biology in a Tennessee stream, USAEcohydrologyElkin, Kimberly; Lanier, Susan; Rebecca, Monette2013
Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factorsEcological ApplicationsReddy, Sheila M. W.; Wentz, Allison; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Maxey, Martin; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Leslie, Heather M.2013
Quantifying the historic contribution of Olympia oysters to filtration in Pacific Coast (USA) estuaries and the implications for restoration objectivesAquatic EcologyErmgassen, P. S. E. Zu; Gray, M. W.; Langdon, C. J.; Spalding, M. D.; Brumbaugh, R. D.2013
Farm practices for food safety: an emerging threat to floodplain and riparian ecosystemsFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentGennet, Sasha; Howard, Jeanette; Langholz, Jeff; Andrews, Kathryn; Reynolds, Mark D.; Morrison, Scott A.2013agriculture
Effects of Human Population Density and Proximity to Markets on Coral Reef Fishes Vulnerable to Extinction by FishingConservation BiologyBrewer, T. D.; Cinner, J. E.; Green, A.; Pressey, R. L.2013
A Transactional and Collaborative Approach to Reducing Effects of Bottom TrawlingConservation BiologyGleason, Mary; Feller, Erika M.; Merrifield, Matt; Copps, Stephen; Fujita, Rod; Bell, Michael; Rienecke, Steve; Cook, Chuck2013
Six Common Mistakes in Conservation Priority SettingConservation BiologyGame, Edward T.; Kareiva, Peter; Possingham, Hugh P.2013
Conservation outside Protected Areas and the Effect of Human-Dominated Landscapes on Stress Hormones in Savannah ElephantsConservation BiologyAhlering, M. A.; Maldonado, J. E.; Eggert, L. S.; Fleischer, R. C.; Western, D.; Brown, J. L.2013
Palau's taro fields and mangroves protect the coral reefs by trapping eroded fine sedimentWetlands Ecology And ManagementKoshiba, Shirley; Besebes, Meked; Soaladaob, Kiblas; Isechal, Adelle Lukes; Victor, Steven; Golbuu, Yimnang2013
Opportunities and Challenges to Implementing Bird Conservation on Private LandsWildlife Society BulletinCiuzio, Elizabeth; Hohman, William L.; Martin, Brian; Smith, Mark D.; Stephens, Scott; Strong, Allan M.; VerCauteren, Tammy2013
Optimising control of invasive crayfish using life-history informationFreshwater BiologyRogowski, David L.; Sitko, Suzanne; Bonar, Scott A.2013
Phenotypic covariance at species' bordersBmc Evolutionary BiologyCaley, M. Julian; Cripps, Edward; Game, Edward T.2013
Benthic communities at two remote Pacific coral reefs: effects of reef habitat, depth, and wave energy gradients on spatial patternsPeerjWilliams, Gareth J.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Conklin, Eric J.; Gove, Jamison M.; Sala, Enric; Sandin, Stuart A.2013
The Role of Phragmites australis in Mediating Inland Salt Marsh Migration in a Mid-Atlantic EstuaryPLoS ONESmith, Joseph A. M.2013
A new species of Fellhanera (lichenized Ascomycota: Pilocarpaceae) from central North AmericaLichenologistMorse, Caleb A.; Ladd, Douglas2013
A global quantitative synthesis of local and landscape effects on wild bee pollinators in agroecosystemsEcology LettersKennedy, Christina M.; Lonsdorf, Eric; Neel, Maile C.; Williams, Neal M.; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Winfree, Rachael; Bommarco, Riccardo; Brittain, Claire; Burley, Alana L.; Cariveau, Daniel; Carvalheiro, Luisa G.; Chacoff, Natacha P.; Cunningham, Saul A.; Dan2013
Differential effects of food availability and nest predation risk on avian reproductive strategiesBehavioral EcologySofaer, Helen R.; Sillett, T. Scott; Peluc, Susana I.; Morrison, Scott A.; Ghalambor, Cameron K.2013
Achieving the triple bottom line in the face of inherent trade-offs among social equity, economic return, and conservationProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesHalpern, Benjamin S.; Klein, Carissa J.; Brown, Christopher J.; Beger, Maria; Grantham, Hedley S.; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Tulloch, Vivitskaia J.; Watts, Matt; White, Crow; Possingham, Hugh P.2013
Dispersal of Grouper Larvae Drives Local Resource Sharing in a Coral Reef FisheryCurrent BiologyAlmany, Glenn R.; Hamilton, Richard J.; Bode, Michael; Matawai, Manuai; Potuku, Tapas; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Planes, Serge; Berumen, Michael L.; Rhodes, Kevin L.; Thorrold, Simon R.; Russ, Garry R.; Jones, Geoffrey P.2013
Energy Potential of Biomass from Conservation Grasslands in Minnesota, USAPLoS ONEJungers, Jacob M.; Fargione, Joseph E.; Sheaffer, Craig C.; Wyse, Donald L.; Lehman, Clarence2013
Search Efforts for Ivory-billed Woodpecker in South CarolinaSoutheastern NaturalistMoskwik, Matthew; Thom, Theresa; Barnhill, Laurel M.; Watson, Craig; Koches, Jennifer; Kilgo, John; Hulslander, Bill; Degarady, Colette; Peters, Gary2013
Use of patch selection models as a decision support tool to evaluate mitigation strategies of human-wildlife conflictBiological ConservationBaruch-Mordo, Sharon; Webb, Colleen T.; Breck, Stewart W.; Wilson, Kenneth R.2013
Fish and Blue Crab Assemblages in the Shore Zone of Tidal Creeks in the Delaware Coastal BaysNortheastern NaturalistBoutin, Brian P.; Targett, Timothy E.2013
Shared Conservation Goals but Differing Views on How to Most Effectively Achieve Results: A Response from Kareiva and MarvierBioScienceKareiva, Peter; Marvier, Michelle2013
Viability of Aquatic Plant Fragments following DesiccationInvasive Plant Science and ManagementBarnes, Matthew A.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Keller, Doug; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Howeth, Jennifer G.; Lodge, David M.2013
Detection of Asian carp DNA as part of a Great Lakes basin-wide surveillance programCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic SciencesJerde, Christopher L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Mahon, Andrew R.; Renshaw, Mark A.; Corush, Joel; Budny, Michelle L.; Mysorekar, Sagar; Lodge, David M.2013
Using systematic conservation planning to minimize REDD plus conflict with agriculture and logging in the tropicsConservation LettersVenter, Oscar; Possingham, Hugh P.; Hovani, Lex; Dewi, Sonya; Griscom, Bronson; Paoli, Gary; Wells, Phillip; Wilson, Kerrie A.2013agriculture
Chaetaspis Attenuatus, A New Species Of Cavernicolous Milliped From Arkansas (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Macrosternodesmidae)Journal Of Cave And Karst StudiesLewis, Julian J.; Slay, Michael E.2013
Reproductive biology of squaretail coralgrouper Plectropomus areolatus using age-based techniquesJournal of Fish BiologyRhodes, K. L.; Taylor, B. M.; Wichilmel, C. B.; Joseph, E.; Hamilton, R. J.; Almany, G. R.2013
Connectivity Planning to Address Climate ChangeConservation BiologyNunez, Tristan A.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Mcrae, Brad H.; Pierce, D. John; Krosby, Meade B.; Kavanagh, Darren M.; Singleton, Peter H.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.2013
Competitive outcomes between two exotic invaders are modified by direct and indirect effects of a native coniferOikosMetlen, Kerry L.; Aschehoug, Erik T.; Callaway, Ragan M.2013
Wild Pollinators Enhance Fruit Set of Crops Regardless of Honey Bee AbundanceScienceGaribaldi, Lucas A.; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Winfree, Rachael; Aizen, Marcelo A.; Bommarco, Riccardo; Cunningham, Saul A.; Kremen, Claire; Carvalheiro, Luisa G.; Harder, Lawrence D.; Afik, Ohad; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Benjamin, Faye; Boreux, Virginie; Cariv2013
Root-Inhabiting Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) And Their Fungal Associates Breeding In Dying Loblolly Pine In AlabamaFlorida EntomologistMatusick, George; Menard, Roger D.; Zeng, Yuan; Eckhardt, Lori G.2013
California's marine protected area network planning process: Introduction to the special issueOcean and Coastal ManagementGleason, Mary; Kirlin, John; Fox, Evan2013
California's Marine Life Protection Act Initiative: Supporting implementation of legislation establishing a statewide network of marine protected areasOcean and Coastal ManagementKirlin, John; Caldwell, Meg; Gleason, Mary; Weber, Mike; Ugoretz, John; Fox, Evan; Miller-Henson, Melissa2013
Enabling conditions to support marine protected area network planning: California's Marine Life Protection Act Initiative as a case studyOcean and Coastal ManagementFox, Evan; Miller-Henson, Melissa; Ugoretz, John; Weber, Mike; Gleason, Mary; Kirlin, John; Caldwell, Meg; Mastrup, Sonke2013
Adapting stakeholder processes to region-specific challenges in marine protected area network planningOcean and Coastal ManagementFox, Evan; Poncelet, Eric; Connor, Darci; Vasques, Jason; Ugoretz, John; McCreary, Scott; Monie, Dominique; Harty, Michael; Gleason, Mary2013
Addressing policy issues in a stakeholder-based and science-driven marine protected area network planning processOcean and Coastal ManagementFox, Evan; Hastings, Sean; Miller-Henson, Melissa; Monie, Dominique; Ugoretz, John; Frimodig, Adam; Shuman, Craig; Owens, Brian; Garwood, Rebecca; Connor, Darci; Serpa, Paulo; Gleason, Mary2013
The role of science in supporting marine protected area network planning and design in CaliforniaOcean and Coastal ManagementSaarman, Emily; Gleason, Mary; Ugoretz, John; Airame, Satie; Carr, Mark; Fox, Evan; Frimodig, Adam; Mason, Tom; Vasques, Jason2013
MarineMap: A web-based platform for collaborative marine protected area planningOcean and Coastal ManagementMerrifield, Matthew S.; McClintock, Will; Burt, Chad; Fox, Evan; Serpa, Paulo; Steinback, Charles; Gleason, Mary2013
Designing a network of marine protected areas in California: Achievements, costs, lessons learned, and challenges aheadOcean and Coastal ManagementGleason, Mary; Fox, Evan; Ashcraft, Susan; Vasques, Jason; Whiteman, Elizabeth; Serpa, Paulo; Saarman, Emily; Caldwell, Meg; Frimodig, Adam; Miller-Henson, Melissa; Kirlin, John; Ota, Becky; Pope, Elizabeth; Weber, Mike; Wiseman, Ken2013
Quantifying Tropical Dry Forest Type and Succession: Substantial Improvement with LiDARBiotropicaMartinuzzi, Sebastian; Gould, William A.; Vierling, Lee A.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Nelson, Ross F.; Evans, Jeffrey S.2013
A Social Landscape Analysis of Land Use Decision Making in a Coastal WatershedSociety & Natural ResourcesWashburn, Erika L.2013
Measurement and modeling of indoor air pollution in rural households with multiple stove interventions in Yunnan, ChinaAtmospheric EnvironmentChowdhury, Zohir; Campanella, Luke; Gray, Christen; Al Masud, Abdullah; Marter-Kenyon, Jessica; Pennise, David; Charron, Dana; Zuzhang, Xia2013
A comparison of zoning analyses to inform the planning of a marine protected area network in Raja Ampat, IndonesiaMarine PolicyGrantham, Hedley S.; Agostini, Vera N.; Wilson, Joanne; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Hidayat, Nur; Muljadi, Andreas; Muhajir; Rotinsulu, Chris; Mongdong, Meity; Beck, Michael W.; Possingham, Hugh P.2013
A comprehensive review of climate adaptation in the United States: more than before, but less than neededMitigation And Adaptation Strategies For Global ChangeBierbaum, Rosina; Smith, Joel B.; Lee, Arthur; Blair, Maria; Carter, Lynne; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; Fleming, Paul; Ruffo, Susan; Stults, Missy; McNeeley, Shannon; Wasley, Emily; Verduzco, Laura2013
Role of biotic interactions in regulating conifer invasion of grasslandsForest Ecology and ManagementHaugo, Ryan D.; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Halpern, Charles B.2013
Preparing to manage coral reefs for ocean acidification: lessons from coral bleachingFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentMcleod, Elizabeth; Anthony, Kenneth R. N.; Andersson, Andreas; Beeden, Roger; Golbuu, Yimnang; Kleypas, Joanie; Kroeker, Kristy; Manzello, Derek; Salm, Rod V.; Schuttenberg, Heidi; Smith, Jennifer E.2013
Long-term effects of fire frequency and season on herbaceous vegetation in savannas of the Kruger National Park, South AfricaJournal of Plant EcologySmith, Melinda D.; van Wilgen, Brian W.; Burns, Catherine E.; Govender, Navashni; Potgieter, Andre L. F.; Andelman, Sandy; Biggs, Harry C.; Botha, Judith; Trollope, Winston S. W.2013
Decline And Recovery Of Small Mammals After Flooding: Implications For Pest Management And Floodplain Community DynamicsRiver Research And ApplicationsGolet, G. H.; Hunt, J. W.; Koenig, D.2013
The effect of coachwhip presence on body size of North American racers suggests competition between these sympatric snakesJournal Of ZoologySteen, D. A.; McClure, C. J. W.; Smith, L. L.; Halstead, B. J.; Dodd, C. K., Jr.; Sutton, W. B.; Lee, J. R.; Baxley, D. L.; Humphries, W. J.; Guyer, C.2013
Accelerating Adaptation of Natural Resource Management to Address Climate ChangeConservation BiologyCross, Molly S.; McCarthy, Patrick D.; Garfin, Gregg; Gori, David; Enquist, Carolyn A. F.2013
Coastal IssuesCaldwell, Margaret R.; Hartge, Eric H.; Ewing, Lesley C.; Griggs, Gary; Kelly, Ryan P.; Moser, Susanne C.; Newkirk, Sarah G.; Smyth, Rebecca A.; Woodson, C. Brock2013
Navigating a Murky Adaptive Comanagement Governance Network: Agua Fria Watershed, Arizona, USAEcology and SocietyChilds, Cameron; York, Abigail M.; White, Dave; Schoon, Michael L.; Bodner, Gitanjali S.2013
The Many Elements of Traditional Fire Knowledge: Synthesis, Classification, and Aids to Cross-cultural Problem Solving in Fire-dependent Systems Around the WorldEcology and SocietyHuffman, Mary R.2013
Short-Term Effects Of Repeated Wildfires In Oak-Juniper WoodlandsFire EcologyReemts, Charlotte M.; Hansen, Laura L.2013
Integrating Collaboration, Adaptive Management, and Scenario-Planning: Experiences at Las Cienegas National Conservation AreaEcology and SocietyCaves, Jeremy K.; Bodner, Gitanjali S.; Simms, Karen; Fisher, Larry A.; Robertson, Tahnee2013
The case for improved forest management (IFM) as a priority REDD plus strategy in the tropicsTropical Conservation ScienceGriscom, Bronson W.; Cortez, Rane2013
From Danggali to Riverland: experiences from the Bookmark Biosphere Reserve, South AustraliaMackenzie, Duncan; Fitzsimons, James2013
'Networking the networks': coordinating Conservation Management Networks in VictoriaCrosthwaite, Jim; Fitzsimons, James; Stanley, Julia; Greacen, Jane2013
The importance of interdisciplinary research in conservation networks: lessons from south-eastern AustraliaFitzsimons, James; Wescott, Geoff2013
Challenges and opportunities for linking Australia's landscapes: a synthesisFitzsimons, James; Pulsford, Ian; Wescott, Geoff2013
The role of marine protected areas in alleviating poverty in the Asia-Pacificvan Beukering, Pieter J. H.; Scherl, Lea M.; Leisher, Craig2013
Tapped out: how can cities secure their water future?Water PolicyRichter, Brian D.; Abell, David; Bacha, Emily; Brauman, Kate; Calos, Stavros; Cohn, Alex; Disla, Carlos; O'Brien, Sarah Friedlander; Hodges, David; Kaiser, Scott; Loughran, Maria; Mestre, Cristina; Reardon, Melissa; Siegfried, Emma2013
The Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) decline in the western hemisphere: is there a lemming connection?Canadian Journal Of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De ZoologieFraser, J. D.; Karpanty, S. M.; Cohen, J. B.; Truitt, B. R.2013
Bird assemblage response to restoration of fire-suppressed longleaf pine sandhillsEcological ApplicationsSteen, David A.; Conner, L. M.; Smith, Lora L.; Provencher, Louis; Hiers, J. Kevin; Pokswinski, Scott; Helms, Brian S.; Guyer, Craig2013
Reptile assemblage response to restoration of fire-suppressed longleaf pine sandhillsEcological ApplicationsSteen, David A.; Smith, Lora L.; Conner, L. M.; Litt, Andrea R.; Provencher, Louis; Hiers, J. Kevin; Pokswinski, Scott; Guyer, Craig2013
The relevance of wetland conservation in arid regions: A re-examination of vanishing communities in the American SouthwestJournal Of Arid EnvironmentsMinckley, T. A.; Turner, D. S.; Weinstein, S. R.2013
A Five-year Record Mast Production and Climate in Contrasting Mixed-oak-hickory Forests on the Mashomack Preserve, Long Island, New York, USANatural Areas JournalAbrams, Marc D.; Scheibel, Michael S.2013
From model outputs to conservation action: Prioritizing locations for implementing agricultural best management practices in a Midwestern watershedJournal of Soil and Water ConservationLegge, J. T.; Doran, P. J.; Herbert, M. E.; Asher, J.; O'Neil, G.; Mysorekar, S.; Sowa, S.; Hall, K. R.2013
Quantifying the Loss of a Marine Ecosystem Service: Filtration by the Eastern Oyster in US EstuariesEstuaries And CoastsErmgassen, Philine S. E. Zu; Spalding, Mark D.; Grizzle, Raymond E.; Brumbaugh, Robert D.2013
Assessing risk associated with sea-level rise and storm surge-ReduxNatural HazardsShepard, Christine C.; Agostini, Vera N.; Gilmer, Ben; Allen, Tashya; Stone, Jeff; Brooks, William; Beck, Michael W.2013
Response of an ecological indicator to landscape composition and structure: Implications for functional units of temperate rainforest ecosystemsEcological IndicatorsShanley, Colin S.; Pyare, Sanjay; Smith, Winston P.2013
Employing lidar data to identify butterfly habitat characteristics of four contrasting butterfly species across a diverse landscapeRemote Sensing LettersHess, Anna N.; Falkowski, Michael J.; Webster, Christopher R.; Storer, Andrew J.; Pocewicz, Amy; Martinuzzi, Sebastian2013
In their own words: Perceptions of climate change adaptation from the Great Lakes regionÕs resource management communityEnvironmental PracticePetersen, B.C., K.R. Hall, K.J. Kahl, and P.J. Doran2013
Rapid assessment of plant and animal vulnerability to climate changeYoung, B.E, K.R. Hall, E. Byers, K. Gravuer, G. Hammerson, A. Redder, and K. Szabo2013Chapter 7
In their own words: Perceptions of climate change adaptation from the Great Lakes regionÕs resource management communityEnvironmental PracticePetersen, B.C., K.R. Hall, K.J. Kahl, and P.J. Doran2013
Landscape conservation forecastingª for Great Basin National ParkPark ScienceProvencher, L., T. Anderson, G. Low, B. Hamilton, T. Williams, and B. Roberts2013
Forest restoration in a changing world: complexity and adaptation examples from the Great Lakes region of North AmericaCornett, M. and M. White2013
DECISION-MAKING INPUTS FOR THE CONSERVATION OF THE WESTERN AMAZON BASINEcolog’a AplicadaJosse, C., B. Young, R. Lyons-Smyth, T. Brroks, A. Frances, P. Petry, H. Balslev, B. Bassuner, B. Goettsch, J. Hak, P. Jorgensen, D. Larrea-Alc‡zar, G. Navarro, S. Saatchi, A. Sanchez de Lozana, J. C. Svenning, L. A. Tovar & A. Moscoso2013
Community Participation and Benefits in REDD+: A Review of Initial Outcomes and LessonsForestsKathleen Lawlor, Erin Myers Madeira, Jill Blockhus, and David J. Ganz2013
A Transactional and Collaborative Approach to Reducing Effects of Bottom TrawlingConservation BiologyMARY GLEASON, ERIKA M. FELLER, MATT MERRIFIELD, STEPHEN COPPS, ROD FUJITA, MICHAEL BELL, STEVE RIENECKE, AND CHUCK COOK2013
Habitat re-creation (ecological restoration) as a strategy for conserving insect communities in highly fragmented landscapesInsectsShuey, J. A.2013
A comparison of zoning analyses to inform the planning of a marine protected area network in Raja Ampat, IndonesiaMarine PolicyHS Grantham, VN Agostini, J Wilson, S Mangubhai, N Hidayat, A Muljadi, C Rotinsulu, M Mongdong, MW Beck, HP Possingham2013
Marine spatial planning in practiceEstuarine, Coastal and Shelf ScienceJS Collie, MW Beck, B Craig, TE Essington, D Fluharty, J Rice, JN Sanchirico2013
Assessing risk associated with sea-level rise and storm surgeÑReduxNatural hazardsCC Shepard, VN Agostini, B Gilmer, T Allen, J Stone, W Brooks, MW Beck2013
Winter management of California's rice fields to maximize waterbird habitat and minimize water useAgriculture Ecosystems and EnvironmentStrum, K. M., Reiter, M. E., Hartman, C. A., Iglecia, M. N., Kelsey, T. R., &amp; Hickey, C. M.2013
An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of MexicoOcean Studies Board; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council2013
Protecting Marine Spaces: global targets and changing approaches.Ocean YearbookSpalding, M.D., I. Meliane, A. Milam, C. Fitzgerald, L.Z. Hale2013 to the marine environment are complex, multiple, and often overlapping or synergistic. Mitigating these threats, likewise, is not simple, but rather relies on multiple management approaches, ranging from controls on fishing, sand and gravel extraction, energy development, shipping, and waste water disposal, to active interventions such as restoration and re-stocking, through to managing ex situ threats by managing human activities in adjacent watersheds. Among this array of approaches, one of the key tools for conservation has been marine protected areas.
A landscape-based assessment of climate change vulnerability for all native Hawaiian plantsFortini, Lucas; Price, Jonathan; Jacobi, James; Vorsino, Adam; Burgett, Jeff; Brinck, Kevin W.; Amidon, Fred; Miller, Steve; Gon III, Sam `Ohukani`ohi`a; Koob, Gregory; Paxton, Eben2013 Cooperative Studies Unit Technical Report
Scientific foundations for an IUCN Red List of Ecosystems.PLOS ONEKeith, D.A., J.P. Rodr’guez, K.M. Rodr’guez-Clark, K. Aapala, A. Alonso, M. Asmussen, S. Bachman, A. Bassett, E.G. Barrow, J.S. Benson, M.J. Bishop, R. Bonifacio, T.M. Brooks, M.A. Burgman, P. Comer, F.A. Com’n, F. Essl, D. Faber-Langendoen, P.G. Fairweather, R. Holdaway, M. Jennings, R.T. Kingsford, R.E. Lester, R.M. Nally, M.A. McCarthy, J. Moat, E. Nicholson, M.A. Oliveira-Miranda, P. Pisanu, B. Poulin, U. Riecken, M.D. Spalding, S. Zambrano-Mart’nez2013 understanding of risks to biodiversity is needed for planning action to slow current rates of decline and secure ecosystem services for future human use. Although the IUCN Red List criteria provide an effective assessment protocol for species, a standard global assessment of risks to higher levels of biodiversity is currently limited. In 2008, IUCN initiated development of risk assessment criteria to support a global Red List of ecosystems. We present a new conceptual model for ecosystem risk assessment founded on a synthesis of relevant ecological theories. To support the model, we review key elements of ecosystem definition and introduce the concept of ecosystem collapse, an analogue of species extinction. The model identifies four distributional and functional symptoms of ecosystem risk as a basis for assessment criteria&#58; A) rates of decline in ecosystem distribution; B) restricted distributions with continuing declines or threats; C) rates of environmental (abiotic) degradation; and D) rates of disruption to biotic processes. A fifth criterion, E) quantitative estimates of the risk of ecosystem collapse, enables integrated assessment of multiple processes and provides a conceptual anchor for the other criteria. We present the theoretical rationale for the construction and interpretation of each criterion. The assessment protocol and threat categories mirror those of the IUCN Red List of species. A trial of the protocol on terrestrial, subterranean, freshwater and marine ecosystems from around the world shows that its concepts are workable and its outcomes are robust, that required data are available, and that results are consistent with assessments carried out by local experts and authorities. The new protocol provides a consistent, practical and theoretically grounded framework for establishing a systematic Red List of the worldÕs ecosystems. This will complement the Red List of species and strengthen global capacity to report on and monitor the status of biodiversity.IUCN, Ecosystems, Marine Ecosystems
A New Map of Standardized Terrestrial Ecosystems of AfricaSayre, R., P. Comer, J. Hak, C. Josse, J. Bow, H. Warner, M. Larwanou, E. Kelbessa, T. Bekele, H. Kehl, R. Amena, R. Andriamasimanana, T. Ba, L. Benson, T. Boucher, M. Brown, J. Cress, O. Dassering, B. Friesen, F. Gachathi, S. Houcine, M. Keita, E. Khamala, D. Marangu, F. Mokua, B. Morou, L. Mucina, S. Mugisha, E. Mwavu, M. Rutherford, P. Sanou, S. Syampungani, B. Tomor, A. Vall, J. Vande Weghe, E. Wangui, L. Waruingi2013 ecosystems and vegetation of Africa were classified and mapped as part of a larger effort and global protocol (GEOSS Ð the Global Earth Observation System of Systems), which includes an activity to map terrestrial ecosystems of the earth in a standardized, robust, and practical manner, and at the finest possible spatial resolution. To model the potential distribution of ecosystems, new continental datasets for several key physical environment datalayers (including coastline, landforms, surficial lithol - ogy, and bioclimates) were developed at spatial and classification resolutions finer than existing similar datalayers. A hierarchical vegetation classification was developed by African ecosystem scientists and vegetation geographers, who also provided sample locations of the newly classified vegetation units. The vegetation types and ecosystems were then mapped across the continent using a classification and regres - sion tree (CART) inductive model, which predicted the potential distribution of vegetation types from a suite of biophysical environmental attributes including bioclimate region, biogeographic region, surficial lithology, landform, elevation and land cover. Multi-scale ecosystems were classified and mapped in an increasingly detailed hierarchical framework using vegetation-based concepts of class, subclass, forma - tion, division, and macrogroup levels. The finest vegetation units (macrogroups) classified and mapped in this effort are defined using diagnostic plant species and diagnostic growth forms that reflect biogeo - graphic differences in composition and sub-continental to regional differences in mesoclimate, geology, substrates, hydrology, and disturbance regimes (FGDC, 2008). The macrogroups are regarded as me - so-scale (100s to 10,000s of hectares) ecosystems. A total of 126 macrogroup types were mapped, each with multiple, repeating occurrences on the landscape. The modeling effort was implemented at a base spatial resolution of 90 m. In addition to creating several rich, new continent-wide biophysical datalayers describing African vegetation and ecosystems, our intention was to explore feasible approaches to rapidly moving this type of standardized, continent-wide, ecosystem classification and mapping effort forward.Special supplement to the African Geographical Review
Ctenotus regius (Regal Striped Skunk): PredationHerpetological ReviewFitzsimons, J.A. and J.L. Thomas2012
Economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by oyster reefsBioScienceGrabowski, J. H., R. Brumbaugh, R. Conrad, A. Keeler, J.J. Opaluch, C.H. Peterson, M. Piehler, S.P. Powers and A.R. Smyth2012
An ecosystem service-based watershed approach to wetland conservation in the Great Lakes basinNational Wetlands NewsletterMiller, N., J. Wagner, and T. Bernthal2012
Planting practices to maximize Garry oak seedling performance in a semiarid environmentNorthwest ScienceBakker, J.D., L.J. Colasurdo, and J.R. Evans2012
Connectivity restoration in large landscapes: Modeling landscape condition and ecological flowsEcological RestorationBaldwin, R.F., S.E. Reed, B.H. McRae, D.M. Theobald, and R.W. Sutherland2012
Global diversity of drought tolerance and grassland climate-change resilienceNature Climate ChangeCraine, J.M., T.W. Ocheltree, J.B. Nippert, E.G. Towne, A.M. Skibbe, S.W. Kembel, and J.E. Fargione2012
Understanding rarity: A review of recent conceptual advances and implications for conservation of rare speciesThe Forestry ChronicleDrever, C.R., M.C. Drever and D.J.H. Sleep2012
Ground-foraging techniques of welcome swallows (Hirundo neoxena), including an instance of kleptoparasitismAustralian Field OrnithologyFitzsimons, J.A. and J.L. Thomas2012
Ecology-poverty considerations for developing sustainable biomass energy optionsIntegrating Ecology and Poverty ReductionGanz, D.J., D.S. Saah, J. Blockhus, and C. Leisher2012
Performance of satellite data sets in monitoring burn events on the Refugio-Goliad Prairie LandscapeFire Management TodayGuse, R. and K. Feuerbacher2012
Grassland restoration with and without fire: evidence from a tree-removal experimentEcological ApplicationsHalpern, C. B., R. D. Haugo, J. A. Antos, S. S. Kaas, and A. L. Kilanowski2012
Safeguarding the blue planet: Six strategies for accelerating ocean protectionParksHastings, J., S. Thomas, V. Burgener, K. Gjerde, D. Laffoley, R. Salm et al2012
Conservation in tropical Pacific Island countries: Case studies of successful programmesParksKeppel, G., C. Morrison, H. Hardcastle, I.A. Rounds, I.K. Wilmott, F. Hurahura, and P.K. Shed2012
Distributions of Indo-Pacific lionfishes Pterois spp. in their native ranges: Implications for the Atlantic invasionMarine Ecology Progress SeriesKulbicki, M., J. Beets, P. Chabanet, K. Cure, E. Darling, S.R. Floeter, R. Galzin, A. Green et al2012
A conceptual model for floodplains in the Sacremento-San Joaquin DeltaSan Francisco Estuary and Watershed ScienceOpperman, J. J2012
An evaluation of Internet versus paper-based methods for Public Participation Geographic Information Systems (PPGIS)Transactions in GISPocewicz, A., M. Nielsen-Pincus, G. Brown, and R. Schnitzer2012
Are investments to promote biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services aligned?Oxford Review of Economic PolicyPolasky, S., K. Johnson, B. Keeler, K. Kovacs, E. Nelson, D. Pennington, A.J. Plantinga, and J. Withey2012
Ocean conservation in a high CO2 world: the need to evaluate new approachesNature Climate ChangeRau, G.H., E. Mcleod, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg2012
Measuring the success of the Management Capacity Building Program for marine protected areas in the Gulf of CaliforniaKnowledge Management for Development JournalWong-Perez, K.J. and C.L. Thaler2012
Shifting restoration policy to address landscape change, novel ecosystems, and monitoringEcology and SocietyZedler, J.B., J.M. Doherty & N.A. Miller2012
A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2013Trends in Ecology and EvolutionSutherland, W.J., S. Bardsley, M. Clout, M.H. Depledge, L.V. Dicks, L. Fellman, E. Fleishman, D.W. Gibbons, B. Keim, F. Lickorish, C. Margerison, K.A. Monk, K. Norris, L.S. Peck, S.V. Prior, J.P.W. Scharlemann, M.D. Spalding, and A.R. Watkinson2012
Innovation for 21st Century ConservationAustralian Committee for IUCN, SydneyFiggis, P., J. Fitzsimons and J. Irving (eds)2012
Securing the future of mangroves: A policy briefHamilton, Canada, UNU-INWEH, UNESCO MAB with ISME, ITTO, FAO, UNEP WCMC and TNCVan Lavieren, H., M. Spalding, D. Alongi, M. Kainuma, M. ClÙsener-Godt, and Z. Adeel2012
Achieving fisheries and conservation objectives within marine protected areas: Zoning the Raja Ampat networkThe Nature Conservancy, Indo-Pacific Division, DenpasarAgostini, V. N., H.S. Grantham, J. Wilson, S. Mangubhai, C. Rotinsulu, N. Hidayat, A. Muljadi, Muhajir, M. Mongdong, A. Darmawan, L. Rumetna, M.V. Erdmann, and H.P. Possingham2012
Coastal habitats and risk reductionWorld Risk Report Beck, M.W. and C.C. Shepard2012
Cows, cockies and atlases: Use and abuse of biodiversity monitoring in environmental decision makingBiodiversity Monitoring in AustraliaFitzsimons, J2012
Innovative approaches to land acquisition and conservation management: the case of Fish River Station, Northern TerritoryInnovation for 21st Century ConservationFitzsimons, J. and M. Looker2012
Identifying conservation priorities using a return on investment analysis.Game, E.2012
Developing a framework for assessing coastal vulnerability to sea level rise in Southern New England, USAGilmer, B. and Z. FerdaÐa2012
Passing the baton of action from research to conservation implementation for Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea)Ornitologia NeotropicalHamel, P.B, D. Mehlman, S.K. Herzog, K.V. Rosenberg, J. Jones2012
Bumphead parrotfish - Bolbometopon muricatumReef Fish Spawning Aggregations: Biology, Research and Management, Springer, Fish & Fisheries SeriesHamilton R.J. and Choat J.H2012
Restoration of tidal flow to salt marshes: The Maine ExperienceKachmar, Jon L2012
A practical guide to environmental flows for policy and planning, with nine case studies from the United StatesKendy, E., C. Apse, and K. Blann2012
Role of simulation models in understanding the salt marsh restoration processTidal Marsh Restoration: A Synthesis of Science and ManagementKonisky, R.A2012
Protecting ChinaÍs biodiversity: A guide to land use, land tenure and land protection toolsKram, M. C. Bedford, M. Durnin, Y. Luo, K. Rokpelnis, B. Roth, N. Smith, Y. Wang, G. Yu, Q. Yu, and X. Zhao2012
Species conservation value of private non-industrial forestlandKroeger, T2012
Making monitoring work: Lessons from The Nature ConservancyMontambault, J., and C. Groves2012
Power generation and ecosystem restoration: United States (Penobscot River Basin, Maine)Water and Green GrowthOpperman, J. J2012
Khawa Karpo: Tibetan Traditional Knowledge and Biodiversity ConservationSalick, Jan, and Robert K. Moseley2012
Conflict management, decentralization and agropastoralism in dryland West AfricaWorld DevelopmentTurner, M.D., A.A. Ayantunde, K.P. Patterson, and E.D. Patterson2012
Modeling on the Grand Scale: LANDFIRE Lessons Learned. PNW-GTR-869Blankenship, K., J. Smith, R. Swaty, A. Shlisky, J. Patton, S.Hagen2012Portland, OR
Ocean acidification„ManagementMcLeod, E., and K.R.N. Anthony2012
Evaluating the scientific support of conservation best management practices for shale gas extraction in the Appalachian BasinEnvironmental PracticeBearer, S., E. Nicholas, T. Gagnolet, M. DePhilip, T. Moberg, and N. Johnson2012
Distribution of the long-footed potoroo (Potorous longipes) and spot-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus) in the Goolengook Forest, East Gippsland, VictoriaAustralian MammalogyElsner, W.K., Mitchell, A.T. & Fitzsimons, J.A2012
Wind and wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: Identifying low-impact areas for wind developmentPLoS ONEFargione, J., J. Kiesecker, M.J. Slaats, and S. Olimb2012
Do private conservation activities match science-based conservation priorities?PLoS ONEFisher, J. and B. Dills2012
Insights into the biodiversity and social benchmarking components of the Northern Australian fire management and carbon abatement programmesEcological Management and RestorationFitzsimons, J., Russell-Smith, J., James, G., Vigilante, T., Lipsett-Moore, G., Morrison, J. & Looker, M2012
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Developing ecological criteria for sustainable water management in MinnesotaThe Nature ConservancyBlann K, Kendy E2012
Climate Change in the Midwest: Impacts on Biodiversity and EcosystemsHall, K.R2012
Climate change and biodiversity in the Great Lakes Region: From ÒfingerprintsÓ of change to helping safeguard speciesHall, K.R. and T.L. Root2012
Modeling Conservation LinkagesSingleton, P.H. and B.H. McRae2012
Integrating climate change into conservation planning in Washington State and the Pacific NorthwestKrosby, M., J. Hoffman, J.J. Lawler, and B.H. McRae2012
Fishes of the Fitzcarrald, Peruvian AmazonJames Albert, Tiago Carvalho, Junior Chuctaya, Paulo Petry, Roberto Reis, Blanca Rengifo and Hernan Ortega2012
Influence of Herbicide Site Preparation on Longleaf Pine Ecosystem Development and Fire ManagementSouthern Journal of Applied ForestryAddington RN, Greene TA, Elmore ML, Prior CE, Harrison WC2012
Long-term management of an invasive plant: lessons from seven years of Phragmites australis controlNortheastern NaturalistLombard, K.B., D. Tomassi, and J. Ebersole2012
Costs of Achieving Current Protected Area Conservation Goals Under Future Climate ChangeConservation BiologyShaw, M.R., K. Klausmeyer, D.R. Cameron, J.B. MacKenzie, P. Roehrdanz2012
TNC's whole-system freshwater conservation projectsKendy E, Smith MP, Higgins J, Benjamin G, Hawes T, Lutz K, McGrath D, Reuter M.2012
Water funds and payments for ecosystem services: Practice learns from theory and theory can learn from practiceOryxGoldman-Benner RL, S Benitez, A Calvache, G Daily, P Kareiva, T Kroeger and A Ramos2012
Endemism lost: Lecanora pallidochlorina (Lecanorales, Lichenized Ascomycotina) in the Great Plains, U.S.A.Opuscula PhilolichenumDOUGLAS LADD & CALEB MORSE2012
Endemism lost: Lecanora pallidochlorina (Lecanorales, Lichenized Ascomycotina) in the Great Plains, U.S.A.Opuscula PhilolichenumDOUGLAS LADD & CALEB MORSE2012
Assessing the invasion risk of Eucalyptus in the U.S. using the Australian Weed Risk Assessment.International Journal of Forestry ResearchGordon, D.R., S.L. Flory, A.L. Cooper, and S.K. Morris.2012
Experimental approaches for evaluating the invasion risk of biofuel crops.Environmental Research Letters Flory, S.L., K.A. Lorenz, D.R. Gordon and L.E. Sollenberger.2012
Weed Risk Assessment for Aquatic Plants: Modification of a New Zealand system for the United States.PLoS ONEGordon, D.R., C.A. Gantz, C.L. Jerde, W.L. Chadderton, R.P. Keller, and P.D. Champion.2012
Catching the right wave: evaluating wave energy resources and potential compatibility with existing marine and coastal usesPLoS ONEC. Kim, J.E. Toft, M. Papenfus, G. Verutes, A.D. Guerry, M.H. Ruckelshaus, K.K. Arkema, G. Guannel, S.A. Wood, J.R. Bernhardt, H.Tallis, M.L. Plummer, B.S. Halpern, M.L. Pinsky, M.W. Beck, F. Chan, K.M.A. Chan, P.S. Levin, S. Polasky2012;doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0047598&amp;representation=PDF
Evaluating alternative future sea-level rise scenariosNatural hazardsCC Shepard, VN Agostini, B Gilmer, T Allen, J Stone, W Brooks, MW Beck2012
Modeling benefits from nature: using ecosystem services to inform coastal and marine spatial planningInternational Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & ManagementGuerry, A. D., Ruckelshaus, M. H., Arkema, K. K., Bernhardt, J. R., Guannel, G., Kim, C. K., ... & Spencer, J.2012
Assessing future risk: quantifying the effects of sea level rise on storm surge risk for the southern shores of Long Island, New YorkNatural HazardsCC Shepard, VN Agostini, B Gilmer, T Allen, J Stone, W Brooks, MW Beck2012
Simulating Treatment Effects in Pine-Oak Forests of the Ouachita MountainsShlisky, A., K. Blankenship,ÊS. Cochran2012 land management decisionmaking depends on scientifically sound analyses of management alternatives relative to desired future conditions and environmental effects. We used a state-and-transition model to evaluate likely future landscape conditions in a pine-oak forest on the Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas based on current and potential future alternative management actions. Our objectives were to&#58; (1) demonstrate the use of state-and-transition models in project planning, and (2) create simple Òwhat ifÓ scenarios to supplement the project environmental impact assessment and facilitate more informed decisionmaking through relative comparisons. We used the model to simulate and compare the effects of several management alternatives&#58; A. Current Management B. Regeneration Harvest/Thinning C. Woodland Management D. Regeneration Harvest/Thinning + Climate Change E. Woodland Management + Climate Change The effects of these alternatives were also compared against modeled ecological reference conditions. At the time of the study, a national forest interdisciplinary team was completing a project-level environmental assessment of alternative management scenarios across the 16,700 acre Lower Irons Fork/Johnson Creek watershed. The watershed is located within the Ouachita National Forest near the town of Mena in western Arkansas. It is comprised primarily of pine-oak forest and woodland and has a history of active fire management. The watershed is a drinking water source for the town of Mena, Arkansas, offers recreational opportunities including hunting and fishing, and is home to two federally-endangered species&#58; the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) and the harperella plant (Ptilimnium nodosumis). We modified the LANDFIRE Ozark-Ouachita Shortleaf Pine-Oak Forest and Woodland model (USDA FS and USDI 2009) using stand exam and other forest data to represent current landscape structure and disturbance probabilities. Timber harvest volume per acre coefficients were estimated from a similar nearby project, and smoke production values for particulate matter (PM 10 and 2.5) were estimated from the First Order Fire Effects Model. Forest colleagues and U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station scientists provided peer review. We used the Vegetation Dynamics Development Tool and the Path Landscape Model, a state-and-transition modeling framework and platform, to simulate the effects of the various alternatives after 10 years. 260 GTR-NRS-P-102 Proceedings of the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference Our results indicate that a woodland management emphasis generally yielded landscape structure and fire frequencies closer to the desired future condition specified in the 2005 Ouachita National Forest Revised Forest Plan (USDA FS 2005) compared to a regeneration harvest/thinning emphasis (Figs. 1 and 2). When potential climate effects were considered, the woodland management emphasis also yielded greater smoke (Fig. 3) and woody biomass harvest outputs (Fig. 4) than the regeneration harvest/thinning emphasis. These findings suggest that Forest Plan revisions should reevaluate the desired future conditions for pine-oak forest in light of the fact that it does not currently include a standard for mid-seral forest structure, and that the existing desired future condition standard for late seral open woodland is lower than LANDFIRE reference conditions. While the model outputs have proven to be useful, the process forced the team to test assumptions and document knowledge, two intangible but valuable outcomes.Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-102, Springfield, Missouri
Getting to scale with environmental flow assessment: the watershed flow evaluation toolRiver Research and ApplicationsJ. S. Sanderson, N. Rowan, T. Wilding, B. P. Bledsoe, W. J. Miller, N. L. Poff2012Growing water demand across the world is increasing the stress on river ecosystems, causing concern for both biodiversity and people. River-specific environmental flow assessments cannot keep pace with the rate and geographic extent of water development. Society needs methods to assess ecological impacts of flow management at broad scales so that appropriate regional management can be implemented. To meet this need in Colorado, USA, we developed a Watershed Flow Evaluation Tool (WFET) to estimate flow-related ecological risk at a regional scale. The WFET entails four steps&#58; (i) modelling natural and developed daily streamflows; (ii) analysing the resulting flow time series; (iii) describing relationships between river attributes and flow metrics (flowÐecology relationships); and (iv) mapping of flow-related risk for trout, native warm-water species and riparian plant communities. We developed this tool in two watersheds with differing geomorphic settings and data availability. In one of the two watersheds, the WFET was successfully implemented to assess ecological risk across the 3400-km2 watershed, providing consistent watershed-wide information on flow-related risk. In the other watershed, active channel change and limited data precluded a successful application. In Colorado, the WFET will be used to evaluate the risk of impacts on river ecosystems under future climate change and water development scenarios (e.g. for energy development or municipal water supply). As water continues to be developed for people, the WFET and similar methods will provide a cost-effective means to evaluate and balance ecosystem needs at large scales.
Groundwater use by native plants in response to changes in precipitation in an intermountain basinJournal of Arid EnvironmentsJ.A. Kray; D.J. Cooper; J.S. Sanderson2012Many arid basins in western North America are likely to experience future changes in precipitation timing and amount. Where shallow water tables occur, plant acquisition of groundwater and soil water may be influenced by growing season precipitation. We conducted a rainfall manipulation experiment to investigate responses of four common native plant species to ambient, increased, and decreased summer monsoon rainfall. We measured plant xylem pressure potentials (_) and stable oxygen isotope signatures (_18O) to assess effects of altered precipitation on plant water relations and water acquisition patterns. Reduced rainfall decreased _ more in the grasses Sporobolus airoides and Distichlis spicata than the more deeply rooted shrubs Sarcobatus vermiculatus and Ericameria nauseosa. E. nauseosa had little response to natural or experimental differences in available soil water. Plant xylem water _18O indicated that S. airoides and D. spicata are almost entirely dependent on rain-recharged soil water, while E. nauseosa is almost entirely groundwater-dependent. Sarcobatus vermiculatus used groundwater during dry periods, but utilized precipitation from soil layers after large rainfall events. Persistent changes in precipitation patterns could cause shifts in plant community composition that may alter basin-scale groundwater consumption by native plants, affecting water availability for human and ecosystem uses.
A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2012.Trends in Ecology and EvolutionSutherland, W.J., R. Aveling, L. Bennun, E. Chapman, M. Clout, I.M. C™tŽ, M.H. Depledge, L.V. Dicks, A.P. Dobson, L. Fellman, E. Fleishman, D.W. Gibbons, B. Keim, F. Lickorish, D.B. Lindenmayer, K.A. Monk, K. Norris, L.S. Peck, S.V. Prior, J.P.W. Scharlemann, M. Spalding, A.R. Watkinson2012Our aim in conducting annual horizon scans is to identify issues that, although currently receiving little attention, may be of increasing importance to the conservation of biological diversity in the future. The 15 issues presented here were identified by a diverse team of 22 experts in horizon scanning, and conservation science and its application. Methods for identifying and refining issues were the same as in two previous annual scans and are widely transferable to other disciplines. The issues highlight potential changes in climate, technology and human behaviour. Examples include warming of the deep sea, increased cultivation of perennial grains, burning of Arctic tundra, and the development of nuclear batteries and hydrokinetic in-stream conservation
River Floodplain Restoration Experiments Offer a Window into the PastSwenson, R. O., Reiner, R. J., Reynolds, M., Marty, J.2012Chapter 15
Assessing the invasive potential of biofuel species proposed for Florida and the United States using the Australian weed risk assessmentBiomass and BioenergyGordon, D.R., K.J. Tancig, D.A. Onderdonk and C.A. Gantz2011
Livelihood transitions and the changing nature of farmer-herder conflict in Sahelian West AfricaJournal of Development StudiesTurner, M., A. Ayantunde, K. Patterson, and E. Patterson2011agriculture
Do not stop: The importance of seamless monitoring and enforcement in an Indonesian marine protected areaJournal of Marine BiologyMangubhai, S., M. Saleh, Suprayitno, A. Muljadi, Purwanto, K. L. Rhodes, and K. Tjandra2011
Aquatic biodiversity in the Amazon: Habitat specialization and geographic isolation promote species richnessAnimalsAlbert, J. S., Carvalho, T. P. Petry, P., Holder, M. A., Maxime, E. L., Espino, J., et al2011
Predation of a small passerine by the Purple-winged Roller (Coracias temminckii), an endemic species of SulawesiKukilaArgeloo, M. and J. Fitzsimons2011
Management strategies for invasive plants in Pacific Northwest prairies,æ savannas, and oak woodlandsNorthwest ScienceDennehy, C., E. R. Alverson, H. E. Anderson, D. R. Clements, R. Gilbert, and T. N. Kaye2011
Ecological notes on the East Gippsland Burrowing Crayfish (Engaeus orientalis), including burrow structure and associated faunaAustralian ZoologistFitzsimons, J.A. & Antos, M.J2011
Predation on a blotched bluetongue lizard (Tiliqua nigroletea) by a highlands copperhead (Austrelaps ramsayi) in the Blue Mountains, AustraliaHerpetology NotesFitzsimons, J.A2011
Southward range expansion of the Mourning Gecko (Lepidodactylus lugubris) on mainland Australia and nearshore islandsAustralian ZoologistFitzsimons, J.A2011
FijiÍs collared kingfishers (Todiramphus chloris vitensis) do hunt for fish in inland watersNotornisFitzsimons, J.A. and Thomas, J.L2011
Flooding requirements for biodiversity values along the Victorian floodplain of the Murray ValleyVictorian NaturalistFitzsimons, J.A., P. Peake, D. Frood, M. Mitchell, N. Withers, M. White and R. Webster2011
Emerging marine protected area networks in the Coral Triangle: Lessons and way forwardConservation and SocietyGreen, S.J., A.T. White, P. Christie, S. Kilarski, A.B.T. Meneses, G. Samonte-Tan, L.B. Karrer, H. Fox, S. Campbell, and J.D. Claussen2011
Documenting diversity: The Madrean Archipelago Biodiversity Assessment (MABA)Journal of BiocommunicationHedgcock, C., and D. Turner2011
Habitat selection and dispersal of the cobblestone tiger beetle (Cicindela marginipennis Dejean) along the Genesee River, New YorkAmerican Midland NaturalistHudgins, R., C. Norment, M.D. Schlesinger, and P.G. Novak2011
Iowa UNESCO-HELP: From capacity building to on-the- ground actionJournal of Hydrological EnvironmentMuste, M., J. Filipiak, and C. Spitzack2011
Sea turtles of the Phoenix Islands, 2000-2002Atoll Research BulletinObura D., S. Mangubhai, and A. Yoshinaga2011
Baseline marine biological surveys of the Phoenix Islands, July 2000Atoll Research BulletinObura D.O., G. Stone, S. Mangubhai, S. Bailey, A. Yoshinaga, C. Holloway, and R. Barrel2011
Coastal benthic habitat mapping to support marine resource planning and management in St. Kitts and NevisGeography CompassSchill, S.R., J.E. Knowles, G. Rowlands, S. Margles, V. Agostini, and R. Blyther2011
Comparison of hand-pollinated and naturally pollinated Puget Balsamroot (Balsamorhiza deltoidea Nutt) to determine pollinator limitations on South Puget Sound lowland prairiesFazzino, L., H.E. Kirkpatrick, and C. Fimbel2011
Reefs at Risk RevisitedBurke, L., K. Reytar, M. Spalding, and A.L. Perry2011
TNC Raja Ampat marine protect area perception monitoring trend analysisHess, S., S.N. Larsen, and C. Leisher2011
Benefits of supporting plant and animal eradication projects with helicoptersKnapp, J. J., T. Schuyler, K. N. Walker, N. L. Macdonald, and S. A. Morrison2011
The essential nonscience of eradication programmes: creating conditions for successIsland Invasives: Eradication and ManagementMorrison, S. A., K. R. Faulkner, L. A. Vermeer, L. Lozier, and M. R. Shaw2011
Trophic considerations in eradicating multiple pestsIsland Invasives: Eradication and ManagementMorrison, S.A2011
Argentine ants on Santa Cruz Island, California: conservation issues and management optionsRandall, J. M., K. R. Faulkner, C. Boser, C. Cory, P. Power, L. A. Vermeer, L. Lozier, and S. A. Morrison2011
Increasing the return on investments in island restorationIsland Invasives: Eradication and ManagementSaunders, A., J. P. Parkes, A. Aguirre-MuÐoz, and S. A. Morrison2011
Predictions of ecological and social implications of alternative residential development policies to inform decision making in a rural landscapeConservation LettersGoldberg, Caren S., A. Pocewicz, M. Nielsen-Pincus, L.P. Waits, P. Morgan, J.E. Force, and L.A. Vierling2011
Global urban growth and the geography of water availability, quality and deliveryAmbioMcDonald, R.I., I. Doublas, C. Revenga, R. Hale, N. Grimm, J. Gronwall, and B. Fekete2011
Development by design: Mitigating wind development's impacts on wildlife in KansasPLoS ONEObermeyer, B., R. Manes, J. Kiesecker, J. Fargione, and K. Sochi2011
A new approach to determining environmental flow requirements: Sustaining the natural values of floodplains of the southern Murray-Darling BasinEcological Management and RestorationPeake, P., J. Fitzsimons, D. Frood, M. Mitchell, N. Withers, M. White, and R. Webster2011
Predator- induced demographic shifts in coral reef fish assemblagesPLoS ONERuttenberg B.I., S.L. Hamilton, S.M. Walsh, M.K. Donovan, A. Friedlander, et al2011
Status and conservation of an imperiled tiger beetle fauna in New York State, USAJournal of Insect ConservationSchlesinger, M.D., and P.G. Novak2011
Assessment of sea level rise impacts on human population and real property in the Florida KeysClimatic ChangeZhang, K., J. Dittmar, M. Ross, and C. Bergh2011
Striking a Balance: Socioeconomic Development and Conservation in Grassland through Community-Based ZoningPLoS ONELeisher, Craig; Brouwer, Roy; Boucher, Timothy M.; Vogelij, Rogier; Bainbridge, W. R.; Sanjayan, M.2011
Systematic Conservation Planning in the Face of Climate Change: Bet-Hedging on the Columbia PlateauPLoS ONESchloss, Carrie A.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Larson, Eric R.; Papendick, Hilary L.; Case, Michael J.; Evans, Daniel M.; Delap, Jack H.; Langdon, Jesse G. R.; Hall, Sonia A.; Mcrae, Brad H.2011
Quantifying the Spatial Ecology of Wide-Ranging Marine Species in the Gulf of California: Implications for Marine Conservation PlanningPLoS ONEDaniel Anadon, Jose; D'Agrosa, Caterina; Gondor, Anne; Gerber, Leah R.2011
Brackenridgia Ashleyi (Isopoda: Trichoniscidae): Range Extension With Notes On EcologyJournal Of Cave And Karst StudiesSlay, Michael E.; Taylor, Steven J.2011
Larval Sucker Distribution And Condition Before And After Large-Scale Restoration At The Williamson River Delta, Upper Klamath Lake, OregonWestern North American NaturalistErdman, Charles S.; Hendrixon, Heather A.; Rudd, Nathan T.2011
An interoperable decision support tool for conservation planningEnvironmental Modelling & SoftwareSegan, Daniel B.; Game, Edward T.; Watts, Matthew E.; Stewart, Romola R.; Possingham, Hugh P.2011
A blueprint for blue carbon: toward an improved understanding of the role of vegetated coastal habitats in sequestering CO2Frontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentMcleod, Elizabeth; Chmura, Gail L.; Bouillon, Steven; Salm, Rodney; Bjork, Mats; Duarte, Carlos M.; Lovelock, Catherine E.; Schlesinger, William H.; Silliman, Brian R.2011
Energy Boosting Biofuel YieldsNature Climate ChangeFargione, Joseph2011
Large-scale Flow Experiments for Managing River SystemsBioScienceKonrad, Christopher P.; Olden, Julian D.; Lytle, David A.; Melis, Theodore S.; Schmidt, John C.; Bray, Erin N.; Freeman, Mary C.; Gido, Keith B.; Hemphill, Nina P.; Kennard, Mark J.; McMullen, Laura E.; Mims, Meryl C.; Pyron, Mark; Robinson, Christopher T2011
Proactive Conservation Management of an Island-endemic Bird Species in the Face of Global ChangeBioScienceMorrison, Scott A.; Sillett, T. Scott; Ghalambor, Cameron K.; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Graber, David M.; Bakker, Victoria J.; Bowman, Reed; Collins, Charles T.; Collins, Paul W.; Delaney, Kathleen Semple; Doak, Daniel F.; Koenig, Walter D.; Laughrin, Lyndal;2011
The distributions of one invasive and two native crayfishes in relation to coarse-scale natural and anthropogenic factorsFreshwater BiologyWesthoff, J. T.; Rabeni, C. F.; Sowa, S. P.2011
Geoengineering researchIssues In Science And TechnologyRobock, Alan; Saniayan, M.; Parthasarathy, Shobita; Maccracken, Michael2011
Channel Dynamics in the Middle Green River, Washington, from 1936 to 2002Northwest ScienceKonrad, Christopher; Berge, Hans; Fuerstenberg, Robert; Steff, Kate; Olsen, Theresa; Guyenet, Julie2011
Designing, implementing and managing marine protected areas: Emerging trends and opportunities for coral reef nationsJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyBan, Natalie C.; Adams, Vanessa M.; Almany, Glenn R.; Ban, Stephen; Cinner, Josh E.; McCook, Laurence J.; Mills, Morena; Pressey, Robert L.; White, Alan2011
Bird community responses to cattle stocking rates in a Pacific Northwest bunchgrass prairieAgriculture Ecosystems and EnvironmentJohnson, Tracey N.; Kennedy, Patricia L.; DelCurto, Tim; Taylor, Robert V.2011
Why we disagree about assisted migration: Ethical implications of a key debate regarding the future of Canada's forestsForestry ChronicleAubin, I.; Garbe, C. M.; Colombo, S.; Drever, C. R.; McKenney, D. W.; Messier, C.; Pedlar, J.; Saner, M. A.; Venier, L.; Wellstead, A. M.; Winder, R.; Witten, E.; Ste-Marie, C.2011
Can Imazapic Increase Native Species Abundance in Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) Invaded Native Plant Communities?Rangeland Ecology & ManagementElseroad, Adrien C.; Rudd, Nathan T.2011
Patterns of trait convergence and divergence among native and exotic species in herbaceous plant communities are not modified by nitrogen enrichmentJournal Of EcologyCleland, Elsa E.; Clark, Chris M.; Collins, Scott L.; Fargione, Joseph E.; Gough, Laura; Gross, Katherine L.; Pennings, Steven C.; Suding, Katharine N.2011
High-resolution mapping of the world's reservoirs and dams for sustainable river-flow managementFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentLehner, Bernhard; Liermann, Catherine Reidy; Revenga, Carmen; Voeroesmarty, Charles; Fekete, Balazs; Crouzet, Philippe; Doell, Petra; Endejan, Marcel; Frenken, Karen; Magome, Jun; Nilsson, Christer; Robertson, James C.; Roedel, Raimund; Sindorf, Nikolai;2011
Choosing the survivors? A GIS-based triage support tool for micro-endemics: Application to data for Mexican amphibiansBiological ConservationOchoa-Ochoa, Leticia M.; Bezaury-Creel, Juan E.; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo; Flores-Villela, Oscar2011
Carystoides Mexicana Freeman, A Species And Genus New To Cuba And The Caribbean (Hesperiidae)Journal of the Lepidopterists' SocietyShuey, John; Anderson, Robert2011
Mislabeling marine protected areas and why it matters-a case study of AustraliaConservation LettersFitzsimons, James A.2011
How Human Household Size Affects the Habitat of Black-and-White Snub-Nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) in Hongla Snow Mountain Nature Reserve in Tibet, ChinaInternational Journal Of PrimatologyQuan, Rui-Chang; Huang, Yong; Warren, Matthew W.; Zhao, Qi-Kun; Ren, Guopeng; Huo, Sheng; Long, Yongcheng; Zhu, Jianguo2011
Conservation Easements in California Blue Oak Woodlands: Testing the Assumption of Livestock Grazing as a Compatible UseNatural Areas JournalReiner, Rich; Craig, Andrea2011agriculture, ranching
Toward Best Practices for Developing Regional Connectivity MapsConservation BiologyBeier, Paul; Spencer, Wayne; Baldwin, Robert F.; McRae, Brad H.2011
Incorporating climate change adaptation into national conservation assessmentsGlobal Change BiologyGame, Edward T.; Lipsett-Moore, Geoffrey; Saxon, Earl; Peterson, Nate; Sheppard, Stuart2011
A comparison of tools for modeling freshwater ecosystem servicesJournal Of Environmental ManagementVigerstol, Kari L.; Aukema, Juliann E.2011
Global stressors and the global decline of amphibians: tipping the stress immunocompetency axisEcological ResearchKiesecker, Joseph M.2011
West Nile virus impacts in American crow populations are associated with human land use and climateEcological ResearchLaDeau, Shannon L.; Calder, Catherine A.; Doran, Patrick J.; Marra, Peter P.2011
Species-Specific Barriers to Tree Regeneration in High Elevation Habitats of West VirginiaRestoration EcologyGriscom, Bronson; Griscom, Heather; Deacon, Sarah2011
Effectiveness of China's nature reserves in representing ecological diversityFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentWu, Ruidong; Zhang, Shuang; Yu, Douglas W.; Zhao, Peng; Li, Xinhai; Wang, Longzhu; Yu, Qian; Ma, Jian; Chen, Ai; Long, Yongcheng2011
Distribution Of Migratory Landbirds Along The Northern Lake Huron ShorelineWilson Journal of OrnithologyEwert, David N.; Hamas, Michael J.; Smith, Robert J.; Dallman, Matt E.; Jorgensen, Scott W.2011
Coral mortality associated with thermal fluctuations in the Phoenix Islands, 2002-2005Coral ReefsObura, D.; Mangubhai, S.2011
Outbreak of Acropora white syndrome following a mild bleaching event at Palmyra Atoll, Northern Line Islands, Central PacificCoral ReefsWilliams, G. J.; Knapp, I. S.; Work, T. M.; Conklin, E. J.2011
The efficacy of salvage logging in reducing subsequent fire severity in conifer-dominated forests of Minnesota, USAEcological ApplicationsFraver, Shawn; Jain, Theresa; Bradford, John B.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Kastendick, Doug; Palik, Brian; Shinneman, Doug; Stanovick, John2011
Combined long-term effects of variable tree regeneration and timber management on forest songbirds and timber productionForest Ecology and ManagementMillington, James D. A.; Walters, Michael B.; Matonis, Megan S.; Laurent, Edward J.; Hall, Kimberly R.; Liu, Jianguo2011
Severe 2010 Cold-Water Event Caused Unprecedented Mortality to Corals of the Florida Reef Tract and Reversed Previous Survivorship PatternsPLoS ONELirman, Diego; Schopmeyer, Stephanie; Manzello, Derek; Gramer, Lewis J.; Precht, William F.; Muller-Karger, Frank; Banks, Kenneth; Barnes, Brian; Bartels, Erich; Bourque, Amanda; Byrne, James; Donahue, Scott; Duquesnel, Janice; Fisher, Louis; Gilliam, Dav2011
Accounting for Ecosystem Alteration Doubles Estimates of Conservation Risk in the Conterminous United StatesPLoS ONESwaty, Randy; Blankenship, Kori; Hagen, Sarah; Fargione, Joseph; Smith, Jim; Patton, Jeannie2011
Operational Forest Stream Crossings Effects on Water Quality in the Virginia PiedmontSouthern Journal Of Applied ForestryAust, Wallace M.; Carroll, Mathew B.; Bolding, M. Chad; Dolloff, C. Andrew2011
Occurrence and distribution of established and new introduced bird species in north Sulawesi, IndonesiaForktailFitzsimons, James A.; Thomas, Janelle L.; Argeloo, Marc2011
Quantifying Oyster Reef Loss And Functionality At Estuarine And Ecoregional Scales: Towards Quantitative Goals For Restoration In The UsJournal of Shellfish ResearchErmgassen, Philine Zu; Brumbaugh, Robert; Spalding, Mark2011
Predation Rates On Mercenaria Mercenaria By Channeled And Knobbed WhelkJournal of Shellfish ResearchPadilla, Dianna K.; Gray, Sarah M.; Amaya, Kevin; Garofalo, Sal; Harwood, Alex; Kammerman, Benjamin; Perino, Laurie; Seroy, Sasha K.; Yee, Allison; Doall, Michael; Lobue, Carl2011
Working With New Hampshire Residents To Restore Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica) Populations To The Great Bay EstuaryJournal of Shellfish ResearchWard, Krystin; Grizzle, Ray; Konisky, Raymond2011
Surveillance for West Nile Virus and Vaccination of Free-Ranging Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis) on Santa Cruz Island, CaliforniaVector-Borne And Zoonotic DiseasesBoyce, Walter M.; Vickers, Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Sillett, T. Scott; Caldwell, Luke; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Barker, Christopher M.; Cummings, Robert; Reisen, William K.2011
Efficacy of Three Vaccines in Protecting Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) from Experimental Infection with West Nile Virus: Implications for Vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis)Vector-Borne And Zoonotic DiseasesWheeler, Sarah S.; Langevin, Stanley; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D.; Vickers, Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.; Reisen, William K.; Boyce, Walter M.2011
Involving Stakeholders in the Development of a Global Water Certification StandardJournal American Water Works AssociationKrchnak, Karin M.2011
Utility of high-density plantings in bay scallop, Argopecten irradians irradians, restorationAquaculture InternationalTettelbach, Stephen T.; Barnes, Debra; Aldred, John; Rivara, Gregg; Bonal, Dennis; Weinstock, Andrew; Fitzsimons-Diaz, Chelsea; Thiel, Josh; Cammarota, M. Chase; Stark, Adam; Wejnert, Katherine; Ames, Richard; Carroll, John2011
Hydrologic and geomorphic considerations in restoration of river-floodplain connectivity in a highly altered river system, Lower Missouri River, USAWetlands Ecology And ManagementJacobson, Robert B.; Janke, Tyler P.; Skold, Jason J.2011
Landscape context and long-term tree influences shape the dynamics of forest-meadow ecotones in mountain ecosystemsEcosphereHaugo, Ryan D.; Halpern, Charles B.; Bakker, Jonathan D.2011
Landscape-scale indicators of biodiversity's vulnerability to climate changeEcosphereKlausmeyer, Kirk R.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; MacKenzie, Jason B.; Cameron, D. Richard2011
Risk assessment for invasiveness differs for aquatic and terrestrial plant speciesBiological InvasionsGordon, Doria R.; Gantz, Crysta A.2011
Urban forests and pollution mitigation: Analyzing ecosystem services and disservicesEnvironmental PollutionEscobedo, Francisco J.; Kroeger, Timm; Wagner, John E.2011
Non-natives: 141 scientists objectNatureSimberloff, Daniel; Alexander, Jake; Allendorf, Fred; Aronson, James; Antunes, Pedro M.; Bacher, Sven; Bardgett, Richard; Bertolino, Sandro; Bishop, Melanie; Blackburn, Tim M.; Blakeslee, April; Blumenthal, Dana; Bortolus, Alejandro; Buckley, Ralf; Buckle2011
Climate forcing and the California Current ecosystemIces Journal Of Marine ScienceKing, Jacquelynne R.; Agostini, Vera N.; Harvey, Christopher J.; McFarlane, Gordon A.; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Overland, James E.; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Bond, Nicholas A.; Aydin, Kerim Y.2011
Cross-boundary cooperation: A mechanism for sustaining ecosystem services from private landsJournal of Soil and Water ConservationRickenbach, Mark; Schulte, Lisa A.; Kittredge, David B.; Labich, William G.; Shinneman, Doug J.2011
Longitudinal river ecohydrology: flow variation down the lengths of alluvial riversEcohydrologyLarned, Scott T.; Schmidt, Jochen; Datry, Thibault; Konrad, Christopher P.; Dumas, Jennifer K.; Diettrich, Jan C.2011
Impact assessment at the bioenergy-water nexusBiofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining-BiofprFingerman, Kevin R.; Berndes, Goran; Orr, Stuart; Richter, Brian D.; Vugteveen, Pim2011
A Call to Enhance the Resiliency of the Nation's Water ManagementJournal Of Water Resources Planning And Management-AsceWarner, Andrew; Opperman, Jeffrey J.; Pietrowsky, Robert2011
Retrospective and prospective model simulations of sea level rise impacts on Gulf of Mexico coastal marshes and forests in Waccasassa Bay, FloridaClimatic ChangeGeselbracht, Laura; Freeman, Kathleen; Kelly, Eugene; Gordon, Doria R.; Putz, Francis E.2011
Hurricane effects on subtropical pine rocklands of the Florida KeysClimatic ChangeSaha, Sonali; Bradley, Keith; Ross, Michael S.; Hughes, Phillip; Wilmers, Thomas; Ruiz, Pablo L.; Bergh, Chris2011
Large-scale movements and high-use areas of western Pacific leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriaceaEcosphereBenson, Scott R.; Eguchi, Tomoharu; Foley, Dave G.; Forney, Karin A.; Bailey, Helen; Hitipeuw, Creusa; Samber, Betuel P.; Tapilatu, Ricardo F.; Rei, Vagi; Ramohia, Peter; Pita, John; Dutton, Peter H.2011
Evaluating Agricultural Best Management Practices in Tile-Drained Subwatersheds of the Mackinaw River, IllinoisJournal Of Environmental QualityLemke, A. M.; Kirkham, K. G.; Lindenbaum, T. T.; Herbert, M. E.; Tear, T. H.; Perry, W. L.; Herkert, J. R.2011, nutrients, water quality
Pest interceptions on live plants at US ports of entry: A system overwhelmedPhytopathologyBritton, K. O.; Parke, J. L.; Garrett, L. J.; Lowenstein, F.; Nuding, A.2011
Community-based conservation results in the recovery of reef fish spawning aggregations in the Coral TriangleBiological ConservationHamilton, R. J.; Potuku, T.; Montambault, J. R.2011
Biofuels and biodiversityEcological ApplicationsWiens, John; Fargione, Joseph; Hill, Jason2011
The disappearing mammal fauna of northern Australia: context, cause, and responseConservation LettersWoinarski, John C. Z.; Legge, Sarah; Fitzsimons, James A.; Traill, Barry J.; Burbidge, Andrew A.; Fisher, Alaric; Firth, Ron S. C.; Gordon, Iain J.; Griffiths, Anthony D.; Johnson, Christopher N.; McKenzie, Norm L.; Palmer, Carol; Radford, Ian; Rankmore,2011
Priority areas for amphibian conservation in a neotropical megadiverse country: the need for alternative, non place based, conservationBiodiversity And ConservationEmbert, Dirk; Reichle, Steffen; Larrea-Alcazar, Daniel M.; Cortez, Claudia; Munoz, Arturo; Gonzales, Lucindo; Montano, Rossy; Aguayo, Rodrigo; Domic, Enrique; Padial, Jose M.; Maldonado, Mayra; Caballero, Patricia; Guerrero, Marcelo2011
Soil nitrogen availability and transformations differ between the summer and the growing season in a California grasslandApplied Soil EcologyParker, Sophie S.; Schimel, Joshua P.2011
Progress and pitfalls in developing policies for reducing risks of introductions of exotic forest insects and pathogensPhytopathologyCampbell, F. T.2011
Perennial biomass feedstocks enhance avian diversityGlobal Change Biology BioenergyRobertson, Bruce A.; Doran, Patrick J.; Loomis, Liz R.; Robertson, J. Roy; Schemske, Douglas W.2011
Climate Change Affects Winter Chill for Temperate Fruit and Nut TreesPLoS ONELuedeling, Eike; Girvetz, Evan H.; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Brown, Patrick H.2011
Historical Vegetation of the Willamette Valley, Oregon, circa 1850Northwest ScienceChristy, John A.; Alverson, Edward R.2011
Responses of Prairie Vegetation to Fire, Herbicide, and Invasive Species LegacyNorthwest ScienceRook, Erik J.; Fischer, Dylan G.; Seyferth, Rebecca D.; Kirsch, Justin L.; Leroy, Carri J.; Hamman, Sarah2011
Comparison of Burning and Mowing Treatments in a Remnant Willamette Valley Wet Prairie, Oregon, 2001-2007Northwest ScienceNuckols, Jason L.; Rudd, Nathan T.; Alverson, Edward R.; Voss, Gilbert A.2011
Climate Change Impacts on Western Pacific Northwest Prairies and SavannasNorthwest ScienceBachelet, Dominique; Johnson, Bart R.; Bridgham, Scott D.; Dunn, Pat V.; Anderson, Hannah E.; Rogers, Brendan M.2011
Influence of roadways on patterns of mortality and flight behavior of adult dragonflies near wetland areasBiological ConservationSoluk, Daniel A.; Zercher, Deanna S.; Worthington, Amy M.2011
Where Does Your Water Come From?Journal American Water Works AssociationHerrin, Misty; Richter, Brian2011
Payments for Environmental Services in Latin America as a Tool for Restoration and Rural DevelopmentAmbioMontagnini, Florencia; Finney, Christopher2011
Win-Win for Wind and Wildlife: A Vision to Facilitate Sustainable DevelopmentPLoS ONEKiesecker, Joseph M.; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Fargione, Joe; Doherty, Kevin; Foresman, Kerry R.; Kunz, Thomas H.; Naugle, Dave; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Niemuth, Neal D.2011
Urban growth, climate change, and freshwater availabilityProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesMcDonald, Robert I.; Green, Pamela; Balk, Deborah; Fekete, Balazs M.; Revenga, Carmen; Todd, Megan; Montgomery, Mark2011
Mountain Ecosystem Response To Global ChangeErdkundeLoeffler, Joerg; Anschlag, Kerstin; Baker, Barry; Finch, Oliver-D.; Diekkrueger, Bernd; Wundram, Dirk; Schroeder, Boris; Pape, Roland; Lundberg, Anders2011
Global Human Footprint on the Linkage between Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning in Reef FishesPlos BiologyMora, Camilo; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Ayala Bocos, Arturo; Ayotte, Paula M.; Banks, Stuart; Bauman, Andrew G.; Beger, Maria; Bessudo, Sandra; Booth, David J.; Brokovich, Eran; Brooks, Andrew; Chabanet, Pascale; Cinner, Joshua E.; Cortes, Jorge; Cruz-Mott2011
Bridging The Divide Between Fisheries And Marine Conservation ScienceBulletin of Marine ScienceSalomon, Anne K.; Gaichas, Sarah K.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Agostini, Vera N.; Sloan, N. A.; Rice, Jake; McClanahan, Tim R.; Ruckelshaus, Mary H.; Levin, Phil S.; Dulvy, Nicholas K.; Babcock, Elizabeth A.2011
Concordance of freshwater and terrestrial biodiversityConservation LettersAbell, Robin; Thieme, Michele; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Olwero, Nasser; Ng, Rebecca; Petry, Paulo; Dinerstein, Eric; Revenga, Carmen; Hoekstra, Jonathan2011
Sight-unseen detection of rare aquatic species using environmental DNAConservation LettersJerde, Christopher L.; Mahon, Andrew R.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.2011
Nutrient Release from a Recently Flooded Delta Wetland: Comparison of Field Measurements to Laboratory ResultsWetlandsWong, Siana W.; Barry, Matthew J.; Aldous, Allison R.; Rudd, Nathan T.; Hendrixson, Heather A.; Doehring, Carolyn M.2011
Top 40 Priorities for Science to Inform US Conservation and Management PolicyBioScienceFleishman, Erica; Blockstein, David E.; Hall, John A.; Mascia, Michael B.; Rudd, Murray A.; Scott, J. Michael; Sutherland, William J.; Bartuska, Ann M.; Brown, A. Gordon; Christen, Catherine A.; Clement, Joel P.; DellaSala, Dominick; Duke, Clifford S.; Ea2011
Woody Shrubs as a Barrier to Invasion by Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica)Invasive Plant Science and ManagementYager, Lisa Y.; Miller, Deborah L.; Jones, Jeanne2011
Why Don't We Ask? A Complementary Method for Assessing the Status of Great ApesPLoS ONEMeijaard, Erik; Mengersen, Kerrie; Buchori, Damayanti; Nurcahyo, Anton; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wich, Serge; Atmoko, Sri Suci Utami; Tjiu, Albertus; Prasetyo, Didik; Nardiyono; Hadiprakarsa, Yokyok; Christy, Lenny; Wells, Jessie; Albar, Guillaume; Marshall, Andre2011
Object-based classification of semi-arid wetlandsJournal Of Applied Remote SensingHalabisky, Meghan; Moskal, L. Monika; Hall, Sonia A.2011
Avian Use of Perennial Biomass Feedstocks as Post-Breeding and Migratory Stopover HabitatPLoS ONERobertson, Bruce A.; Doran, Patrick J.; Loomis, Elizabeth R.; Robertson, J. Roy; Schemske, Douglas W.2011
Finding solutions for bird restoration and livestock management: comparing grazing exclusion levelsEcological ApplicationsNelson, Kara S.; Gray, Elizabeth M.; Evans, James R.2011agriculture, ranching
Water Sustainability Risk Assessment, Part 2: Primary and Secondary EffectsJournal American Water Works AssociationVigerstol, Kari2011
Climate vulnerability of ecosystems and landscapes on Alaska's North SlopeRegional Environmental ChangeKittel, Timothy G. F.; Baker, Barry B.; Higgins, Jonathan V.; Haney, J. Christopher2011
Financial and environmental consequences of a voluntary farm environmental assurance program in MichiganJournal of Soil and Water ConservationVollmer-Sanders, C.; Wolf, C.; Batie, S. S.2011agriculture
Should we implement monitoring or research for conservation?Trends in Ecology and EvolutionMcDonald-Madden, Eve; Baxter, Peter W. J.; Fuller, Richard A.; Martin, Tara G.; Game, Edward T.; Montambault, Jensen; Possingham, Hugh P.2011
Wet/Dry Mapping: Using Citizen Scientists to Monitor the Extent of Perennial Surface Flow in Dryland RegionsEnvironmental ManagementTurner, Dale S.; Richter, Holly E.2011http:///
Groundwater-dependent ecosystems in Oregon: an assessment of their distribution and associated threatsFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentBrown, Jenny; Bach, Leslie; Aldous, Allison; Wyers, Abby; DeGagne, Julia2011
An alternative approach for quantifying climate regulation by ecosystemsFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentWest, Paul C.; Narisma, Gemma T.; Barford, Carol C.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Foley, Jonathan A.2011
Reply to Vermeulen and Wollenberg: Distinguishing food security and crop yieldsProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesWest, Paul C.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Monfreda, Chad; Wagner, John; Barford, Carol; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Foley, Jonathan2011
Planning for reserve adequacy in dynamic landscapes; maximizing future representation of vegetation communities under flood disturbance in the Pantanal wetlandDiversity and DistributionsLourival, Reinaldo; Drechsler, Martin; Watts, Matthew E.; Game, Edward T.; Possingham, Hugh P.2011
Building Regional Threat-Based Networks for Estuaries in the Western United StatesPLoS ONEMerrifield, Matthew S.; Hines, Ellen; Liu, Xiaohang; Beck, Michael W.2011
Establishing IUCN Red List Criteria for Threatened EcosystemsConservation BiologyPaul Rodriguez, Jon; Rodriguez-Clark, Kathryn M.; Baillie, Jonathan E. M.; Ash, Neville; Benson, John; Boucher, Timothy; Brown, Claire; Burgess, Neil D.; Collen, Ben; Jennings, Michael; Keith, David A.; Nicholson, Emily; Revenga, Carmen; Reyers, Belinda;2011
Comparison of Bayesian Clustering and Edge Detection Methods for Inferring Boundaries in Landscape GeneticsInternational Journal Of Molecular SciencesSafner, Toni; Miller, Mark P.; McRae, Brad H.; Fortin, Marie-Josee; Manel, Stephanie2011
How successful are plant species reintroductions?Biological ConservationGodefroid, Sandrine; Piazza, Carole; Rossi, Graziano; Buord, Stephane; Stevens, Albert-Dieter; Aguraiuja, Ruth; Cowell, Carly; Weekley, Carl W.; Vogg, Gerd; Iriondo, Jose M.; Johnson, Isabel; Dixon, Bob; Gordon, Doria; Magnanon, Sylvie; Valentin, Bertille2011
Informed opportunism for conservation planning in the Solomon IslandsConservation LettersGame, Edward T.; Lipsett-Moore, Geoffrey; Hamilton, Richard; Peterson, Nate; Kereseka, Jimmy; Atu, William; Watts, Matthew; Possingham, Hugh P.2011
Evaluating the road-effect zone on wildlife distribution in a rural landscapeEcosphereShanley, Colin S.; Pyare, Sanjay2011
The Importance of Conserving Biodiversity Outside of Protected Areas in Mediterranean EcosystemsPLoS ONECox, Robin L.; Underwood, Emma C.2011
Estimated supply of RED credits 2011-2035Climate PolicyCoren, Michael J.; Streck, Charlotte; Madeira, Erin Myers2011
Energy Development and Greater Sage-GrouseStudies in Avian BiologyNaugle, David E.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Walker, Brett L.; Holloran, Matthew J.; Copeland, Holly E.2011
Energy Development and Conservation TradeoffsStudies in Avian BiologyDoherty, Kevin E.; Naugle, David E.; Copeland, Holly E.; Pocewicz, Amy; Kiesecker, Joseph M.2011
Major Biogeographic and Phylogenetic PatternsAlbert, James S.; Petry, Paulo; Reis, Roberto E.2011
So, You Want to Do Research in the Rainforest?Edison, Arthur S.; Cosio, Eric; Halloy, Stephan; Vivanco, Jorge2011
The Coral TriangleVeron, John (Charlie) E. N.; DeVantier, Lyndon M.; Turak, Emre; Green, Alison L.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Stafford-Smith, M.; Peterson, N.2011
The Next Frontier: Projecting the Effectiveness of Broad-scale Forest Conservation StrategiesSilbernagel, Janet; Price, Jessica; Swaty, Randy; Miller, Nicholas2011
Modeling Species Distribution and Change Using Random ForestEvans, Jeffrey S.; Murphy, Melanie A.; Holden, Zachary A.; Cushman, Samuel A.2011
Influence Of Moisture And Food Supply On The Movement Dynamics Of A Nonbreeding Migratory Bird (Parkesia Noveboracensis) In A Seasonal LandscapeAukSmith, Joseph A. M.; Reitsma, Leonard R.; Marra, Peter P.2011
Multiple Space-Use Strategies And Their Divergent Consequences In A Nonbreeding Migratory Bird (Parkesia Noveboracensis)AukSmith, Joseph A. M.; Reitsma, Leonard R.; Marra, Peter P.2011
Redesigning biodiversity conservation projects for climate change: examples from the fieldBiodiversity And ConservationPoiani, Karen A.; Goldman, Rebecca L.; Hobson, Jennifer; Hoekstra, Jonathan M.; Nelson, Kara S.2011
Temporal and Taxonomic Variability in Response of Fauna to Riparian RestorationRestoration EcologyGolet, Gregory H.; Gardali, Thomas; Hunt, John W.; Koenig, David A.; Williams, Neal M.2011
Global development and the future of the protected area strategyBiological ConservationMcDonald, Robert I.; Boucher, Timothy M.2011
Effectiveness of conservation easements for reducing development and maintaining biodiversity in sagebrush ecosystemsBiological ConservationPocewicz, Amy; Kiesecker, Joseph M.; Jones, George P.; Copeland, Holly E.; Daline, Jody; Mealor, Brian A.2011
The impact of giant panda foraging on bamboo dynamics in an isolated environmentPlant EcologyHull, Vanessa; Shortridge, Ashton; Liu, Bin; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Xiaoping; Huang, Jinyan; Zhou, Shiqiang; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo2011
Effect of sea-level rise on piping plover (Charadrius melodus) breeding habitatBiological ConservationSeavey, Jennifer R.; Gilmer, Ben; McGarigal, Kevin M.2011
Use of generalised dissimilarity modelling to improve the biological discrimination of river and stream classificationsFreshwater BiologyLeathwick, J. R.; Snelder, T.; Chadderton, W. L.; Elith, J.; Julian, K.; Ferrier, S.2011
Identifying freshwater conservation priorities in the Upper Yangtze River BasinFreshwater BiologyHeiner, Michael; Higgins, Jonathan; Li, Xinhai; Baker, Barry2011
Applying systematic conservation planning principles to palustrine and inland saline wetlands of New ZealandFreshwater BiologyAusseil, Anne-Gaelle E.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Gerbeaux, Philippe; Stephens, R. T. Theo; Leathwick, John R.2011
A freshwater conservation assessment of the Upper Mississippi River basin using a coarse- and fine-filter approachFreshwater BiologyKhoury, Mary; Higgins, Jonathan; Weitzell, Roy2011
Water Sustainability Risk Assessment Part 1: Defining the Area of Influence and Sustainability BoundariesJournal American Water Works AssociationVigerstol, Kari2011
Droughts, floods and freshwater ecosystems: evaluating climate change impacts and developing adaptation strategiesMarine And Freshwater ResearchAldous, Allison; Fitzsimons, James; Richter, Brian; Bach, Leslie2011
Dam reoperation in an era of climate changeMarine And Freshwater ResearchWatts, R. J.; Richter, B. D.; Opperman, J. J.; Bowmer, K. H.2011
Biennial cycling caused by demographic delays in a fire-adapted annual plantProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesQuintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Menges, Eric S.; Weekley, Carl W.; Kelrick, Michael I.; Pace-Aldana, Beatriz2011
Hydropower, Salmon and the Penobscot River (Maine, USA): Pursuing Improved Environmental and Energy Outcomes Through Participatory Decision-Making and Basin-Scale Decision ContextOpperman, Jeffrey J.; Apse, Colin; Ayer, Fred; Banks, John; Day, Laura Rose; Royte, Joshua; Seebach, John2011
Horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2011Trends in Ecology and EvolutionSutherland, William J.; Bardsley, Sarah; Bennun, Leon; Clout, Mick; Cote, Isabelle M.; Depledge, Michael H.; Dicks, Lynn V.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Fellman, Liz; Fleishman, Erica; Gibbons, David W.; Impey, Andrew J.; Lawton, John H.; Lickorish, Fiona; Lindenm2011
BirdsHall, K.R2011
BirdsEncyclopedia of Climate and Weather, 2nd EditionHall, K.R2011
Ecological Risk Assessment for the Paraguay River Basin: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and ParaguayPetry, P., S. T. Rodrigues, M. B. R. Neto, M. Matsumoto, G. Kimura, M. Becker, P. Rebolledo, A. Araœjo, B. C. Oliveira, M. S. Soares, M. G. Oliveira & J. Guimar‹es2011
Portafolio de Conservaci—n de Agua Dulce para la Cuenca del Magdalena Ð Cauca. Programa NASCA, The Nature conservancy & CormagdalenaTŽllez , P., P.Petry, T. Walschburger, J. Higgins & C. Apse2011
Terrestrial biodiversityNelson, E., D. R. Cameron, J. Regetz, S. Polasky, and G. Daily2011
The biodiversity value of groundwater-dependent ecosystems: A cataloguing of United States federally listed species thatdepend on groundwaterWSPEmilie Blevins and Allison Aldous2011
Protecting Groundwater-Dependent Ecosystems: Gaps and OpportunitiesAllison Aldous and Leslie Bach2011
Historic emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in Mato Grosso, Brazil: 1) source data uncertaintiesCarbon Balance and ManagementDouglas C Morton, Marcio H Sales, Carlos M Souza Jr and Bronson Griscom2011
The protective role of coastal marshes: a systematic review and meta-analysisPLoS ONECC Shepard, CM Crain, MW Beck2011;doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0027374&amp;representation=PDF
Oyster reefs at risk and recommendations for conservation, restoration, and managementBioScienceBeck, M. W., Brumbaugh, R. D., Airoldi, L., Carranza, A., Coen, L. D., Crawford, C., ... & Guo, X2011
Helping coastal communities adapt to climate changeSolutionsLC Hale, S Newkirk, M Beck2011
Shellfish reefs at risk globally and recommendations for ecosystem revitalizationBioScienceM. W. Beck, R. D. Brumbaugh, L. Airoldi, A. Carranza, L. D. Coen, C. Crawford, O. Defeo, G. J. Edgar, B. Hancock &amp; M. Kay2011
Building Regional Threat Based Networks for Estuaries in the Western United StatesPLoS ONEMS Merrifield, E Hines, X Liu, MW Beck2011;doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017407&amp;representation=PDF
The role of herbivores in Great Plains conservationEcosphereAllred, B.W, S.D. Fuhlendorf, and R.G. Hamilton2011http:/// Great Plains of North America evolved with significant influence from bison (Bison bison), but is presently dominated by cattle (Bos taurus). While there are a variety of opinions concerning differences between these two species, there is a lack of scientific comparisons, including those that incorporate important ecological variation. We developed a framework to study and compare the grazing behavior and effects of bison and cattle within grassland ecosystems. Environmental (e.g., resource distribution, disturbance) and animal (e.g., number, social organization) factors play a critical role in determining grazing effects and should be incorporated into discussions that compare the effects of bison and cattle. Using this framework we specifically compare the grazing behavior of both species in tallgrass prairie and discuss the implications of these differences in the context of conservation. We collared bison and cattle with global positioning systems and used resource selection functions to estimate the importance of various environmental factors on site selection. Both species preferred recently burned areas and avoided steeper slopes. Cattle selected areas that were closer to water, while bison were not limited by distance to water; cattle also preferred areas with woody vegetation, while bison avoided them. Incorporating broad scale environmental complexity allows for an effective comparison of ecological differences between bison and cattle. While there are similarities and differences in these species, a comprehensive analysis of all conditions and scenarios is not possible. It is clear, however, that the greatest differences between these species will likely be evident from broad scale studies across complex landscapes. In addition to species, conservation and land managers need to consider other environmental factors that are critical to grazing effects and overall conservation.
Scanning the Oceans for Solutions.Solutions Jacquet, J., I. Boyd, J.T. Carlton, H.E. Fox, A.E. Johnson, L. Mee, J. Roman, M. Spalding, W. Sutherland2011 field of conservation science has been highly successful in identifying, diagnosing, and publicizing declines in biodiversity and many other problems affecting our environment. It has been less successful in focusing our attention on solutions. Here we recommend the formal process of what we call a solution scan&#58; the systematic classification of known threats and identified solutions. We illustrate this approach by cataloguing the solutions we found for major marine conservation problems&#58; overfishing, invasive species, and pollution. Our solution scan for the problem of overfishing of a target species, for instance, revealed in excess of a hundred specific interventions, ranging from using biodegradable panels in fishing gear (to avoid ghost fishing by lost gear) to finding plant -based alternatives to fish meal. This approach allows for rapid identification of areas deficient in solutions and is a starting point for gauging the effectiveness of each intervention. It also allows for a broader view of how we approach environmental problems by showing, for instance, that existing options weigh more heavily in favor of treatment than prevention.Oceans
Identification and Implementation of Native Fish Conservation Areas in the Upper Colorado River BasinFisheriesDaniel C. Dauwalter; John S. Sanderson; Jack E. Williams; James R. Sedell2011Freshwater fishes continue to decline at a rapid rate despite substantial conservation efforts. Native fish conservation areas (NFCAs) are a management approach emphasizing persistent native fish communities and healthy watersheds while simultaneously allowing for compatible human uses. We identified potential NFCAs in the Upper Colorado River Basin in WyomingÑfocusing on Colorado River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus), flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis), bluehead sucker (Catostomus discobolus), and roundtail chub (Gila robusta)Ñthrough a process that combined known and modeled species distributions, spatial prioritization analysis, and stakeholder discussions. The network of potential NFCAs is intended to serve as a funding framework for a National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) Keystone Initiative focused on Colorado River Basin native fishes. We discuss current opportunities for and impediments to implementing the potential NFCAs we identified for the NFWF Initiative over the long term. NFCAs represent a promising approach to fisheries management that complements existing approaches by focusing on persistent native fish communities.
Hawaiian agro-ecosystems and their spatial distributionLadefoged, T. N.; Kirch, P. V.; Gon III, S. O.; Chadwick, O. A.; Hartshorn, A. S.; Vitousek, P. M.2011
The influence of a threatened species focus on conservation planning in East Kalimantan, IndonesiaConservation BiologyDrummond, S. P., K. Wilson, E. Meijaard, M. Watts, R. Dennis, L. Christy, and H. P. Possingham2010
Current state of the art for statistical modeling of species distributionsHegel, T., S. A. Cushman, F. Huettmann, and J. S. Evans2010
Assessment of threats to ecosystems in South AmericaJournal for Nature ConservationJarvis, A., J. Touval, M. Castro Schmitz, L. Sotomayor, and G. Graham Hyman2010Marine Protected Areas are usually static, permanently closed areas. There are, however, both social and ecological reasons to adopt dynamic closures, where reserves move through time. Using a general theoretical framework, we investigate whether
Aquatic flight behaviour in mouse-deer provides insight into tragulid evolutionMammalian BiologyMeijaard, E., Umilaela, and G. de Silva Wijeyeratne2010
Conserving the Stage: Climate Change and the Geophysical Underpinnings of Species DiversityPLoS ONEAnderson M.G., Ferree CE2010
Using water funds to finance watershed conservation in the Andes and Costa RicaMountain ForumBenÕtez, S., A. Blanco, J. Cole, M. IbàÐez, J. J. RodrÕguez, and S. Halloy2010
Changing a management paradigm and rescuing a globally imperiled habitatNational Wetlands NewsletterBrumbaugh, R.D., Beck, M.W., Hancock, B., Meadows, A.W., Spalding, M., and P. zu Ermgas- sen2010
Global Biodiversity: Indicators of Recent DeclinesScienceButchart, S.H.M., et al. (incl. 44 co-authors, and TNC's C. Revenga2010
Phylogeny and the co-occurrence of mammal species on southeast Asian islandsGlobal Ecology and BiogeographyCardillo, M., and E. Meijaard2010
Principles and Practice of Ecosystem-Based Management: A Guide for Conservation Practitioners in the Tropical Western PacificClarke, P., S. Jupiter (and with contributions from J. Wilson, C. Rotinsulu and others)2010
Strategic public land use assessment and planning in Victoria, Australia: Four decades of trailblazing but where to from here?Land Use PolicyCoffey, B., J.A. Fitzsimons, and R. Gormly2010
The effect of benthic prey abun- dance and size on red knot (Calidris canutus) distribution at an alternative migratory stopover site on the US Atlantic CoastJournal of OrnithologyCohen, J. B., S. M. Karpanty, J. D. Fraser, and B. R. Truitt2010
Status and ecology of a rare gomphid dragonfly at the northern extent of its rangeNotes of the Northeastern NaturalistCorser, J2010
Rare forest types in northeastern Ontario: a classifi- cation and analysis of representation in protected areasCanadian Journal Forest ResearchDrever, C.R., Snider, J., Drever, M.C.2010
Influence of a Threatened-Species Focus on Conservation PlanningConservation BiologyDrummond, S. P., K. Wilson, E. Meijaard, M. Watts, R. Dennis, L. Christy, and H. P. Possingham2010
Una sinopsis de la herpetofauna con comentarios sobre las prioridades en investigacion y conservacionEnderson, E. F., A. Quijada-Mascarenas, D. S. Turner, R. L. Bezy, and P. C. Rosen2010
Overcoming information limitations for developing an en- vironmental flow prescription for a Central American RiverEcology and SocietyEsselman, P. and J. Opperman2010
Into Oblivion? The disappearing native mammals of northern AustraliaFitzsimons, J., S. Legge, B. Traill, B. and J. Woinarski2010
Diet of Powerful Owls Ninox strenua in inner city Melbourne parks, VictoriaAustralian Field OrnithologyFitzsimons, J.A. and A.B. Rose2010
Herpetofauna of the Rincon Mountains, Southeastern ArizonaSouthwestern NaturalistFlesch, A.D., D.E. Swann, D.S. Turner, and B.F. Powell2010
Biodiversity conservation in the era of biofuels: risks and opportunitiesFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentFletcher, R.J.J., Robertson, B.A., Evans, J.S., Doran, P.J., Alavalapati, J.R.R., Schemske, D.W.2010
Spatial assessment of threats to biodiversity within East Kalimantan, IndonesiaApplied GeographyFuller, D., E. Meijaard, L. Christy, and T. C. Jessup2010
Whose sustainability? Top-down participation and emergent rules in marine protected area management in IndonesiaMarine PolicyGlaser, M., W . Baitoningsih, S.C.A. Ferse, M. Neil, R. Deswandi2010
Guidance for addressing the Australian Weed Risk Assessment questionsPlant Protection QuarterlyGordon, D.R., B. Mitterdorfer, P.C. Pheloung, S. Ansari, C. Buddenhagen, C. Chimera, C.C. Daehler, W. Dawson, J.S. Denslow, A. LaRosa, T. Nishida, D.A. Onderdonk, F.D. Panetta, P. Py_ek, R.P. Randall, D.M. Richardson, N.J. Tshidada, J.G. Virtue, and P.A.2010
Effective conservation planning requires learning and adaptationFrontiers in Ecology and the EnvironmentGrantham, H. S., M. Bode, E. McDonald-Madden, E. T. Game, A. T. Knight, and H. P. Possing- ham2010
Conserving the largest habitat on earth: protected areas in the pelagic oceanMarine Protected Areas: Effects, networks and monitoring - A multidisciplinary approachHobday, A. J., E. T. Game, H. S. Grantham and A. J. Richardson2010
Effective Strategies for Landscape-Scale Weed Control: a Case Study of the Skagit Knotweed Working Group, WashingtonNatural Areas JournalHolman, M.L., R.G. Carey, and P.W. Dunwiddie2010
The Atlas of Global Conservation: Changes, Challenges, and Opportunities to Make a DifferenceHoekstra, J. M., J. L. Molnar, M. Jennings, C. Revenga, M. D. Spalding, T. M. Boucher, J. C. Robertson, T. J. Heibel, and K. Ellison2010
Conserving biodiversity in the face of climate change: A call to actionConservation BiologyHunter, M., E. Dinerstein, J. Hoekstra, and D. Lindenmayer2010
Regional modeling of vegetation and long term runoff for MesoamericaHydrology and Earth System SciencesImbach, P., L. Molina, B. Locatelli, O. Roupsard, P. Ciais, L. Corrales, and G. Mahe2010
The Forest-Drinking Water Connection: Making Woodlands Work for People and NatureAmerican Water Works Authority JournalJenkins, D.H. and S. Repasch2010
Seeking and securing sacred natural sites among JamaicaÍs Windward MaroonsJohn, K., S. Otuokon and C.L. Harris2010
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Adaptive Management, Restoration, And Monitoring For Performance Based Results In The Fish Creek Watershed In Northeastern Indiana And Northwestern Ohio, UsaSimon, Thomas P.; Altfater, Dave; Tosick, Michael J.; Smith, James R.; Faatz, Wayne; Draper, Joseph; Warner, Beth A.; Wodrich, Carl; Remek, Anne; Campbell-Allison, Jennifer; Sparks, Daniel W.; Clark, Forest2010
Comparing the conservation effectiveness of private water transactions and public policy reforms in the conserving California landscapes initiativeWater PolicyDuane, Timothy P.; Opperman, Jeff J.2010
Trade-offs in making ecosystem services and human well-being conservation prioritiesBenner (nee Goldman), R. L., Daily, G. C. and Kareiva, P2010
Identifying habitat conservation priorities and gaps for migratory shorebirds and waterfowl in CaliforniaBiodiversity and ConservationStralberg, D., D.R. Cameron, M. D. Reynolds, C. M. Hickey, K. Klausmeyer, S. M. Busby, L. E. Stenzel, W. D. Shuford, and G. W. Page2010
The implementation challenge: Taking stock of government policies to protect and restore environmental flowsLe Quesne T, Kendy E, Weston D.2010
Can China cope with its water crisis? Perspectivies from the North China PlainGround WaterZheng C, Liu J, Cao G, Kendy E, Wang H, Jia Y.2010
Guiding ecological principles for marine spatial planningMarine PolicyFoley, M. M., Halpern, B. S., Micheli, F., Armsby, M. H., Caldwell, M. R., Crain, C. M., ... &amp; Steneck, R. S.2010
Changing a management paradigm and rescuing a globally imperiled habitatNational Wetlands NewsletterBrumbaugh, R. D., Beck, M. W., Hancock, B., Meadows, A. W., Spalding, M., &amp; zu Ermgassen, P.2010
Adapting to climate change: building interactive decision support to meet management objectives for coastal conservation and hazard mitigation on Long Island, New York, USA.Ferda–a, Z.; Newkirk, S.; Whelchel, A. W.; Gilmer, B.; Beck, M. W.2010
Notes on the biology of Pygmy Palm Swift Micropanyptila furcataCotingaCollins, C. T., Kelsey, R., &amp; Ryan, T. P.2010
Response of two sagebrush sites to low-disturbance, mechanical removal of pinyon and juniperInvasive Plant Science and ManagementBaughman, C., T.A. Forbis, and L. Provencher2010
An assessment of the non-market value of the ecosystem services provided by the Catalan coastal zone, SpainOcean and Coastal ManagementBrenner, J., J.A. JimŽnez, R. Sard‡, and A. Garola2010
FisheriesBoyd, C., C.S. Villasante, J. Brenner, and R. Enriquez2010
Land conversion at the protected area's edgeConservation LettersKramer, D. & P.J. Doran2010 areas are a common strategy to conserve biodiversity, ecological function, and ecosystem services. Through land market dynamics, however, protected area establishment can induce effects inimical to conservation goals. We examined the factors explaining land conversion within 2 km buffers of protected areas in Michigan, United States. We employed multilevel logistic models, with and without autocovariates, utilizing a multimodel inference paradigm. The most parsimonious models indicated that parcels with more developed, forested, and protected land in their vicinity, with well-drained soils, at lower elevations, nearer roads and urban areas, in areas of greater population, and originally in agriculture are more likely to be developed. There is weak support for attributes of protected areas such as size, access, ownership, and protection mechanism affecting nearby land conversion. Our results stress the importance of a well-designed system of protected areas and broad evaluations of the impacts of existing and future threats.
Bison as keystone herbivores on the great plains: can cattle serve as proxy for evolutionary grazing patterns?Fuhlendorf, S.D., B.W. Allred, and R.G. Hamilton2010 Paper No. 4
A Horizon Scan of Global Conservation Issues for 2010.Trends in Ecology and EvolutionSutherland, W.J., M. Clout, I.M. C™tŽ, P. Daszak, M.H. Depledge, L. Fellman, E. Fleishman, R. Garthwaite, D.W. Gibbons, J. De Lurio, A.J. Impey, F. Lickorish, D. Lindenmayer, J. Madgwick, C. Margerison, T. Maynard, L.S. Peck, J. Pretty, S. Prior, K.H. Redford, J.P.W. Scharlemann, M. Spalding, A.R. Watkinson.2010 scanning identifies emerging issues in a given field sufficiently early to conduct research to inform policy and practice. Our group of horizon scanners, including academics and researchers, convened to identify fifteen nascent issues that could affect the conservation of biological diversity. These include the impacts of and potential human responses to climate change, novel biological and digital technologies, novel pollutants and invasive species. We expect to repeat this process and collation conservation
Restoration Treatment Effects on Stand Structure, Tree Growth, and Fire Hazard in a Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forest in MontanaForest ScienceCarl E. Fiedler, Kerry L. Metlen, and Erich K. Dodson2010 fires that burned thousands of ha of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougi. ex Laws.) forests in recent years attest to the hazardous conditions extant on the western landscape. Managers have responded with broad-scale implementation of fuel reduction treatments; however, because threats to pine forests extend beyond fire, so too must the approaches to address them. This western Montana study evaluated four treatments in a randomized complete block experiment for their effects on stand structural characteristics, growth increment, and crown fire potential. Evaluation of control, burn-only, thin-only, and thin-burn treatments showed that the combined thin-burn treatment had the greatest number of desired effects, the burn-only had the fewest, and the thin-only was intermediate. The thin-burn significantly reduced stand density, canopy cover, torching hazard, and crowning hazard and increased average diameter, height-to live-crown, and basal area increment; the thin-only reduced stand density, canopy cover, and crowning hazard and increased average diameter and basal area increment; and the burn-only reduced torching hazard and increased height-to-live crown. These structural and growth effects are related to or influence numerous stand/ecosystem properties at our site, including diameter distributions, species composition, large-tree development potential, overall tree vigor, potential for shade-intolerant tree regeneration, and resiliency to fire. Results demonstrate that well-designed restoration treatments can promote key short-term stand and ecosystem responses while significantly reducing crown fire potential. basal area increment, crown fire, density, fuel reduction, mechanical, thinning
A high altitude observation of the Beautiful Firetail Stagonopleura bella from East Gippsland, VictoriaCorellaAntos, M. J., J. A. Fitzsimons, and G. Dutson2009 has been little research on the ecological requirements of the Beautiful Firetail Stagonopleura bella, and its habitat preferences are poorly understood. On mainland Australia, the Beautiful Firetail is generally considered to be a bird of coastal r
Las redes de conectividad como base para la planificaciÑn de la conservaciÑn de la biodiversidad: propuesta para Costa RicaRecursos Naturales y AmbienteArias, E., O. ChacÑn, B. Herrera, G. Induni, H. Acevedo, M. Coto, and J. R. Barborak2009
IdentificaciÑn de vacÕos en la representatividad de ecosistemas terrestres en el Sistema Nacional de reas Protegidas de Costa RicaRecursos Naturales y AmbienteArias, E., O. ChacÑn, G. Induni, B. Herrera, H. Acevedo, L. Corrales, J. R. Barborak, M. Coto, J. Cubero, and P. Paaby2009
Areas naturales protegidas y desarrollo social en Mexico, en Capital Natural de MexicoBezaury-Creel, J., D. Guti_rrez Carbonell, and et al2009CONABIO, Mexico
Effects of agricultural drainage on aquatic ecosystems: a reviewCritical Reviews in Environmental Science and TechnologyBlann, K. L., J. L. Anderson, G. R. Sands, and B. Vondracek2009agriculture
Tropical montane cloud forests: State of knowledge and sustainability perspectives in a changing worldBruijnzeel, L. A., M. Kappelle, M. Mulligan, and F. N. Scatena2009
Patterns of plant community structure within and among primary and second-growth northern hardwood forest standsForest Ecology and ManagementBurton, J. I., E. K. Zenner, L. E. Frelich, and M. W. Cornett2009
El monitoreo de la efectividad del manejo de corredores biolÑgicos. Una herramienta basada en la experiencia de los comit_s de gestiÑn en Costa RicaRecursos Naturales y AmbienteCanet, L., B. Finegan, C. Bouroncle, I. Guti_rrez, and B. Herrera2009
DiseÐo de una red ecolÑgica de conservaciÑn entre la Reserva de Biosfera La Amistad y las àreas protegidas del rea de ConservaciÑn Osa, Costa RicaRecursos Naturales y AmbienteC_spedes, M. V., B. Finegan, B. Herrera, L. D. Delgado, S. Velàsquez, and J. J. Campos2009
Effect of count duration on abundance estimates of Black-capped VireosJournal of Field OrnithologyCimprich, D. A2009
Fumarole-supported island of biodiversity within a hyperarid, high-elevation landscape on Socompa Volcano, Puna de Atacama, AndesApplied and Environmental MicrobiologyCostello, E. K., S. R. P. Halloy, S. C. Reed, P. Sowell, and S. K. Schmidt2009
Population attributes of an Endangered mussel, Epioblasma torulosa rangiana (Northern Riffleshell), in French Creek and implications for its recoveryNortheastern NaturalistCrabtree, D. L., and T. A. Smith2009
Effects of climate on occurrence and size of large fires in a northern hardwood landscape: historical trends, forecasts, and implications for climate change in T_miscamingue, Qu_becApplied Vegetation ScienceDrever, C. R., Y. Bergeron, M. C. Drever, M. Flannigan, T. Logan, and C. Messier2009
Rethinking Conservation Practice in Light of Climate Change